SECTION II. USE OF THE ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY Л



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SECTION II. USE OF THE ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY Л



Task 6.6. Read the essential vocabulary and translate the sentences:

1. advertise - рекламувати; to announce, e.g. Alcohol and cigarettes should not be
advertised.

advertisement / advert / ad- оголошення, реклама; announcement; TV commercial, notice, e.g. The publication of the results in mass media is an advertisement for the products manufactured by this company.

2. be aware - усвщомлювати; to be conscious of, e.g. A scientist should be aware of
his responsibility to his country.

awareness - усвщомлення, обізнашсть, знання; consciousness of, e.g. Spiritual pollution can be seen in the lack of awareness of sense of life.

3. ban v. - забороняти; to forbid, veto, reject, restrict, e.g. The government has banned the use of chemical weapons, n. заборона; prohibition, taboo, e.g. Our country should put a ban on the import of nonstandard products.

4. claim - 1. вимагати; 2. претендувати; 3. амер. заявляти, твердити; to demand, ask for, require, e.g. Plato claimed that among absolute values are justice, huma­nism, love, wisdom and conscience.

5. conscience - совкть, сумлшня; moral sense, principles, sense of right and wrong, ethics, e.g. Justice, humanism, love, wisdom and conscience are the main laws of the science of ethics.


Professional ethics



6. consequence -1. наслщок, результат; 2. висновок; 3. важливють, значення; 1. result, outcome; 2. conclusion; 3. importance, significance, e.g. For centuries con­sequences of the technological progress for the environment were not taken into consideration. • . ..

7. cruel-1. жорстокий; 2. болюний, тяжкий; 1. brutal, inhuman; 2. unkind, pain­ful, heartless, e.g. Before the industrial revolution workers had been cruelly exploited.

cruelty- жорстоюсть; brutality, e.g. Lack of moral purpose might be caused by cruelty.

8. damagen.- 1. шкода; 2. пошкодження; harm, ruin, e.g. Now we must find ways to develop industry with as little damage to the environment as possible, v. завдавати збитюв; пошкоджувати; to harm, ruin, destroy, e.g. Lots of farms have been badly damaged by spring floods.

9. dangerous- небезпечний, загрозливий; risky, insecure, unsafe; threatening, e.g. The spiritual pollution which we face today may be as dangerous as the material one. danger- небезпека; risk, threat, e.g. Illegal drugs are a great danger to our society.

10. depletion -виснаження (озонового шару), вичерпування (запаав); exhaustion, reduction, decrease, e.g. Nowadays the depletion of the ozone layer is one of the major problems of the environment.

11. destroy- руйнувати, знищувати; to ruin, wipe out, e.g. Industry has destroyed the environment.

destruction- руйнування, знищення; ruination, wiping out, e.g. One of the prob­lems we must solve today is the destruction of atmosphere.

12. eliminate -1.усувати (помилки і т. т.); 2. знищувати; to remove smb./smth. that
is not wanted or needed; to get rid of smth., e.g. The nuclear threat is not yet
completely eliminated.

elimination- усунення; liquidation, exclusion, removal, e.g. The elimination of the consequences of Chornobyl tragedy will take decades.

13. emerge -1. з’являтися, виходити; 2. виявлятися, з’ясовуватися; 1. to appear,
come out; 2. to become known, e.g. The mismatch which emerged between the tech­
nological progress and humanism caused labour dehumanisation.

emergence- поява;арреагапсе, e.g. The emergence of new technology sometimes damages the environment.

14. encourage -шдбадьорювати, заохочувати; to give hope to, inspire, persuade,
reassure, support, e.g. Science should be encouraged.

encouragement- заохочення; approval, reassurance, e.g. Students need encou­ragement of their parents and teachers.

15. entertainment- 1. розвага; 2. вечірка; 1. fun, enjoyment, recreation, pastime; 2. show, concert, play, e.g. Some people think only of money and entertainment.

16. environment- довгалля, оточення, середовище; surroundings, conditions, atmosphere, e.g. All the countries should unite their efforts to save environment.



Unit 6


17. greediness- жадібшсть, ненажерливкть; an excessive desire for wealth; being grasping, materialistic, mean, selfish, money-grubbing, e.g. Spiritual pollution manifests itself in greediness of society.

18. harmful- шюдливий, згубний; bad, damaging, dangerous, ruinous, unfavourable, unhealthy, unpleasant, e.g. Some products are harmful to the health of consumers.

19. insurance- страхування, забезпечення; protection, security, e.g. Child labour was banned, insurance and pensions were introduced.

20. judge- 1. судити, виносити вирок (ршення); to assess, criticize, evaluate, examine, consider, dcteaiiiiie, estimate, guess, suppose, e.g. The decision on whether to develop the bomb can only be judged by ethics.

judgement- 1. судження, думка, погляд, 2. розсудливють, здоровий глузд; conclusion, decision, e.g. The judgment about the danger of spiritual pollution is absolutely correct and more people begin to understand it.

21. justice- 1. справедливють; 2. законнють, правосуддя; 1. right; 2. morality, law, e.g. It was actually a campaign for social justice.

22. manifest- 1. робити очевидним; 2. обнародувати; 3. виявляти; to show, make evident, make obvious, e.g. Spiritual pollution manifests itself in everyday life, manifestation- прояв; display, show, expression, declaration, demonstration, e.g. Alcoholism is a manifestation of the lack of culture.

23. matchv.-пщходити, вщювщати; to be equivalent, be the same, be similar, coincide, correspond, e.g. Thermal solar panels will perfectly match your new environmentally friendly house. п.-рйшя,пара; equivalent, e.g.These energy efficient hght bulbs and electronic environmental controls are an excellent match for our modem homes.

24. pollute- забруднювати; to contaminate, poison, e.g. Everyday burning of litter pollutes our cities.

pollution- забруднення; contamination, poison, dirtiness, impurity, e.g. Environmental pollution is the major threat to our survival.

25. promote- сприяти, допомагати; to help, support, e.g. We should promote ethical
norms based on ultimate values.

promotion- сприяння; help, support, advancement, assistance, contribution to, backing, sponsoring, e.g. Healthy way of life demands banning tobacco promotion.

26. realm- галузь, сфера, царина; sphere, branch, world, field, area, e.g. Today we need a second humanization - in the realm of environment.

27. replace -замшити; to change, renew, restore, e.g. Nowadays environmental pollu­tion has replaced nuclear war as the major threat to our survival.

28. suggest- пропонувати; to advise, propose, e.g. You should suggest more energy saving features in the design of new buildings.

suggestion- пропозшщ; advise, proposal, e.g. Their suggestions are quite clear: absolute values exist and some values are more important than others.

29. survive- вижити; to stay alive, continue to exist, e.g. To survive when the air, the
earth and water are so dangerously polluted is quite a problem.


Professional ethics



survival- виживання; continued existence, e.g. Poor land use decisions make our survival more difficult.

30. tailor- пристосувати до (чогось); to fit, suit, adapt, adjust, e.g. There are cases when the results of scientific investigation are tailored to the needs of the company which sponsors this investigation.

31. threaten- погрожувати, загрожувати; to put at risk, endanger, e.g. We should promote ethical norms in order to solve the problems which threaten the world today, threat- загроза; danger, hazard, e.g. Deforestation is a serious threat to the survival of animal habitat.

32. value- щншсть, важливкть; the worth of sth; importance, significance, e.g. Science and technology, by themselves, are not a source of ethics and values, values[pi] - щннос-ri; moral or professional standards of behaviour; principles, e.g. Young people have a different set of values from their parents.

ultimate values- вічш, основш, первинш цшностц basic, fundamental, primary, e.g. The question of existence of ultimate values has been discussed for centuries.

33. violate- порушувати (закон і т. ш.); to breach, ignore, e.g. Have you ever violated
the laws of the society?

violation- порушення; contravention, infringement, offence, e.g. Another ethical problem that should be considered by scientists is violation of the rights to intellectual property.

34. wisdom- 1. мудршть, 2. розумшня; 1. common sense, good sense, insight, pene­
tration, perceptiveness, rationality, reason; 2. understanding, e.g. He is a man of
great wit and wisdom.

Task 6.7. Match English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:

 

1. justice а) усувати
2. to violate b) замшити
3. realm c) BiHHi iUHHOCTi
4. conscience d) вичерпування(запаив)
5. absolute values e) пошкодження
6. threat f) виживання
7. to eliminate g) мати на yeasi
8. depletion h) справедливкть
9.insurance і) забороняти
10. to ban j) совать, сумлшня
11. damage к)загроза
12. to bear in mind 1) порушувати (закон)
13. to replace т) проявляти(-ся)
14. to manifest п) царина
15. survival о) наслщки
16. consequences р)страхування


Unit 6


 


Task 6.8. Arrange the A.

1. cruel

2. ban

3. awareness

4. emerge

5. realm

6. harmful

7. promote

8. tailor

9. threaten

 

10. conscience

11. justice

12. destruction

13. replace

14. manifest

15. encourage

16. insurance

17. damage

18. suggest

19. wisdom

20. claim.


following words in groups of synonyms:

B.

1. appear

2. moral sense

3. ruination

4. brutal

5. right

6. change

7. bad

8. show

9. protection

 

10. understanding

11. put at risk

12. advise

13. demand

14. harm

15. consciousness of

16. help

17. fit

18. sphere

19. forbid

20. give hope to


 


Task 6.9. Do the crossword puzzle Across:

1.забороняти,

2. небезпечний,

3. замшити,

4. наслщок, результат,

5. жорстокий,

6. оголошення, реклама,

7. страхування,

8. претендувати,

9. судити,

 

10. галузь, сфера,

11. пропонувати,

12. руйнування, 21. забруднення, 29. пристосувати до (чогось).


translating the words given below into English: Down:

13. шкода,

14. coBicTb, сумлшня,

15. жад1бшсть,

16. розвага,

17. довкшля,

18. об1знанкть,

19. правосудия,

20. усувати (помилки),

21. сприяти,

22. вичерпування (запаав),

23. шмдливий.

24. тдходити, вщповщати,

25. руйнувати,

26. робити очевидним,

27. з’ясовуватися,

28. шдбадьорювати, 30. виживання, З1.щншсть,

32. порушення закону.


Professional ethics



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Task 6.10. Read the words and decide which of them do not belong to each group of four items:

1. ban/veto/demand/forbid

2. result/outcome/consequence/conscience

3. destroy/risky/unsafe/dangerous

4. come out/emerge/come in/appear

5. common sense/understanding/wisdom/wise

6. fit/tailor/suit/change

7. bad/harmful/damaging/pleasant

8. judgment/protection/security/insurance

9. coincide/correspond/much/match

10. show/hide/make evident/manifest



Unit 6


Task 6.11. Write a synonym to each word in the grid:

1. announcement

2. contamination

3. damaging

4. moral sense

5. results

6. moral principles



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