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The present and the past participles may sometimes present difficulties for inexperienced translators when these verbals are used as part of the compound verbal predicate or in participial (secondary predication) constructions.

Thus, the compound verbal predicate with the component present participle is usually transformed in Ukrainian into the simple verbal predicate expressed by a perfective verb. For example:

He stopped, and took me up, Він зупинився й підхопив

and the light came tumbling down мене, а світло поповзло по the steps on me too... (Saroyan) східцях і впало також на мене.

When used as part of a compound nominal predicate, the par­ticiple with its linking verb is transformed in Ukrainian into a simple


perfective verbal predicate or becomes a compound nominal predi­cate:

The trade fair was closed last week. (F.News) Ярмарок закрився минулого тижня.

This predicate in Ukrainian may also be compound nominal (like in English): Ярмарок був закритий /було закрито/минулого тижня. Difficulties may present, however, some secondary predication constructions with the present and past participle which have to be treated/analysed separately.

A. Ways of Translating the Objective with the Participle Constructions/Complexes

Like the objective with the infinitive complexes, the secondary predication constructions with the present or past participle are used with the verbs of physical and mental perception, as well as with the verb to have. The participial construction thus formed has the func­tion of the complex object and may be translated in different ways, the choice of which is predetermined by some factors like in case of the functionally corresponding infinitival complexes. The main of them are as follows:

1) the lexical meaning of the participle;

2) the lexical meaning of the verb (for example, of physical perception) with which the participle is used;

3) the availability of the lexico-syntactic means in Ukrainian to convey the peculiar content and structural peculiarity of these sec­ondary predication constructions.

Taking into account the above-named factors, the objective with the present participle constructions may be faithfully translated into Ukrainian in one of the following ways:

1. With the help of the object subordinate clause introduced
by the conjunction що or by the adverbial connectors як, коли:

...he heard her moving about ... він чув, як вона ходила по

the room. (W.Jacobs) кімнаті.

Не listened to his uncle talk- Він слухав, як дядько вів

ing to him... (Hemingway) розмову/розмовляв з ним.

2. With the help of the adverbial subordinate clauses of time,
purpose, manner, etc., which testifies to the existence of functional

discrepancies in the two languages at the level of syntactic structure, function, and content. For example:

/ had seen him last Septem- Я бачив його минулого року

ber coming across the square у вересні, коли він переходив
towards the bar of the Continen- майдан до бару в ресторані
tal... (Greene) Континенталь...

І took pains not to send them Я докладав зусиль, щоб

(stones) tumbling down the slope, каміння не зірвалося з-під ніг і
(S. О Veil) не покотилося вниз.

3. On rarer occasions a faithful translation of the objective with
the present participle construction may be achieved either with the
help of an object subordinate clause or with the help of a semantically
equivalent substantival word-group:

/ heard someone weeping. Я чув, як хтось плакав/

(G.Green) чийсь плач.

Then I heard Pvle whispering: Потім я почув Пайлів

«Thomas, Thomas.» (Ibid.) шепіт/як Пайл шепнув: «То-

масе, Томасе.»

Не found the prices declining Він помітив зниження цін/

in summer. (Int. Her. Tribune) що ціни знижуються влітку.

4. With the help of the finite form of the verb, i.e., with the help
of the simple verbal predicate:

«I can see vou marrying after «Ти, бачу, як підіп'єш, то ще

a drink too many.» (Greene) станеш женихатися тут.»

Some objective with the present participle construction may be translated with the help of two object subordinate clauses, as in the following sentence:

He didn't care that they saw him crying. (Hemingway)

Йому було байдуже, 1) що вони бачать, 2) як він плаче.

The objective with the past participle constructions having actu­ally almost the same N/I/Ven (noun/pronoun+past participle)structural pattern as the previously analysed complexes are characterized by a stronger predicative motivation and meaning. This is because these complexes are used to express the state of an object/person, the meaning of someone's experience in something, one's witness or that something is made/done for the benefit of someone other. As a result, some ways of translation of the objective with the past participle constructions some­times differ from those employed for the translation of the objective with the present participle or the objective with the infinitive constructions. The main of these ways coincide, however, and are the following:



1. With the help of an object subordinate clause:

/ heard his name mentioned Я чув, шо/як його ім'я

in the crowd. (Saroyan) називали у натовпі.

2. This objective with the participle construction may also be
translated with the help of a noun in the metaphorical paraphrase:

Я чув його ім'я на вустах натовпу. One should not be misled by the compound nominal predicate which is not the N(l,Q)Ven complex but a simple verbal predicate in Ukrainian:

She grew more and more її щодалі більше турбувала

alarmed by the intrusion. (O'Dell) ця висадка/ це вторгнення.

The N(I,Q)Vn complex may also be translated into Ukrainian as a predicative to The noun being the subject of the sentence as in the example below:

Some of the houses had their У деяких будинках вікна

windows broken. (Cheever) були побиті.

3. By transplanting the participial complex to Ukrainian sen­
tences having here identical predicative constructions:

When I returned I found the Прийшовши додому, я

fence broken and the house door застав паркан проломаним, а
opened. (O'Dell) хатні двері відчиненими.

Note.Care should be taken as not to confuse attributive con­structions of the V/I/V.ng pattern with those of the V/I/Ven pattern. The former are translated in two ways:

1) either with the help of a subordinate clause (when the noun
is followed by the present participle):

He looked at his father listen- Він глянув на батька, що

ing with a kind of painful despera- слухав його з якимсь болісним
tion. (Cronin) відчаєм.

2) or with the help of an identical attributive construction (in
which the noun is equally followed by the past participle):

He had seen towns destroyed Він побачив міста,

by bombing. (Cheever) зруйновані бомбардуваннями.

В. Ways of Translating the Subjective with the Participle Constructions

The subjective with the participle (or the nominative with the participle constructions, as they are traditionally called) are trans-

lated into Ukrainian much like the above-treated subjective with the infinitive secondary predication constructions. There is, however, some difference between the action expressed by the NV.n( pattern constructions and the action expressed by the subjective with the participle N/I/V.ng pattern construction. The latter also in Ukrainian expresses an action in process. For example:

He was heard to sing. Чули, що він співав.

Не was heard singing. Чули, як/коли він співав.

English simple sentences with the subjective present participle constructions/complexes are mostly transformed in Ukrainian into a complex sentence introduced by the one-member indefinite-personal principal clause or by the infinitive performing the same syntactic func­tion. The introductory indefinite personal/principal clauses and infini­tives are Кажуть/Як кажуть; Повідомляють; Повідомляється, що; Очікується, що/Очікують, що.

This kind of transformations have to be performed when the present participle in the secondary predication construction is used with the verbs of saying/reporting or with the verbs of physical or men­tal perceptions (to see, to hear, to know, etc.). The principal clause then (the single verb indefinite personal sentence) is followed by an object subordinate clause:

He had been seen ... press- Бачили, ... як він

ing his warm lips to the marble притулявся своїми теплими
brow of an antique statue, вустами до мармурового чола
(О. Wilde) античної статуї.

They were heard talking to- Чули, як вони вдвох

gether. Maitlaud beside him, fan- розмовляли, а Мейтлод, сидячи
ning him with a copy of the Light, поруч, обмахувала його
(Cronin) газетою «Світло».

Deputy Prime Minister Vasyl Повідомляють, що засту-

Rohovyi is reported as saying the пник прем 'єр-міністра В. Рого-I.M.F. will delay its resumption of вий, виступаючи, заявив, що loans under a $2.6 billion loan ВМФ затримає переговори program until March. (Kyiv Post) щодо надання Україні траншу

за програмою в 2,6 мільярда


The subjective with the past participle constructions, which are

used in English with the verbs to appear, to seem, to haveetc., do

not require considerable structural transformations in the process of

translation into Ukrainian. Their meaning is usually conveyed by means


of the same simple sentences as in English, with the past participle turned into the predicate verb:

He had his eyes fixed always Він завжди спрямовував

on the future. (London) свій погляд у майбутнє.

This sentence, accordingly, may also be translated word-for-word: Він завжди мав свій погляд спрямованим у майбутнє./Його погляд завжди був спрямований у майбутнє.

Ruth Morse seemed furtherPvm Морз. здавалося, від-

removed than ever. (Ibid.) дійшла від нього далі, ніж будь-


The last sentence can be translated with the help of a complex sentence as well, with the verb seemed turned into the introductory principal clause: Здавалось, Рут Морз відступила від нього далі, ніж будь-коли.

It should be pointed out in conclusion that there are some con­structions with the past participle in English which may erroneously be taken for the nominative absolute participial complexes, which in reality they are not. These constructions have also a past participle for their syntactic head and may occupy an initial, middle or final position in the sentence:

Taken hostage, the French Взяті заручниками представ-

Red Cross officials fell in the ники французького міжнародно-
hands of a Maskhadov rival group го Червоного Хреста потрапи-
in Chechnya. (The Guardian) ли до рук ворожого Масхадову

військового угрупування.

Participial constructions of the kind are often formed from in­transitive verbs:

Arrived at this point, we halted. Прибувши на ие місце, ми

(S. Leacock) зробили зупинку/ми зупинилися.

The nature and meaning of the kind of participial construction is more transparent, when it follows the noun and occupies a concluding position, as in the following sentence:

He spoke with rare affection Він з особливою любов'ю

of his sister Jean, now married розповідав про свою сестру,
and comfortably settled in Тупе вже одружену, яка щасливо
castle. (Cronin) поживає в Тайнському замку.

Nothing in common with the NAPC have also constructions with the concluding past participle as in He had his haircut, she had her photo taken, which are translated with the help of finite forms of the verb (predicate): Він підстригся, вона сфотографувалась.

Certainly the most confusing for inexperienced translators are participial constructions with the grammaticalized past participles given, taken, grantedetc. which are translated into Ukrainian with the help of diyepryslivnyks, diyepryslivnyk constructions or even via prepositional noun phrases. Cf.:

Taken together, the results of the reaction proved the existence of some touch in the solution. Given the present financial situation in South Korea, no other move from the IMF could be ex­pected. (Fin.News)

Підсумовуючи/У підсумку наслідки реакції підтвердили існування домішок у розчині.

Враховуючи/зважаючи на сучасний фінансовий стан Південної Кореї, інших кроків від МВФ не доводилось очікувати.

Exercise VI. State the nature of the participial construc­tions in the sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.

1. Suddenly he heard someone running down the stairs.

2. I saw people wearing different clothes today. (C.Schimmels)

3. Through the open door of her room, he saw her pushing up her window. (Cronin) 4.1 had seen her three hours ago turning off the main road. 5. He saw the car coming over the rise of a hill. 6. «Just look at the rain coming down!» (Cheever) 7. Suddenly I saw the brush moving on the opposite side of the ravine. 8.1 watched them (Aleuts) landing on the bay. (O'Dell) 9. I hear him calling her name. (Fitzgerald) 10.1 thought I detected a bazooka replying, then all was quiet again. 11. «You'll have them fighting.» 12.1 would imagine him going up my stairs, knocking at my door, sleeping in my bed. (Greene) 13. She could hear the man and Soames talking together. 14. «And yet I don't see him doing it.» 15. «And yet we can see him taking no further notice.» 16. I don't want them writing home.» (Galsworthy) 17. Despite his concern for Alexander, Coleman found himself be­coming annoyed. 18. As he spoke, Mike Seddrus found himself re­garding this girl with even greater interest. 19. David Coleman found himself liking this girl. (Hailey) 20. He remembers Barker coming into the mess and starting to tell about it. 21.... I listened to him breathing regularly. 22. In the morning the old man could feel the morning com­ing. 23. One evening he was seen going into this very house, but was never seen coming out of it. (J.K.Jerome) 24. Did you ever see baseball


played? 25. «I heard your testimonial read in the Police Court, Fleur.» (Galsworthy) 26. «He saw her face contorted for a moment with the extremity of his feeling ...» 27. On Wednesday morning Julia had her face massaged and her hair waved. (Maugham) 28. He saw her arms raised as she fixed her hair before a mirror. (London) 29. But they would feel their tails being tied! (Galsworthy) 30. At six forty-five I walked down to the quay to watch the American planes unloaded. (G.Greene) 31. I watched him adjusting himself a little, visibly. (Fitzgerald) 32. We have the enemy almost surrounded. (Cheever)

33. I always see you this time of the year going up. (W.Maken)

34. This point is obvious: given the choice, businessmen would rather
not pay bribes. (Newsweek) 35. Given the shortage of officers, it was
not unusual for majors or captains to command brigades. (Encyclo­
pedia of Ukraine - Toronto. Univ. Press.) 36. Given those anxieties,
Germany's political and journalistic establishment enthusiastically
greeted the appointment of Mr.Kornblum. 37. Given his background,
Clinton doubted his own ability to have a successful marriage. (Intern.
Herald Tribune)

C. Ways of Translating the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions/Complexes

These English secondary predication word-groups, which are very often used in literary substyles, are presented in some structur­ally different types. The main of them are three:

1. The nominative absolute participial constructions consisting of a synthetic or analytical paradigm of the present participle. This type of secondary predication complexes may have the form of a synthetic or an analytic paradigm of the participle. For example, in the underlined nominative absolute participial construction This duty done, we refilled our glasses (J.K.Jerome), the paradigm of the participle is simple, i.e. synthetic. It has been derived, respectively, either from a less extended (The duty being done), or from a more extended/full analytical paradigm of this participle (The duty having been done). The contracted and less extended forms of the nominative absolute participial constructions are much more occurent in present-day English than their full paradigmatic forms, in which some emphasis is always laid on the categorial meanings (tense, aspect, voice) of the action expressed through the componental parts of the paradigm. Cf.: This duty having (perfective aspect) been (passive voice) done (accomplished action). When no

emphasis is laid on the categorial rheanings in the paradigm of the participle, only the nucleus of it (the past participle) is usually used.

The number of components/elements in the paradigm of the participle has actually no influence on the expression of meaning and translation of this predicative construction, which can be seen from the sentence below:

This duty done, we unfilled our Оскільки з цим було вирішено.

glasses, lit our pipes, and re- ми осушили келихи, запалили
sumed the discussion upon our люльки й знову стали бідкатись
state of health. (J.K.Jerome) про своє здоров'я.

The syntactic/functional meaning of the participial construction in this isolated sentence may be considered temporal as well. Then its Ukrainian traslation wil be respectively Після того, як із иим було вирішено, ми...

It should be pointed out that only the analytical paradigms, which contain the constituent elements of the passive and perfect participles of some verbs may be condensed. When the participial paradigm is represented in the nominative absolute participial con­structions through a single present participle expressing an action of the secondary subject, it can not be transformed into an extended paradigm or contracted. Thus, the present participle opening in the sentence James' face protruded naively, his mouth opening. (Galsworthy) can not undergo any complete transformation through reduction.

2. The second structural type constitute the nominative ab­solute participial constructions that contain no participle component at all. The relation of the predication in complexes of this type is implicitly inherent in and is realized through a prepositional (usually with a noun or pronoun) or a substantival word-group. Cf.:

Now, with this visit to Cardiff Тепер, лаштуючись до

in prospect, he wished her to ас- поїздки до Кардіффа. він хотів,
company him. (Cronin) щоб Крістін супроводжувала

Не sat down, his face serious Він сів серйозний і

and intent, and his fingers began зосереджений за рояль, і його
to race across the keyboard, пальці швидко забігали по
(S.Sheldon) клавішах.

With so much at stake, he did Коли стільки ставилося на

not want to appear inhospitable, карту, він хотів здаватися
(Ibid.) якомога гостиннішим.


3. The third structural type form subjectless nominative abso­
lute participial complexes. Their secondary subject may have a clearly
addressed or an indistinctly addressed reference to the subject of the
introductory clause. An illustration to the first subtype of such nomi­
native absolute participial constructions may be the following exam­
ple: Though being left out all night in the rain, the metal had not
rusted. (Maugham)

The secondary predicate (being left out) of the nominative absolute participial construction clearly refers to the noun of the matrix clause «metal». Consequently, its translation is easy: Метал хоч і пролежав цілу ніч під дощем, (він) не поіржавів.

In opposition to this, in the second type of subjectless nomina­tive absolute participial constructions the addressed referent in the introductory/matrix part of the sentence is not clearly indicated by the secondary predicate:

Bobbing and bounding upon the spring cushions, silent, sway­ing to each motion of their chariot. Old Jolyon watched them drive away under the sunlight. (Galsworthy)

The actions expressed by the participles of the nominative absolute participial constructions here refer to the pronoun they. There­fore, it is the secondary subject to the participles in this syntactic construction, which should be translated with the orientation on this pronoun: Старий Джоліон дивився, як вони, мовчки похитуючись і підгуцуючи на пружинистих сидіннях брички, віддалялися в яскравому сонячному світлі.

4. The fourth structural type constitute nominative absolute
participial constructions whose semantic reference to a part of the
introductory clause (or to the clause as a whole) is quite vague and
scarcely traced. As a result, such nominative absolute participial
constructions function together with their secondary subjects as regu­
lar clauses of a semi-composite sentence. Though semantically not
completely independent, these quasi-clauses are difficult to incorpo­
rate semantically and syntactically into Ukrainian sentences, which
can be seen from the following sentence:

She reached the lake and stood there staring at it, the wind whipping the thin night-gown around her body. (S.Sheldon)

Neither the secondary subject (the wind) nor the secondary predicate (whipping the thin night-gown...) has any explicit syntactic and semantic connection with the introductory clause She reached the lake and stood there staring at it.

The vague, almost untraced semantic connection of the quasi-

clause with the introductory clause pan be guessed, naturally, 0Л the basis of the contextual environment from which some temporal se­quence of actions can be seen: the wind whipped her nightgown after she had reached the lake. Hence, one of the translation versions may be as follows: Коли вона підішла до озера й стала, вдивляючись у нього, вітер затріпотів тонесенькою нічною сорочкою, шо тісно облягала її тіло.

Because of the vague temporal reference of actions expressed by the predicative complex/quasi-clause, which is actually independ­ent syntactically, it can also be translated as a separate sentence: Вона підійшла до озера й стала, вдивляючись у нього. Шугнув вітер і затріпотів тоненькою нічною сорочкою, що тісно облягала її тіло.

Therefore, translation of these secondary predication construc­tions is predetermined by some semantic and syntactic factors, the main of which are as follows:

1) the structural type of the nominative absolute participial complex;

2) the function of the complex in the sentence;

3) its reference to a part of the introductory/semantically main clause of the semi-composite sentence.

D. Ways of Identification of Implicit Meanings in the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions

As has been said already, a peculiar feature of many nomina­tive absolute participial constructions is their often indistinct semantic and syntactic role in the semi-composite sentence. The syntactic and semantic interrelations formed between the quasi-clauses with the nominative absolute participial construction on one hand, and the introductory/dominant clause on the other, may be of adverbial, attributive or objective nature. Among the most frequent adverbial meanings are temporal and causal, which are rendered into Ukrain­ian with the help of the corresponding subordinate clauses. For ex­ample:

«/ can't write with you stand- «Я не можу, Марджері,

ing there. Margery.» (Galsworthy) писати, коли ти стоїш там

A temporal meaning may also be indicated by an adverb/adver­bial expression in the nominative absolute participial construction or


by the corresponding tense forms in the introductory clause:

Mr. Quest, once again Квест, коли його знову

interrupted, turned his darky- обірвали, глянув на нього своїми

irritable eyes on him. чорними сердитими очима.

Another man, with his back Ще один чоловік, що був

behind to the camera, faced the спиною до фотоапарата, став

woman. (A.Hailey) перед жінкою спереду.

The inherent here in this nominative absolute participial con­struction causal meaning is not explicitly indicated. Nevertheless, it is clearly felt from the sentence, which can be proved by inserting the conjunction since or as, and thus transforming the secondary predication construction into the causative clause of the complex sentence:

Mr. Hilary being at a meeting. As/since Mr. Hilary was at a

the brothers had tea by them- meeting, the brothers had tea by
selves. (Galsworthy) themselves.

Therefore, there can be only one way of translation for such and the like nominative absolute participial constructions into Ukrainian, and this is by means of causative subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions оскільки, тому що, бо: Оскільки Гілері був на зборах, брати сіли за чай самі/сіли пити чай самі.

The nominative absolute participial constructions of causative meaning may also occupy a postpositive position in the sentence, i.e., after the introductory clause, as in the following example:

We were walking by ourselves Ми десь із годину ходили

for an hour, George having re- вдвох, бо Лжордж зостався в mainedin the hotel to write a letter готелі писати тітиі листа. to his aunt. (Cronin) (Why did we walk ourselves ?)

Among other adverbial meanings expressed by these second­ary predication complexes in semi-composite English sentence are also conditional:

The human condition being Якщо вже так складається

what it was, let them fight, let людське життя, то хай собі
them love... (Greene) воюють і хай собі кохаються...

The nominative absolute participial constructions can also

express other meanings and relations in the sentence. Then they are translated into Ukrainian respectively as corresponding nominal (or adverbial) subordinate clauses. For example:

«It's strange in a way, me be- «Воно якось аж дивно, що я

ing a secretary to the society... раптом - секретар иього
(Cronin) товариства...»

It was Dr.Dornbergen, his Це був лікар Дорнберґен,

hands inevitably busy with his руки якого постійно крутять
pipe. (Hailey) люльку.

Translation of the nominative absolute participial constructions may be influenced by the individual author's usage, because of which the aim of their employment is always stylistically predetermined. These constructions are mostly employed for the sake of economizing the speech efforts, for creating some dynamism or easiness in narration and for achieving the necessary expressiveness, etc. The last of these functions had been proved to exist in colloquial English and also in belles-lettres works of many British and American authors. This could also be observed in the translation of the above-cited nominative abso­lute participial construction, which may also be rendered with some ironic flavour: It was Dr.Dornbergen, his hands inevitably busy with his pipe. - Це був лікар Дорнберґен, руки якого весь час вертіли люльку /ні на мить не випускав з рук люльку, etc.

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