WAYS AND MEANS OF EXPRESSING MODALITY IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

WAYS AND MEANS OF EXPRESSING MODALITY IN ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN



Modality as an extralingual category expressing the relation of content to reality has in English and Ukrainian common means of realization. These include:

a) phonological means (stress and intonation);

b) lexico-grammatical means (modal verbs);

c) lexical means (modal words and modal expressions) con­veying subjective modality;

d) grammatical means (mood forms of the verb) conveying grammatical modality.

The expression of modal meanings by phonological means has often an identical realization in both languages, though in Ukrainian the lexical means such as modal particles and modal adverbs are mostly preferred here. These means may also express the most subtle meanings of suggestion, admonition, supposition, doubt, assuredness, etc. Among the most frequently used particles, which create such and other meanings, are аж, ж, хоч, б, би, і, й, -но, -то, саме, таки, etc., and also adverbs авжеж, адже, надто, певне, напевне, все ж, все ж таки, мов, немов, ніби and some others. The choice of the particle or modal adverb is predetermined by the content, though sometimes it rests only with the translator, who may employ stronger or weaker means to convey the modal meaning in the sentence. Thus, the modal meaning in the proverb sentence below may have two expressions - a weaker and a stronger one (more emphatic) in Ukrainian:

After us the deluge.


1. Після нас хоч потоп. or: 2. Після нас хоч і потоп.

Since the phonologically expressed modality is always con­veyed by translators as they themselves subjectively perceive the relation of content to reality, there may naturally be various ways of its individual realization in the target language. This can be seen from some possible interpretations of the modal meaning in the sentence where modality is expressed via the emphatic and logical stress laid on the predicate centres and on the pronoun you. Hence, there may be at least five different ways of expressing the modal meaning of the sentence in Ukrainian:

«I do really wish it hadn't been you.» (Greene)

«Мені й справді хотілося, щоб це був не 'ти.»

«Мені аж ніяк не хотілося, щоб це був 'ти.»

«Мені-такижаль, що це був 'ти.»

«Якжаль, що це був 'ти.»

«Я й справді жалкую, що це був 'ти.»

When under the emphatic or logical stress happens to be the English modal word, the expression of modality may coincide in both languages:

Jane is sure to be at her birth­
day party to-night. (Hailey) Джейн неодмінно/обо­
в'язково
буде в неї на іменинах
сьогодні ввечері.

This same modal meaning of certainty (assuredness) may equally be expressed in Ukrainian by means of the modal adverb певне/напевне and the particles ж, таки:

Джейн напевне ж буде в неї сьогодні ввечері на іменинах.

Джейн напевно-таки буде в неї сьогодні ввечері на іменинах.

The meaning of uncertainty or doubt expressed in English through prosodic means finds its full realization in Ukrainian with the help of particles and the corresponding intonation and stress as well, Cf.:

«What if I don't pass the examinations,» said Charlie. (D. Lessing)

«Що ж воно буде, якщо я не складу іспитів,» промовив Чарлі.

As will be seen below, Ukrainian particles and adverbs may also be used to render modality which is expressed in English by some other lingual means.


 




THE LEXICO-GRAMMATICAL EXPRESSION OF MODALITY THROUGH MODAL VERBS

This kind of modality is realized in both languages via modal verbs/their lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the notional verb. These constructions perform the function of the compound modal verbal predicate and express different meanings predetermined by the modal verb in the main, which can be observed in many citations and their Ukrainian translations on the forthcoming pages.

1. Thus, the modal verb can/could expressing physical or mental ability is usually translated into Ukrainian with the help of the modal verbs могти, вміти or by means of their equivalents мати змогу/ можливість, бути в змозі/мати силу:

а)І saw that he could hardly Я бачив, що він не може/не

take his eys off her. (Maugham) має сили очей відірвати від неї.

«А тепер ти молись, Гарольде,» - сказала вона. «Я не вмію.» відповів Кребс. «Я не мав змоги зробити те, що надумав зробити ...»

«Now, you pray, Harold,» she said. «I can't», said. Krebs. (Hemingway)

«I haven't been able to do what I meant.» (E. Warton)

b) When expressing doubt, distrust, uncertainty, etc. (mainly in interrogative and negative sentences) the meaning of can/could is mostly enforced in Ukrainian with the help of the particles невже, хіба or the adverb навряд:

«Can't you believe me, mother?» (Hemingway) «It can't be the same man -«(Christie) It can't possibly be Walter.» (Maugham)

«Невже (хіба) ви мені не вірите, мамо?»

«Навряд чи це той самий чоловік.»

«Та невже/хіба то Волтер?»/ Навряд чи то Волтер.

с) When expressihg the meaning of reproach, surprise or per­mission the lexical equivalent of the modal verb can in Ukrainian is mostly the stative можна:

Як можна таке обіцяти/ такого наобіцяти? «Можна прийти й подивитись ваші картини?» «Маючи все це, не можна залишати жінку без шеляга.»

«How can one promise that?» (Greene)

«Can I come up and see your pictures?» (Hemingway)

«Having it all, one can't leave a woman without a bob.» (Maugham)


d) When the modal verb can expresses irrefutability of action or
assuredness of statement, it may be conveyed in Ukrainian, where
this kind of modal meaning is usually expressed implicitly, through a
definite word-order and sentence stress (prosodic means):

«You can't teach an old dog «Старого вчити - тільки

new tricks.» (D. Lessing) час марнувати.»

There was nothing, the boy Хлопцеві нічого не зали-

could do but run. (J.K. Jerome) шалось, як тікати.

Can the leopard change his Горбатого могила випра-

spots? (Saying) вить.

e) Some modal meanings of can/could are expressed in Ukrain­
ian either lexico-grammatically or through phonological means. The
choice of the means rests then exclusively with the translator. Thus,
in the sentence below the meaning of the modal verb couldis under
logical (or emphatic) stress which may be marked (pointed out)
accordingly in Ukrainian:

/ could know it without your telling me. (B. Sha w) Я міг довідатись про це і без тебе.

The same could in the isolated sentence may also be treated as a form of the subjunctive mood, marked by the participle б/би:Я довідався б/міг би довідатись про це і без твоєї допомоги.

«І can't recollect him.» «Я щось не пригадую/не

(Greene) можу його пригадати.»

« Why can't he goto a hospi- « Чому він не може лягти в

tal?» (Christie) шпиталь?/Чому він не лягає

до шпиталю?»

Note.Some English modal meanings of can have no corre­sponding equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.: / can see in this picture. Я бачу на цій картині... І can hear you well. Я добре тебе чую. Сап you see me? Ти мене бачиш ?

f) In some contextual environment the modal meaning of can
may be expressed in Ukrainian through other modal verbs:

«How can you talk to me like «Як ти смієш зі мною так

that.» (Fitzgerald) розмовляти.»

«We had an awful time getting «Повинен тобі сказати,

back, I can tell you.» (Ibid.) дорога назад була страшенно

важка.»

The modal verb can/could followed by the perfect infinitive and


 




expressing a probable, doubtful, uncertain, incredible, etc. action is usually translated into Ukrainian depending on its contextual mean­ing. The latter may be expressed: 1) through the past form of the corresponding verb (indicative mood) or 2) through its subjunctive mood form (умовний спосіб). For example:

1) «She can't have neglected «Невже вона всім цим
all that.» (F.King) знехтувала

«Вона не могла всім цим знехтувати.»

2) «How could she have been «Як вона могла так
like that?» (Fitzgerald) поводитись/бути такою?»

Nobody could ha ve sa ved him. Ніхто його не врятував би/

(W. Trevor) Навряд чи хто врятував би його.

But he could have lived, this Проте хлопчина той міг би

boy. (Hailey) й жити/міг би й вижити.

Exercise I. Offer appropriate Ukrainian particles or modal adverbs (or both) to convey the phonologically expressed (through emphatic stress or intonation) modality in the English sentences below.

Model: «I did have ideas that way. For a time.» (Hailey) Таки закрадалися спершу такі думки/У мене й справді закралися були спершу такі думки, (modal particle таки; modal particle й plus the modal adverb справді).

1. «Wouldn't you Nke me to read?» she asked. 2. «Wouldn't you Пке some broth?» 3. «I wouldn't know what to do. Honestly.»

4. «Behave yourself.» «Why don't vou try behaving?» (Hemingway)

5. «Oh, I am longing to see it,» Iris said. 6. «Sweety, I don't honestly like this very much.» (F.King) 7. «I know you didn't mean to. but you did it (hurt).» (Fitzgerald) 8. «John, it was you who initiated the Joe Black Memorial Award.» (B. Glanville) 9. «I do apologise, Madam. I feel so... I would not have troubled.» (S.Hill) 10. «Now I caught you!» she said. «Now vou can't get awav!» 11. «It (music) seems to be right in them.» 12. «Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams,» she said. 13. «Why don't you have another concert, some time?» 14. «Well, I'll be there. I'll be there, if I possibly can. You can count on me.» 15. «I just caught myself in time.» (D.Parker) 16. «You think so?» «Why not.» I said. (Hemingway) 17. «I'm not hungry. Dave. I wouldn't lie to you.» (Caldwell)

Exercise II. Identify the modal meaning of can/could, to be able to (physical ability, mental ability, etc.) and translate


the sentences into Ukrainian.*

1. Anyone can be a fisherman in May. (Hemingway) 2. «Can you draw?» 3. «I could wash the floors.» (Dreiser) 4. Suleman-ibn-Daoud could hardly speak for laughing. (Kipling) 5. «You have done everytning you could for me.» (Hemingway) 6. « ... but I can't make head and tail of it.» (Maugham) 7. She couldn't bear the sight of him. (Christie) 8. «I was able to do the commissioner a favour once, and he sends me a Christmas card every year.» (Fitzgerald) 9. Dorian seemed to be able to exercise whenever he wished. (Wilde) 10. Still there are many individuals who have never been able to work. (D.K.Stevenson) 11. A man can do no more than he can. 12. No man can serve two masters. (Proverb) 13. «Can't I go with you, Holden? Can't I?» (Salinger)

14. It could scarcely be said that he did this in a fatherly spirit. (Dreiser)

15. And there followed, of course, squeals and gaffaws of delight - so loud that they could be heard for half a mile. (Dreiser) 16. As for Mrs.Gerhardt, one could better imagine than describe her feeling. (Ibid.) 17. For a moment the set of his face could be described in just that fantastic way. (Fitzgerald) 18. He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy) 19. You cannot burn the candle at both ends. (Proverb) 20. «I suppose, Joe, there couldn't be any doubt about that blood test on Mrs. Alexander?» (Hailey) 21. All that could be truly said of him now. (Dreiser) 22. «How could it have mattered then?» 23. How could she have been like that?» (Fitzgerald) 24. «I couldn't have missed that.» 25. «I could have forgiven it if fallen desperately in love with someone and gone off with her.» 26. «That's just why they couldn't have had the key.» 27. «She could have gone back to Strove,» he said irritably. (Maugham) 28. «Oh,» cried Fleur. «You could not have done it.» 29. There could not have been such relentless unforgiveness. (Galsworthy) 30. We could have stayed in Paris or gone elsewhere. (Hemingway)

Exercise III. Choose the most fitting meaning of the two pertained to the modal verb can/could and translate the sen­tences faithfully into Ukrainian.

1. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrasing situation. (Stevenson) 2. «I don't think I can stand it.» 3. «I'd send you a certain sum of money and you could give it him gradually, as he needed it.» 4. «Even now I can hardly believe it's true.» 5. «I can tell you why he left his wife - from pure selfishness and nothing else whatever.» 6. «Why can't you write yourself?» 7. «I could not hear what he said.» 8. «Why can't he go to a hospital?»


 




9.1 could not tell how they were getting on. (Maugham) 10. «It's more than he's worth, I know, but it can't be helped now.» (Dreiser) 11. «If it wasn't for the mist, we could see your home across the bay.» 12. Neitner of them can stand the person they're married to. Can they?» (Fitzgerald) 13. He couldn't say the word «dead». (W.Trevor) 14. «You'll have no trouble. I can assure you.» (Christie) 15. «Pardon, but could you tell me if a Mr. or Mrs.Robinson resides here?» (Ibid.)

16. «I couldn't take the chance of letting it be known that there was
doubt.» (Hailey) 17. «I can't bear the look of that horrible muzzle.»
(C.S.Lewis) 18. I could not believe that Strickland had fallen in love
with Blanche Stroeve. (Maugham) 19. I could think of no excuse.
(Christie) 20. «You can't expect me to think it's a very good system.»
(Hemingway) 21. «I couldn't expect you to understand it.» (Maugham)

22. «What's your opinion, Joe?» «It could be a bone tumor?» (Hailey)

Exercise IV. Find appropriate Ukrainian equivalents for the explicitly and implicitly expressed meanings of can/could in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Thus, you can keep rubbing the wounds of the day a little sorer even while he is on his knees... (C.S. Lewis) 2. There are lots of fellows who would be delighted to have your chance, I can tell you. (Dreiser) 3. «It can't possibly be Walter.» (Maugham) 4. Vivian could see he was puzzled, not knowing what to make of it. (Hailey) 5. Love cannot be compelled. (Proverb) 6. «You can't wait in the dining-room, Miss.» (Mansfield) 7. She could not help giving ear to the sounds surrounding her. (Dreiser) 8. «I wish I could see him.» (Hemingway) 9. How weakened she was I had not been able to imagine until I saw her at the railway station ... (Buck) 10. You could see they were being careful as hell not to drink up the minimum too fast. (Salinger) 11. «Your sister? I can't believe it.» (Greene) 12. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrassing situation. (D.K.Stevenson) 13. «I'm sorry, Granger. I wish I could help.» (Greene). 14. Can it really be true, then, that a non-commercial, non-profit public network is the largest. (D.K.Stevenson) 15. « ... you can't expect me to «believe a word you say.» (Galsworthy) 16. «I can't bear it.» (Christie)

17. She used to be able to understand. (Fitzgerald) 18. «We had an
awful time getting back, I can tell you.» (Fitzgerald) 19. «Oh. If only I
could return back to my flower basket.» (B.Shaw) 20. «I cannot have
you call on me here.» (Dreiser) 21. «I can't say anytning in this house,
old sport.» (Fitzgerald) 22. «You can't talk to me like that.» (Ibid.)

23. «You can't live on air, you know.» (Christie) 24. Love and cough
cannot be hid. (Proverb) 25. «...compare her with that poor Mrs.


Osborne who could not say boo to a goose.» (W.Thackeray) 26. A fog cannot be dispelled with a fan. (Proverbs) 27. He was not old, he could not have been more than forty. (Galsworthy)

2. The modal verb may/might with its lexical equivalents to be permitted I to be allowed has also some peculiarites of use and expression of meaning. The latter predetermines the use of its Ukrain­ian lexical equivalents. Thus, when the modal verb may/might ex­presses permission it is usually translated into Ukrainian as the stative можна. For example:

a) «Now may Ідо?» (Christie) «To що, можна мені йти?»

At the hospital they told me І «У шпиталі сказали, що

might wait.» (Ibid.) мені можна почекати.»

This meaning of may, as can be seen below, coincides with the meaning of the modal verb can in the indefinite personal or impersonal sentences as in One can count it/It could be counted on the fingers of one hand- це можна(можна було) порахувати на пальцях однієї руки.

b) The meanings of permission expressed by the modal verb
may/might can equally be conveyed by the Ukrainian verbs
дозволяти, не заперечувати:

«May I speak now? « Тепер дозволяєте/можна

(Maugham) мені говорити?»

«May I offer you some fruit?» «Можна запропонувати

(E.Bates) вам/Не заперечуватимете

проти фруктів?»

c) When the verb may/might expresses possibility (coinciding
with the verb can/could) or probability, assumption, uncertainty,
admonition, advice, etc., it is usually translated into Ukrainian with
the help of the polysemantic verb могти.

This verb is therefore homonymous in its meaning incorporat­ing in Ukrainian the meanings of can and may wnich can be seen from the following sentence:

«I think I may remind him of а «Я могтиму/матиму змогу.

time he prefers to forget.» думаю, пригадати йому той
(Christie) час, про який він воліє не

згадувати.»


 




d) When expressing assumption, probability, presumability, wish, advice, etc., the verb may and its past (or subjunctive) form might often acquires some additional modal meaning which is mostly ren­dered into Ukrainian with the help of different modal particles. The most frequently employed of them are б, ще/ще й, хай, etc.

«Let's wait a little more, she «Зачекаймо трохи, вона ще

utes.» (Bailey) Bass said we might get some of the laundry of the men at the hotel to do. (Dreiser) « We shall never be married.» «Some time - we might,» said Dorothea in a trembling voice. (Seghal)

might return in a couple of min- може (може ще й) прийде за

кілька хвилин.»

Бас каже, що ми могли б брати в пожителів готелю білизну прати (для прання). «Ми ніколи не одружимось.» «А може колись і одружи­мось,» відповіла Доротея тремтливим голосом.

є) When expressing wish, the subjunctive meaning of may is conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the particles хай or щоб, initiating the sentences:

May they live a long life. Хай їм щастить.

May damnation take him. Щоб він був проклятий./Хай

йому трясия!

f) Some modal meanings (supposition, assumption, desire, etc.) expressed in English by may/mightare rendered into Ukrainian through modal particles and a peculiar logical word order:

«May He (God) support me too.» (H. Ha wthorne) Between the cup and the lip a morsel may slip. (Proverb) «Might he not, later, be pun­ished for a thing like this?» (Dreiser)

«Допоможи й мені, Боже.» (Хай Бог помагає й мені.)

Не кажи гоп, доки не перескочиш (Скажеш гоп, як перескочиш).

«А його за це часом/згодом не покарають?»(А його не можуть потім покарати?)

g) The modal verb may is often used in the language of docu­ments to express polite though severe warning:

A Member of the United Na- Держава - член Організації

tions which has persistently vio- Об'єднаних Націй, яка lated the Principles contained in постійно порушує зазначені в the present Charter may be ex- цьому Статуті принципи,


pelled from the organisation by the може бути виключена з ООН

General Assembly upon the rec- Генеральною Асамблеєю

ommendation of the Security згідно рекомендації Ради

Council. (Charter of the United Na- Безпеки. (Статут Організації

tions) Об'єднаних Націй).

h) The modal verb may/might followed by a perfect infinitive often expresses supposition, desire, uncertainty, probability, etc., of actions which might not have been carried out. When isolated from a contextual environment, the construction of may/might with the per­fect infinitive may be treated as polysemantic and consequently of­fered different interpretatations in Ukrainian. Thus, the sentence «She may ha ve forgotten, you know; or got the evening mixed.» (Galsworthy) may have the following five faithful (from the translator's point of view) interpretetions/variants:

1) «Знаєте, вона мабуть забула чи сплутала вечір.»

2) «Вона певне забула або сплутала вечір.»

3) «Можливо, вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»

4) «Цілком імовірно, що вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»

5) «Знаєте, а може вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»

і) There appears still more uncertainty while conveying the mean­ing of may/mightwAh the negated perfect infinitive as in the sentence «The aircraft might not have been downed in the action.» (USA Today) The lexical ambiguity of the construction can be seen from the following possible variants of its interpretation in Ukrainian:

1) Літак може й не збито в тім бою.

2) Літак мабуть не збито в тім бою.

3) Цілком імовірно, що літак не був збитий у тому бою.

4) Навряд чи літак був збитий у тому бою.

5) Може літака й не збили в тому бою.

These meanings of may/might are naturally realized through the infinitive forming the content core of the modal predicate in the sentence.

In many sentences the modal verb might adds a subjunctive meaning to the predicate, which it is a part of, as in the following example:

Mrs.Gerhardt thought of all the Дженні Ґергардт перебрала

places to which she might apply, й усі інші місця, де можна було
(Dreiser) б спитати про роботу.


 




Exercise I. Before translating the sentences into Ukrain­ian, state the meaning (supposition, probability, assumption, uncertainty, permission, etc.) expressed by the modal verb may/ might. Suggest the use of the stative можна or the adverb можливо (with or without a modal particle) where necessary.

1. «They may not like it.» 2. «She may and she may not prove to be a riddle to me.» (Dreiser) 3. Erik says that you may be coming to New York. (M.Wilson) 4. He may have to go to Monte Carlo with his father. (O.Wilde) 5. There may be a number of benefits. 6. Many non-Americans may be aware of the geographical size of the United States. 7. Other aspects of America may be a far more serious challenge to our experts. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. The hospital might receive money now or it might not. 9. «i suppose I might be difficult to live with. (Hailey) 10. Anything might happen. (G.Greene) 11. «We might dine together.» (Christie) 12. «She was afraid he might die before she had done so.» (H.James) 13. I thought you might be glad to learn of my good fortune. (O.Henry) 14. «Sometimes when Mr. de Winter is away and you feel lonely, you might like to come up to these rooms and sit here.» (Du Maurier) 15. You may know one of them to be a great warrior on the Enemy's side. (C.S.Lewis) 16. ... her heart might be lonely, but her lips continued to sing. 17. Yes, he might be called a successful man. (Dreiser) 18. You might see nothing in him. (O.Wilde) 19. «There's one thing that might work, might give us a better pointer. That's X-ray. If there's a tumor, X-ray might show it.» 20. It might be dangerous, if we get a disease carrier at the hospital. (Hailey)

21. This may be the reason of their refusal to join us. (J.F.Cooper)

22. «She might be a duchess.» 23. «I may be very stupid, but I can't make head or tail of what you're saying.» (Maugham) 24. «You might as well ask for a reflection without a mirror.» 25. «You may or may not be right on that point, Hastings.» (Christie) 26. «Perhaps I may keep the handkerchief. (C.S.Lewis) 27.1 told her she might fool me but she couldn't fool God. (Fitzgerald) 28. «... but you may as well get what you can out of it.» (Maugham) 29. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. (Proverb) 30. «If I may introduce myself, I am Mr.Chou's manager.» (Greene) 31. She might come this afternoon if she wants to.» 32. «They might all be wrecked by such fast driving.» (Dreiser).

Exercise II. Offer the most fitting lexical equivalents for the modal verb may/mightvi'Ah the perfect infinitive in each sentence below and after that translate the sentences into Ukrainian.


1. They may not have said arfything about it. (H.Munro) 2. If they had been in the room then, she might have murdered them. (J.Cheever) 3. «That may not have occured to you that it would be rather a shock to a girl to find out that her husband had lived for ten years with another girl and had three children.» (Hemingway) 4. She may have had no particular feeling for him. 5. For all, we know they may have settled down into a most domestic couple. (Christie)

6. Miss Matfield might have been very sorry for him. (J.Priestley)

7. «Well, he might have been murdered by the Vietminh.» (Greene)

8. «He looked at Hilda; he might have been looking at a stranger.» (Bennett) 9. «You might have told me earlier - what you told me on Wednesday night.» 10. It may have been a healthy wind, but the effect on the nerves was evil. (Bennett) 11. Wolf too had disappeared, but he might have strayed away after a squirrel or a partridge. (W.Irving) 12. «You might have told us that half an hour ago.» (B.Shaw) 13. Of course, there were many things, I might have answered to this.» (Christie) 14. «If I had remained a rich man, I might have lost it for good and all.» 15. «And we might have been so happy.» (Maugham) 16. «Catherine, who might have said anything didn't say a word.» 17. Of course, she might have loved her for a minute. (Fitzgerald)

3. The modal verb must has also some peculiar features of its own. Borrowed by Ukrainian from German through Polish, this verb in English and Ukrainian expresses strong obligation, duty, necessity. In these meanings must has for its direct lexical equivalents the strongest Ukraininan modal verb of this same meaning мусити.

a) «Now I really must get back
to my tasks. End of term in sight, «Тепер я мушу серйозно

you know.» (Murdoch) взятись за роботу. Знаєш,

We must eat, we must drink, скоро кінець семестру.»
and we must be merry. (Saying) Ми мусимо їсти, пити і

мусимо завжди бути веселими.

b) Not without the long influence of the Russian language, which was for some centuries a dominant political factor in Ukraine, the modal verb мусити has been more often substituted by urban Ukrain­ians for its almost as strong semantically Ukrainian synonym повинен or for the modal stative треба. То convey the meaning of necessity, duty or obligation, expressed by the modal verb must, whose direct Ukrainian equivalent is still often avoided on the aforenamed grounds, present-day Ukrainians often resort to the additional use of the modal adverb обов'язково:


d) When expressing assumption oj supposition, the modal verb must may have for its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian a contextually fitting modal adverb or a modal particle:
є) Some meanings of this modal verb are formally obligatory in English, where they express obligation or certainty but they may not have an explicit expression of these meanings in Ukrainian:
f) Therefore, the usual meaning of must in some Ukrainian con­texts may be weaker than in the English language original where it clearly expresses certainty, duty or obligation. Consequently, it can not be substituted in Ukrainian for either the modal verb мусити or for its weaker variant повинен. Then, some other equivalents have to be chosen for such nationally predetermined meanings of must. For instance:
Some contextual meanings of must have a national Ukrainian non-explicit expression of modality. For example: «Come, Dave, you must see.» (London) «Ходіть-но. Дейве. подивітьсяor: «Ходи-но, Дейве, на свої очі пересвідчишся

«I must sit down. This leg gets «Я мушу/повинен сісти,

tired.» (Greene) Щось поболює оця нога.»

«You must certainly send it «Ти повинен обов'язково вис-

(picture) next year to the тавити портрет наступного

Grosvenor.» (О. Wilde) року у павільйоні Ґросвенор.

The meaning of must in both English sentences above directly corresponds to our Ukrainian мусити, which is also proved by the use of the intensifying modal adverb обов'язково in the last sentence.

It may naturally not always be clear from an isolated sen­tence, which of the possible meanings the modal verb must ex­presses: that of the strongest (мусити) or those of the somewhat weaker ones (повинен, треба). Thus, from Martin Eden's words in the sentence below is not clear whether it is Ruth's duty, moral/ presumptive obligation or her necessity to address her father: «And you must tell your father for me.» (London) Hence, the translator may suggest three possible equivalents for this modal meaning of must in Ukrainian:

1) «І/А ти мусиш сказати це за мене батькові.» (duty, ob­ligation)

2) «І/А ти повинна сказати це за мене батькові.» (neces­sity)

3) «І/А тобі треба самій сказати це за мене батькові.» (presumptive obligation)

с) The translator may sometimes choose the Ukrainian lexical equivalent of must under the influence of the traditionally established usage of a modal meaning in his native tongue. Thus, the meaning of necessity, obligation following from a prescription or rule, may often be expressed in Ukrainian through strict logical word order or via some other finite verbs with the intensifying adverb, as can be observed in the following sentences:

«I musn't take the money,» «Я ніколи не візьму цих гро-

said Carry, after they were settled шей,» - відповіла Керрі, коли вони
in a cosy corner... (Dreiser) сіли в затишному куточку...

The Constitution of the US Конституцією США вста-

specifies that a nationwide cen- новлено, що державний пере-
sus, a «head count» ofailAmeri- nuc («поголівний облік») насе-
cans, must be taken every ten лення повинен проводитися
years. (O.K. Stevenson) кожні десять років.


«He must be as mad as a hat­ter!» exclaimed the Colonel. (Christie)

«That fellow must be made of steel. He's never tired.» (R.Warren)

«If I feel this way, my heart must be broken.» (Hemingway)

«I must apologize, Agnes, I'm very sorry...» (Coward)

«I thought you must be away.» (Maugham)

« What must you ha ve thought of me?» (Maugham)

«It must seem very funny to you.» (Galsworthy)

«Were the people looking at her? They must be.» (Mansfield)


«Він мабуть/не як з глузду зі'хав! - вигукнув полковник. (Та ж він просто з глузду з'їхав!)

«Той хлопець певне/як залізний. Він ніколи не стомлюється.»

«Якщо я почуваюсь так, це означає, що моє серце більш не витримує

«Прошу вибачити. Еґнес; мені дуже жаль.»/«Перепро­шую. Еґнес, мені дуже прикро.»

«Я думала, що тебе нема вдома/що ти вже пішов

«Що ти мІЕ тільки подумати про мене?»

«Це може здатися /певне здається тобі/дуже дивним.»

Чи люди дивилися на неї? Мабуть,/Напевне, шо так.»


 




g) The Ukrainian modal verb мусити or повинен is to be used, however, when conveying the meaning of the English syntagmeme have got (to) with the indefinite infinitive having the function of the compound modal verbal predicate:

«I've got to stay sober.» «Я повинен/маю бути

(Greene) тверезим.»

«Doris, I've got something to «Доріс, я маю/повинен тобі

say to you.» (Hemingway) дещо сказати

h) The modal verb must when used with the perfect infinitive usually expresses actions supposed to have taken or not taken place but of which the speaker is mostly informed. The meaning of thus expressed action is usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the modal adverbs or particles можливо, очевидно, мабуть, напевно, певне:

«Не must have fallen off when «Зброєносець певне випав

we left the first bull.» (Hemingway) з машини, коли ми від їхали від

першого застреленого буй­
вола.»
So Dr. Brown's whispered Тут лікар Браун промовив:

words:«The man must have been «Цей чоловік уже мертвий
dead a week.» (Greene) напевно з тиждень.»

Some probable action expressed by the modal verb must with the negative particle not and the perfect infinitive shows that the ac­tion might have been carried out. Though other interpretations, i.e., expressions of the meaning are not excluded either:

She must not have followedthe Вона не повинна була

advice... (Austen) виконувати цю пораду...

Some other interpretations of this modal verb with the perfect infinitive construction may be quite opposite to that in the sentence above. Namely:

1) Навряд чи вона послухалася тієї поради.

2) Не може бути, щоб вона послухалася тієї поради.

3) їй не треба було слухатися тієї поради.

As in the similar case with may/might plus the perfect infini­tive, there may be also other contextual meanings of must with the perfect or indefinite/continuous infinitive. These meanings can also be found in the compound modal predicates of sentences given in the exercises that follow.


Exercise I. Analyse each sentence first and offer a suit­able Ukrainian equivalent (мусити, повинен, треба, маю etc.) for the modal verb must. Then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. «Accidents can happen to anybody, darling. You mustn't blame yourself.» (S.Sheldon) 2. «Only you must give me your clothes, too.» (A.Bierce) 3. «You mustn't stare at people when they pass,» continued mother. 4. To succeed one must do something - one must associate, at least seem to associate with those who were foremost in the world of appearences. (Dreiser) 5. «I'll telephone. They must see the faces of many people you've heard about.» (Fitzgerald) 6. This brings us to the last factor that must be kept in mind. 7. They must have local public support, because citizens vote directly on how much they want to pay for school taxes. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. «We must go as quickly as we can.» 9. In the meantime we must make the best of the situation. (C.Lewis) 10. «I must be left to myself for a while.» 11. «They mustn't take him into my house.» (Maugham) 12. «Adam, you must not leave the house.» 13. To be popular, one must be a mediocrity. 14. «I go on board to-night for India, and I must do my job first.» (Wilde) 15. «He must know that infatuation won't last.» 16. «He must be treated with infinite tact.» 17. «But you mustn't go with me, you wouldn't understand. I must show them to you my­self.» (Christie) 18. «I must speak to you by such means as are within my reach.» (J.Austen) 19. «But according to your category I must be merely an acquaintance.» (Wilde) 20. «Still I must sleep.» (Hemingway) 21. An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society. (I.Tenson) 22. «I must acquit you of criminality.» (A.Bierce) 23. «But we mustn't talk here.» (Galsworthy)

Exercise II. Translate the sentences containing the modal verb must with different forms of the infinitive. Use one of the following (or some other) fitting Ukrainian equivalents for the purpose: повинен, певне, мабуть, треба, змушений, зобов'язаний, маю, etc.

1. «She must be in New York by now.» (M.Wilson) 2. They must be in a bad way truly. 3. «It must cost a good deal to live here, don't you think?» 4. «It must be nice to be famous,» said the girl softly. 5. The neighbourhood they lived in must be very poor. 6. Mrs. Gerhardt commented upon this repealing again and again: how good he must be or how large must be his heart. (Dreiser) 7. «Must be interesting?» he said. (Christie) 8. «We heard it from three people, so it must be true.» (Fitzgerald) 9. The boy must be forty by now.


 




(Galsworthy) 10. «You must be too hard,» he smiled back. (Hemingway) 11. Alcohol must help somewhat in fighting arteriosclerosis. (D.K.Stevenson) 12. «You must know, Gatsby.» 13. Some words of this conversation must have reached Wilson swaying in the office door... 14. She must have seen something of this expression for she turned abruptly away... 15. She must have broken her rule against drinking that night. 16. «You must have gone to church once.» 17.1 must have felt pretty weired at that time, because I could think of nothing else. 18. It (the car) must have killed her instantly. 19. He must have looked up at the unfamiliar sky. (Fitzgerald) 20. «He must have been in the river,» the woman said. (S.Barstow) 21. But even when she laughed she must have been one of the servants. (Maugham) 22. These must have been expensive cigars. (J.Priestley) 23. But you must have seen pictures of her. (Christie) 24. «You must have got mixed up in something in Chicago.» (Hemingway) 25. What he saw in that room must have frightened him terribly. (J.Kierzek) 26. «I have read your feelings, and I think you must have penetrated mine». (J.Austen)

4. The modal verb have (to) is of common lexical nature in English and Ukrainian, where its meaning in all substyles corresponds to the verb мати as in the following examples:

a) «Oh, I have to tell you «О, мамо, я маю вам щось

something, mamma.» (Dreiser) сказати/розповісти.»

«Don't forget, we have to pay «Пам'ятай, що ми маємо

the library. (Hemingway) платити бібліотеці.»

b) Depending on the lexical meaning of the infinitive that forms the compound modal predicate with it, the modal verb have (to) may often become close to that of the Ukrainian modal verbs повинен, мусити, to the stative треба or to the modal adverb потрібної необхідно:

«You know we, poor artists, «Бачите, нам, бідним худож-

have to show ourselves in soci- никам, треба/необхіднопоказу-
ety from time to time. (Wilde) ватися час від часу на людях.»

«Ми маємо/повинні робити

« We have to do everything we все, що можемо.»
can.» (Hemingway) «Вам треба буде/дове-

« You'II have to pull harder деться взавтра попрацювати/ than this tomorrow. (Hemingway) взятись краще, ніж оце зараз.»


с) In some contextual environment, however, the meaning of have to may be very close if not equivalent to must (мусити/повинен):

«I have to leave you here.»
(Fitzgerald) «Я змушений/повинен покину-

«I have to tell you I find your ти/залишити тебе тут.»
work just a little too stark.» «Повинен/мушусказати, твоя
(Hemingway) робота/праця видається мені

трохи заважкою.»

6) The modal meaning of the verb have to may be predeter­mined by the peculiarity of usage and singularity of expressing the same modal meaning in the source language and in the target lan­guage, which may sometimes coincide as in the sentence below:

«And what have we to do with «А що нам/маємо робити з

the lives of those who toil for us?» життями тих, котрі, як чорні
(Wilde) воли, важко працюють на нас?»

As can be seen, translation of the modal verb have (to) may be influenced by various factors which should be taken into considera­tion while choosing its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian.

Exercise I. Suggest an appropriate lexical equivalent for the modal verb have (to) in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. «You don't have to do it.» 2. «You have to go back to school.» (Salinger) 3. «If you gain anything, you will have to fight for it.» 4. «Times are hard ... I have my family to keep.» 5. «You will have to wait until you hear from me again.» (Dreiser) 6. «We've got to go to bed.» 7. «She's not to know about it.» (Fitzgerald) 8. «Hadn't we better put a little bit of stick or something between each word.?» (Kipling) 9. «Doris, I've got something to say to you.»10. «He'd have nothing more to do with the woman and Macomber would get over that too.» (Hemingway) 11. «... under my oath I've got to try to catch the criminal.» (Saroyan) 12. «Shan't we have to risk it?» (C.S.Lewis) 13. «Well, we've got a little business to talk about,» said Boom con­fidently. (W.Jacobs) 14. «All I had to look forward was doing the same old thing day after day.» (Maugham) 15. «How long did you have to stay there?» (F.Cooper) 16. «You don't have to be an alcoholic to hurt your baby; you just have to be drinking enough while pregnant.» (Alcohol, the Legal Drug) 17. «I must write stories and they have to be stories that will sell.» (Salinger) 18. «Bob has to be on duty at the


 




hospital at nine o'clock.» (F.King) 19. «You have to take it .» (Dreiser) 20. «She and Diana, have a lot to arrange together. » 21. «... you've still got to take it easy.» (F.King)

5. Together with the common in both languages modal verbs of generally isomorphic nature there is one that is conspicuous for its usage. This is the synonymous to the modal verb have to English modal verb to be (to) which has some meanings that are realized depending on the form and lexical meaning of the infinitive following it. This modal verb may express obligation or necessity resulting from an arrangement or from a prearranged agreement/plan. The Ukrainian equivalents for these meanings of to be (to) are usually the modal verbs мати/and even повинен, мусити:

a) «Remember, Joe, you are «He забувай, Джо, що ти

to run the laundry according to маєш керувати пральнею
those old rules you used to lay згідно тих старих правил, які
down.» (London) ти сам колись виробив.»

According to the agreement Згідно угоди, комірне

rent was to be paid strictly in ad- (квартплатня) повинне було
vance. (Ibid.) сплачуватись обов'язково

наперед.

When to be (to) expresses the meaning of inevitability of some action or event, it is translated into Ukrainian as the modal verb мати.

«If the thing was to happen, it «Якщо вже це мало скоїтись.

was to happen in this way ...» то воно мало скоїтись саме
(Е. Wharton) так, а не інакше.»

The modal verb to be (to)may also express a meaning corre­sponding to the Ukrainian stative треба:

«It was to be expected,» Mrs. «Цього і треба було чекати».

Mors said gently. (London) - стиха промовила пані Морз.

с) Sometimes the modal meaning of the verb to be (to)is faithfully conveyed by means of the Ukrainian infinitival predicate of the sentence and the strictly logical position of the parts of the sen­tence, as in the rhetorical questions below:

What am I to do now? Що мені тепер робити?

(Maugham)

How was President Kravchuk Як президентові Кравчуку


to have won the re-election? було перемогти на повторних
(F.News) виборах?

d) When expressing order or instruction (usually in reported speech) the modal verb to be (to)is translated into Ukrainian either with the help of the modal verbs бути повинним/мати, or with the help of a subordinate clause respectively. For example:

«You are to stay in bed until «Ви не повинні вставати.

you are allowed to get up.» (Du доки лікар не дозволить» (доки
Maurier) вам не дозволять).

«I'm going to tell him he's not «Я йомускажу, щоб він більш

to come to the house any more.» не приходив»/шоб його ноги не
(W. Jacobs) було біля цього дому.

є) When expressing possibility, the modal verb to be (to)is translated with the help of the modal verbs можна, мати, or with the help of the modal word можливо:

There is a good training to be Там можна пройти гарну

had there. (Dreiser) практику/вишкіл.

... in the basement of the ... у підвальному приміщенні

Diggby Avenue, Congregational на Діґбі Авеню мали відбутися Church, there was to be held а збори конґреґаційної церкви з social with refreshments. (Ibid.) частуванням.

f) When expressing an assumptive or suggested possibility,
the meaning of the modal verb to be (to)is mostly rendered with the
help of a peculiar logical sentence structure. The meaning of the modal
verb to toe(to) in such sentences may have reference either to present
or to future. For example:

«I am to have the priviledge of «Мені випадає щаслива

sitting next to you.» (Maugham) нагода сидіти поруч з вами. »/Я

матиму приємність посидіти поруч з вами.»

g) Somewhat clearer is the reference to future, however, when
the modal verb to be (to) is used in the subjunctive mood as in the
underlined conditional clauses below:

If anything were to happen, it Якби що-небудь мало

would cost me my place all right. скоїтися/(скоїлося). я неодмінно
(Dreiser) втратив би своє місце.


 




If he were to come, he would Якби він мав приїхати, він

certainly have arrived already, би вже напевне приїхав/він був
(S.Sheldon) би вже приїхав.

There may also be other contextual modal meanings of the verb to be (to)in English, which can be ascertained from the sen­tences in the given exercise below.

Exercise I. Translating the sentences into Ukrainian state the meaning of the modal verb to be toin each of them.

1. «Is he to take it that everything is O.K.?» (Salinger) 2.1 was to catch them and hand them over to her. (C.Lewis) 3. «There is only one thing to be done.» (Cronin) 4. We made a list of things to be taken. (J.K.Jerome) 5. «If I were to marry Guilliandum, the Church would never stand for it.» (J.Fowles) 6. But all his meals were to be taken outside his working hours and he was to report promptly in uniform for line-up and inspection by his superior... 7. This daughter of poverty, who was now to fetch and carry the laundry of this citizen, was a creature of a mellowness of temperament. 8. They were to be seen upon the principal streets of Kansas City flitting to and fro like flies. 9.... he was to be held back by any suggestion which his mother could now make. 10. She could give him seventy five dollars cash in hand, the other forty to be paid in one week's time. 11. Anything to be as carefully concealed as possible. 12. ...they were to be turned over to Clyde with the suggestion that he try them. 13. But Clyde, in spite of this honest and well-meant condition, was not to be dissuaded. 14.... there had been a development which was to be effected by this very decision on the part of the Griffiths. 15. And yet, if the problem were on this account to be shifted to him, how would he make out? 16. From this Clyde wondered how long he was to be left in that dim world below the stairs. 17.... there was to be staged on June twentieth the annual intercity automobiling floral parade and contest, which this year was to be held in Lycurgus and which was the last local social affair of any consequence. 18. Plainly, it was an event to be admitted to the presence of such magnificence. (Dreiser) 19. The polling stations were to have been closed at 8 p.m. (News from Ukraine)

6. The modal verb ought to like the modal verb should ex­presses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close


to that of the stative треба or modal verb слід, the modal word потрібно. which can be seen from the following sentences:

«Oh, I've forgotten, I ought to have asked Iris about her cook.» (F.King) He ought never to have given it (the flute) up. (Galswothy) «Every man ought to be mar­ried.» (Hemingway)

«О, а я й забув: я ж мав/ повинен був запитати Айріс про її кухарку.»

Йому нізащо не треба було кидати гру (на флейті).

«Кожному чоловікові слід/ потрібно одружуватись.»

As can be understood from the content of the third sentence, the meaning of ought to may equally be expressed through the modal word необхідно: Кожному чоловікові необхідно or потрібно одружуватись.

b) The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the modal verb ought to. which corresponds to that of the modal verbs повинен, мати, мусити:

« We're going to Greece...» «Ми їдемо до Греції.» «Зараз

«...It ought to be lovely at this time там мусить/повинно бути

of year.» (Maugham) « You ought to know that you can't have to steal.» (J.Cheever)

прекрасно в цю пору року»

«Ти повинен/мусиш знати, що красти не можна.»

с) Apart from the above-mentioned, the modal verb ought to may acquire some other meanings in different contextual environments. These may be as follows:

1) that of the assumptive duty or obligation, necessity, as­sumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles 6/ би, щобand the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:

«You ought to be working now.» (J.Joyce) By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie) I don't think she ought to be in that place alone. (Galsworthy)

«Ти ж повинен би працювати/ мав би бути на роботі зараз.»

На цей час/під цю пору все мало б давно вже скінчитися.

Не думаю (навряд чи), щоб вона була там сама.

2) The conditional subjunctive meaning expressed through the particles б/би and the notional finite verb without the subordinate con­junctions якби or якщо б, as in the following examples:

«You ought to have seen her «Бачили б ви його в її


 




tie he had on.» (Dreiser) краватці»Л~реба було бачити

його...»
«God. You ought to hear «Боже. Чула б ти, що про

Walter on the subject of you.» тебе каже/говорить Волтер.» (Fitzgerald)

3) When ought to expresses desire or affirmation, assump­
tion, its modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian through the modal
adverbs and modal words певне, напевне, мабуть:

«She ought to have been «Вона мабуть/певне no-
thinking
about spending her думує вже про те, як потра-
money on theatres already ...» тити своїгрошіна театр"(на
(Dreiser) відвідування вистав).

«She's said to be very beauti- «Люди, які напевне/мабуть-

ful by people who ought to knowтаки знаються на вроді, кажуть,

(Fitzgerald) що вона дуже вродлива.»

4) The meaning of the modal verb ought to may sometimes be
rendered into Ukrainian through peculiar word forms (mood forms) of
the verbal predicate as in the sen



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