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There are no finally established rules yet as to how different kinds and types of English proper names should be translated into Ukrainian, though Ukrainian proper names of people and family names are mostly conveyed on the basis of their phonemic/orthographic structure, i.e., are transliterated in English. E.g.: Антоніна Antonina; Віра Vira; Лаврін Lavrin; Роман Roman; Авраменко Avramenko; Лавріненко Lavrinenko; Панібрат Panibrat; Іван Ivan; Тамара Tamara; Семен Semen; Петро Petro, Саливон Salyvon, etc.

Far from all Ukrainian proper names can be conveyed by way of literal translating, however. This is because some of our vowels and consonants have no equivalent sounds/phonemes in English and must be substituted for approximately similar sounds. Among these Ukrain­ian sounds and sound combinations are first of all those ones, which are rendered with the help of the letters or letter combinations и, й, ий, ій, я, ю, є, ї, or partly through the letters ж, щ, х, ч, ц and palatalized consonants.

Ukraine as a newly independent state makes efforts to get rid of her former colonial past. One of the ways to assure this internation­ally was the adoption by the Verkhovna Rada of the Romanization System which enabled the conveying of our personal names, family names (onomastics) and also all Ukrainian geographical names (toponymy) in accordance with some rules. Their system practically does not contain diacritics, i.e., different signs over or under the let­ters, like in German, Turkish (6, a), Czech (c,s) or French (c). The only sign of the kind being the sign ' for palatalization (cf. Щербань Shcherban', Львів L'viv) which is not difficult to add to the right top of a letter. This makes the system convenient and assured for direct and unambiguous reconstruction of any Ukrainian name form or word standing for a specifically national notion (реалія). E.g.: kutya or kutia, kobzar, varenyky, etc. The adopted Romanization System will also serve well as an aid to correct pronunciation of Ukrainian proper names by the foreigners, capable of reading the Roman letters, which more or less correctly convey the sounding forms of any Ukrainian name. The adopted Romanization System is internally consistent and based on sound lin­guistic principles. It is to be strictly observed by the students of foreign languages and the people responsible for its absolute implementation in this country and abroad. This is how the system is presented:


Ukrainian Romanization
1.Aa Аа
2. Б б ВЬ
3. В в V/vorW/w
4. Гг Hh
5.ҐҐ Gg
б.Дд Dd
7. Ее Ее
8. Єє Ye ye
9. Ж ж Zhzh
10. Зз Zz
11. И и Yy
12. І і li
13. її Уі/Іі yi/ii
14. Й й Yy
15. Кк Kkch
16. Лл LI
17. Мм M m

A practical realization of this system can be illustrated on many Ukrainian names with the following substitution of Ukrainian letters (and sounds) for the completely, approximately or similarly correspond­ing English letters or letter combinations:

/и/ as у: Кирило Kyrylo, Марина Maryna, Микита Mykyta, Бобрик Bobryk, Бровари Brovary, Бобир Bobyr, Винник Vynnyk, Микитенко Mykytenko, Суми Sumy.

/i/as ii, і oryi. The choice of a letter/letter combination in Eng­lish to Romanize the sound is predetermined by its environment and position in the Ukrainian name/surname. When preceded by a vowel, the sound /j/ is to be conveyed by the letter і (as in «naive»): Заїка Zaika/Zaika, Мисаїл Mysail/Mysa'i'l, Українка Ukrainka, Зінаїда Zinaida/ Zinai'da, Турбаї Turbayi /or Turbaii.

When the Ukrainian letter Ї initiates the proper name/surname, the sound expressed by it has to be conveyed through the yi letter combination: ївга Yivha, їздець Yizdets, їжакевич Yizhakevych.

The voiced /й/ sound is also to be conveyed through the letter у: Йосип Yosyp, ЙовенкоУоуепко, Бойченко Boychenko.

Very often the /й/ sound in Ukrainian is used with the preceding /i/ or /и/ sound. When preceded by the /i/ sound it is conveyed in English as ii or iy: Андрій Andrii/Andriy, Гулій Hulii/Huliy, Гафійка Hafiika/Hafiyka, Матвійчук Matviichuk/Matviychuk, Павлійчук


Pavliichuk/Pavliychuk, etc. When the /й/ sound is preceded by /и/ it is to be conveyed as yi: Горовий Horovyi, Гулий Hulyi, Сірий Siryi, Коломийченко Kolomyichenko, Гнідий Hnidyi.

As to the sounds expressed by the Ukrainian letters я, ю, є they are to be conveyed through the English letter combinations ya, yu, ye respectively or through ia, iu, ie Cf.: ya: Яким Yakym, Ярема Yarema, but: Забіяка Zabiyaka/Zabiiaka, Мусіяка Musiyaka/Musiiaka.

The sound expressed through the Ukrainian letter я in the final position of a word or traditional proper name can sometimes be conveyed in English by the ia rarely ya letter combinations. It is mostly observed in traditional proper names like Марія, Софія, Maria, Sofia, Юлія Yulia, Югославія Yugoslavia, Малазія Malasia, but: Кенія Kenya. Some common in English and Ukrainian proper names and also foreign place names may have йа for the ia letter combinations as well: Maria Марія/Мерайя, Malaya Малайя.

It is common knowledge that present-day English despite the existence of some less hard consonants like the /I/ after the l\l, I'v.l and /ai/ sounds (cf. little, leave, like, controlling, etc.) is practically devoid of palatalization. As a result, all Ukrainian palatalized conso­nants usually obtain a hard pronunciation in English: Альвіна Alvina, Бенедь Bened, Василь Vasyl', Близько Vlyz'ko, Гринь Hryn', Кость Kost'; Кусько Kus'ko, Луцьк Luts'k, Редько Red'ko. In linguistic pa­pers these and the like proper names, however, may have a sign for palatalization ('): Al'vina, Kost', Red'ko, Bened', Vlyz'ko, Luts'k, Lots', Kozlovs'kyi, Koval', Mel'nyk, etc.

As to the Ukrainian consonant phonemes, which have no direct equivalents in the English language, they can mostly be conveyed through analogous English sounds, sometimes formed by different letter combinations. Thus, the Ukrainian /r/ sound is to be conveyed through the similar though not identical voiceless English /h/ phoneme: Гаврило Havrylo, Григір Hryhir, Гайдай Haydai, Григораш Hryhorash, Громак Hromak, Гмиря Hmyrya. This sound is also observed in such nouns/proper names as hobby гоббі, maharajah магараджа, Hyderabad Гайдерабад, Huxley Гакслі, etc.

The Ukrainian /ж/ phoneme is conveyed with the help of the zh letter combination: Жук Zhuk, Жанна Zhanna, Божій Bozhiy, Журавель, Zhuravel', Жуйхліб Zhuikhlib, Женченко Zhenchenko, Журба Zhurba, Неїжмак Neyizhmak, Вражливий Vrazhlyvyi.

The Ukrainian /x/ sound is conveyed in English through the kh letter combination: Лахно Lakhno, Остахів Ostakhiv, Хома Khoma, Химич Khymych, Харків Kharkiv, Ховрах Khovrakh, ОхрімчукОкгігітсгшк.

As to the similar in the Ukrainian and English languages /ч/ sound it may be conveyed in two ways. Traditionally the letter combi­nations chor tchalways were and are still used for the purpose: Качанів Kachaniv, Клочко Klochko/Klotchko, Костюченко Kostyuchenko/Kostiutchenko, Кочур Kochur/Kotchur, Чернушенко Chemushenko/Tchemushenko, Чорний Chornyi/Tchomyi. Though the tch letter combination is less and less often used at present in front and mid position, but often in final psition Корч Kortch.

Recently, however, in accordance with the internationally agreed upon rules (UNESCO) our/ч/ sound in proper nouns is often conveyed via the csign and the /ш/ sound via the ssign: Частій Chastii/Castiy, Черниш Chernysh/Cernys, Кучерявенко Kucheryavenko/ Kuceryavenko, Топчій Topcii/Topchiy, Богач Bohatch/Bohac, Шовкун Shovkun/Sovkun.

Similarly with the Ukrainian /шч/ sound which has no equiva­lent in English. Traditionally it was conveyed in English through the letter combination shch (sh+ch) or sch.Nowadays the sign sc is some­times used for the purpose too. Hence, the Ukrainian proper nouns and especially geographical names and names of public bodies con­taining щ can be conveyed as follows: Щаденко as Shchadenko or Scadenko, Щербак as Shcherbak or Scerbak, Щедрій as Shchedrii or Scedriy, Безпощадний as Bezposhchadnyi or Bezposcadnyi, Верещак as Vereshchak or Verescak, Горщиннийаз Horshchynnyi, Хрущ as Khrushch or Khrusc, Кінщак as Kinshchak or Kinscak, Ющук as Yushchuk or Yuscuk, and also as Yuschuk, Kinschak.

For all other Ukrainian consonant phonemes there are corre­sponding letters and letter combinations in English which convey more or less similar sounds, though they may belong in both the languages to the same articulatory zones (labial, dental, alveolar, etc.). For example, the Ukrainian /6/ and /n/ phonemes are substi­tuted for the English plosives /b/ and /p/: Борис Borys, Бойчук Boitchuk, Петро Petro, Панібудьласка Panibud'laska. The conso­nant phonemes /д/, hi, /н/, /л/, /с/, /ц/ and their palatalized variants /д7, /т7, /н7, /л7, /с7, /ц7 are substituted respectively for the Eng­lish alveolar 161, It/, /n/, /I/, /s/, /ts/, /ts7 though the latter, which is common knowledge to everybody, differ greatly by their articulatory characteristics from the Ukrainian phonemes. Cf: Дорош Dorosh, Ткаченко Tkachenko, Німенко Nimenko, Льольо Lyolyo, Ціпко Tsipko, Цвіркун Ts'virkun, Циба Tsyba, Гороть Horot', Ковальчук Koval'chuk, Гаврись Havrys', etc.

Only approximate similarity can also be observed in most cases


between the Ukrainian /в/ phoneme which is much closer when used in the initial position to the English /w/ than to its traditional substi­tute (in translations from the Ukrainian) /v/ phoneme as in the proper nouns like: Володимир Volodymyr, Вовчок Vovchok, Добривечір Dobryvechir, Убийвовк Ubyivovk. But Віль, of course, must be only Will. Consequently Вовченко, Вареник may also be Wowchenko, Warenyk and Вовчок also Wowchok.

When in the position between two vowels or between a vowel and a palatalized consonant, the Ukrainian /в/ sound somewhat re­sembles the English /v/ phoneme, however: Сиваченко Syvachenko, Винниченко Vynnychenko, Яворівський Yavorivskyi, Швайка Shvaika/ Shwaika, LLlBHflioKShvydiuk/ Shvydyuk.

Undoubtedly the closest to the English consonant phonemes are the Ukrainian /к/, /ґ/ and /з/ phonemes. Cf.: Кавун Kavun, Зінаїда Zinaida, Зайченко Zaichenko, Ґудзій Gudziy/Gudzii. But there are no similar substitutes in English for our palatalized /дз7 sound which will be read by the English native speakers as /dz/ only as in Ґедзь Gedz', Ґудзь Gudz', Дзендзелівський Dzendzelivskyi and others.

There is very little similarity, however, between the Ukrainian vibrant /p/ and the English /r/ phoneme belonging in both these lan­guages to different articulatory zones. Nevertheless the English /r/ is always used in translations of proper names to substitute the Ukrain­ian /p/ and vice versa: Barbara Барбара, Robert Роберт, Rupert Руперт, Роман Roman, Новодворський Novodvors'kyi, Черкасенко Cherkasenko, Григір Hryhir, Рудченко Rudchenko.

The methods of conveying English vowels in Ukrainian are also different. The choice of them and the sphere of their use may be pre­determined by some lingual as well as extralingual factors. These are as follows: a) the position of the phoneme in the English word/proper name; b) the environment of the phoneme; c) the origin of the proper name; d) the tradition (if any) of conveying the name in Ukrainian, when the name is common in the two languages e.g. of Biblical origin e.g.: Elias/i'laias/Cnice^ Elijah, /ГІаісІзз/ Ілля (Ілія).

As to the possible substitutes for similar and divergent English vowel phonemes, some variants may be suggested in Ukrainian for short monophthongs formed at different tongue positions. The most common/traditional substitutes for English short monophthongs in Ukrainian the following vowel phonemes have to be investigated:

/ae/ for /a/ and lei: Angela Анджела/Енджела, Andy Енді/ Анді, Amanda Аманда/Еманда, Patrick Патрік/Петрік, Allison Еллісон, Аллісон;

/Л/ for /а/, /у/ or even /o/: Ulrica Алріка (Ул/ь)ріка, Doug Даґ, Justin Джастін, Sudbury Садбері/Судбері, Ulster Ольстер;

/ / standing in English for any vowel phoneme in unstressed positiorecan be substituted in Ukrainian for the corresponding lettered vowels too: Ada Ада, Alaska Аляска, Virginia Вірджінія, Rebekka Ребекка, Theodore Теодор, Salisbury Солзбері;

/ / for /o/: Dolly Доллі, Olive Олів, Oskar Оскар, Oxford Оксфорд;

/і/for/і/: Iraq Ірак, Isabel Ізабел(а), lsolda/e Ізольда, Islam іслам Missouri Міссурі, Paccadilli Пікаділі;

lei for lei: Ebrington Ебрінґтон, Eckersl(e)y Екерслі, Edinburgh Едінбурґ, Eleonora Елеонора, Ellis Ел(л)іс.

It is common knowledge that either of these sounds may also convey other sounds in seemingly the same sounds environment. Cf.: Iden Айден, Ikey Айкі, or: Ede Ід, Eden Іден, English (family name) ІнґлішогЕнґліш.

Long vowel phonemes in all English proper names like in other words are substituted in Ukrainian for their corresponding short vowel phonemes:

/a:/ for /a/: Art Арт, Bart Варт, Clerke Кларк, Mark Марк, Carnegie Карнеґі, Gaby Ґабі; but Derby/da:bi/Дербі;

/о:/for/о/: Allcorn Олкорн, Aubrey Обрі, Austin Остін, Paola Пола, Cornell Корнелл, Monro(e) Монро;

/u:/ and sometimes /ju:/ for /у/ю/: Cooper Kynep, Judy Джуді, Muriel М'юріел(ь), Oona Уна, Ouse p. Уз, Hecuba Гекуба, Purim Пюрім, Rubens Рубенс, UniatУніат, UNESCO ЮНЕСКО;

/i:/for/i/: Aberdeen Абердін, Celia Сілія, Easton Істон, Eton Ітон, Deakin Дікін, Edie їді, Dundee Данді;

/ :/ for lei or even for III: Earl Ерл, Herbert Герберт, Irvin Ервін/ Ірвін; bat: Pearl Harbor Перл-Гарбор/Пірл-Гарбор, Burton Бертон, Burma Бірма, Bert Берт, Burch Берч.

English diphthongs are usually substituted for corresponding Ukrainian vowel combinations, though not without exceptions:

/ai/ for /ай/: Brighton Брайтон, Idaho Айдаго, Ike Айк, Mike Майк, Pyke Пайк; but Miami Маямі;

/au/for/ay/: Down Даун, Howard Гауерд/Говард, Howell Гауел, Mowgli Мауґлі;

/ei/for/ей/, /a/: Ada Ейда, Mabel Мейбл, Mamei Меймі, Pais­ley Пейзлі;

/ і/ for /ой/: Croydon Кройдон, Joyce Джойс, Roy Рой but: Troy Тргоя, Тоуе Той;


/ u/ for /oy/: Mo Moy, Owen Оуен, Rose Роуз, Snow Сноу, Sofia(Balgaria) Софія.

Several English proper names containing the diphthong /ou/ have no /oy/ substitution for it in Ukrainian, however: Bruno Бруно, Buffalo Буффало, Toronto Торонто, Longfellow Лонгфелло, Рое По, Sophia Софія but Snow Сноу, TowcesterToycTep;

/є / is substituted for lei or /a/: Ayrshire Ершір, Dataware Делаваф Fairbanks м.Фербенкс, Gary м. Ґері, but: Ontario Онтаріо, Bulgaria Болгарія;

/і /for/і/, /ей/, /ія/: Cheeryble Чірибл, Madeira о-в Мадейра, Nigeria (Нігерія, Victoria Вікторія, Virginia Вірджінія, Julia Джулія, Juliet Джуліет.

It is not always easy to select appropriate Ukrainian substi­tutes for some English consonant phonemes either. That is partly because some consonants may realize their meanings depending on their environment or position in the word (proper name). Besides, the selections of a substitute for an English consonant phoneme may sometimes be predetermined in Ukrainian by the established tradition: so /6/ is substituted for /т/, /д/ or the sound /з/: Carmarthenshire Кармартеншір, Caruthers Карудерс/Карузерс, Brothers Бразерс;

/Є/ for hi or Id sometimes /ф/ (in Greek names): Bath м. Бат, Faith Феіт/Феіс, Dartmouth Дартмут, but: Athos Афон, Carthage Карфаґен/Картаґен, Korinth КоринфКоринт.

/ті/ for /нгУ: Arlington Арлінґтон, Bundung Бандунґ, sterling стерлінг", Darlington Дарлінґтон, Long Лонґ, Goulding Ґоулдінґ, Springpark Спрінґпарк;

/тік/ for /нк/: Bronx Бронкс, Sinclair Сінклер, Sprink Спрінк, Winkie Вінкі;

/l/for/л/ог/л'/: Larry Ла/еррі, Lotta Лотта, Noll Нолл, Percival Персівал(ь), Charles Чарлз/Чарльз, William Вільям, Clinton Клінтон, UnderhillAHfleprin.

Some componental phonemes may have traditionally estab­lished substitution in separate nouns. Thus,

/w/ may be /в/ or /y/: Washington Вашингтон, Wales Уельс, Westminster Вестмінстер, Wilde Вайльд, Bowyear Бов'єр, Bristow Брістоу, Shaw Шоу, Snow Сноу, Mark Twain МаркТвен.

When used in various combinations, these and other English vowel and consonant phonemes are mostly conveyed in Ukrainian in accordance with the above-given reading rules. As a result, English proper names are either transcribed or transliterated (or partly

transcribed and partly transliterated) in Ukrainian. Mostly transcribed are names/surnames containing specific English vowel phonemes which are usually formed by different sound/letter combinations: Abe Ейб, АІІееп Ейлін, Bab Беб, СпаипсеуЧонсі, DwightflBanT, Eli Ілай, Lewie Луї/Льюї, Queenie Квіні, Raiph Рейф, Russel Расл, Theobald Тіобольд/Теобальд, Uriah Юрайя/Урія.

Irrespective of the considerable divergences existing between the phonemic systems of the two languages, a number of English proper names are rendered into Ukrainian by way of transliteration only: Barbara Барбара, Norman Норман, Rita Ріта, Tristram Трістрам, Victor Віктор, Adams Адамс, Barker Баркер, Collins Коллінс/з, Clark Кларк, Cronin Кронін, Wilson Вілсон or Вільсон, Nelson Нельсон, Robert Frost Роберт Фрост etc.

A few English proper names are transliterated with the omis­sion or addition of a letter or two in Ukrainian. This kind of rendering becomes necessary when dealing with specifically English spelling forms of proper names and to avoid the violation of the traditionally established spelling rules of the Ukrainian language: McDonald Макдональд, Macintosh Макінтош, McEnroe Макенро, Dinah Діна, Jupiter Юпітер, Judah Юда, Longfellow Лонгфелло, Williamson Вільямсон.

Some other English proper names of people and geographical names are rendered into Ukrainian partly through transcription: Brooking Брукінґ, Huntington Гантінгтон, Liverpool Ліверпуль, Newton Ньютон, Jackson Джексон, Aberdeen Абердін, Melbourne Мельбурн, Valentine Валентайн.

Besides, the exactitude of conveying English proper names in Ukrainian may be predetermined by some lingual and extralingual (actors. The main of them are: absence in Ukrainian of corresponding phonemes and orthographic means to substitute some particular English sounds/letter combinations or the established tradition ac­cording to which some names are translated. It can already be seen on the following examples: Thome Торн, Ethan Ітан, Faith Фейс/Фейт, Fitzclarence Фіцкларенс, Graham Гре(йе)м, Galsworthy Ґолсуорсі, Goorka Ґурка, Hugon Гюґон, Hutchinson Гачінсон/Гатчінсон, Ptolemy Птоломей, Whistler Віс(т)лер, Wriothesley Райетслі, and sevral others.

The bulk of all other English proper names, however, are also rendered into Ukrainian with the help of phonetical/phonological level units, i.e., either transcribed or transliterated. The degree of exacti­tude of their rendering depends on the existence/non-existence of


appropriate or similar sounds in the target language. Care should be taken in order to avoid the influence of both the lingual and extralingual factors. For example, the well-known names as Adam, David can be translated into Ukrainian as Адам and Давид (Biblical or historical) or as Едем and Девід (common people's names). Similarly with Matthew, Paul, Rachel and some others which can be correspond­ingly rendered either as Матфей/Матвій, Павло, Рахіль or as Метью, Пол, Ре(й)чел, Pope John Paul II Папа Іван Павло Другий, etc.

Mostly translated, however, are the names of kings, queens, princes, princesses, tsars and tsarinas. These exceptions from the general rule are observed in the following names: King Charles/George, Henry Король Карл/Георг, Генріх; Queen Elisabeth/Mary Stewart королева Єлизавета/Марія Стюарт; King James I (John, William) король Яків І (Іоанн, Вільгельм); Princess Ann/Margaret принцеса Анна/Марґарита; Prince Charles (Arthur, Philip, George) of Wales. Цар Олексадр/Микола/Павло Tsar Alexander/Nicolas/Paul.

Among the names of kings, queens, tsars, etc. are also some which are transliterated in the target language. These are mostly peculiar national names with no corresponding equivalents in other languages: King Horn король Горн; Prince Robert принц Роберт; цар Борис/Іван Tsar Boris/Ivan; король Болеслав King Boleslav, князь Мстислав Prince Mstyslav.

Nicknames of people are almost always translated irrespective of the language they come from: King Charles the Great король Карл Великий; King Edward the Confessor король Едуард Сповідник; King Richard the Lionheart/Lionhearted король Річард Левине Серце; Prince William of Orange принц Вільгельм Оранський; князь Мстислав/Святослав Хоробрий Prince Mstyslav/Svyatoslavthe Brave; князь Ярослав Мудрий Prince Yaroslav the Wise; цар Василь Темний Tsar Basil the Blind; цар Іван Грозний Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Contrary to this rule is the wrong translation in our mass media of Prince Charles of Wales as принц Чарльз, instead of принц Карл (according to the historically established tradition) for translating the names of kings and princes.

Indian chiefs' names and family names of American Indians, which became known mainly from J.F.Cooper's novels are translated, as a rule, too: (the) Arrowhead Гостряк Стріли; Dew of June, Червнева Роса; Chingachgook the Big Serpent Чінґачґук Великий Змій; the Deerslayer (the Pathfinger) Звіробій (Знайдислід, «Слідопит»); the Leather Stocking, Hawk's Eye Шкіряна Панчоха, Соколине Око; John

Running Deer, Джон Бистроногий Олень; Pete Brown Feather, Піт Руда Пір'їна. But: князь Осмомисл Prince Osmomysl, Олександр Невський Alexander Nevskii.

The so-called generalizing or characterizing names used by many authors in their belles-lettres works to point out some determi­nant (usually negative) feature of their characters are mostly not trans­lated but only transcribed or transliterated. Such are the characters, for example, from Ch. Dickens' works: Mrs. Porkenham (cf. pork and hem ласа/любителька добре поїсти, гурманка, пані Поркенгем); Doctor Slammer (cf. to slam the door грюкати/грюкнути дверима іііклр Слеммер); Tracy Tupman (cf. tup-male sheep, ram баран, і уі іоголовий) Трейсі Тапмен; Nathaniel Winkle (cf. winkle sea snail used as food) морський равлик Натаніель Вінкель; Miss Witherfield (cf. wither, fade) в'янути, сохнути (в'януча стара діва) is simply Міс Візерфільд/Візерфілд.

Some nicknames of this kind may naturally be translated, es­pecially when used in humorous stories as, for instance, in Stephan Leacock's Guide the Gimlet of Ghent: A Romance of Chivalry: Carlo the Corkscrew Карло Штопор, Beowulf the Bradawl Беовульф Шило, Conrad the Coconut Конрад Кокосовий Горіх. But: Mrs. Afterthought місіс Афтерсот and not пані Розумна Заднім Розумом.

It must be emphasized that in recent decades there has been a general tendency in translation practice to transcribe or transliterate foreign proper names and not to translate them. In conformity with the tendency some proper names of people and place names which had hitherto been translated are now transcribed or transliterated. So Michael Faraday is no more Михайло Фарадей but Майкл Фарадей; George Washington is Джорж (and not Георг) Вашінгтон; Alessandro Volta is no more Олександр but Алессандро Вольта; Salt Lake City Is no more місто Солоного Озера but місто Солт Лейк-Сіті; Leicester ■ПСІ Worcester are no more Лейсестер and Ворчестер but Лестер nnd Вустер; Hull is no more Ґуль but Галл, etc. This tendency should . il:.(> be observed when dealing with some other proper names, including | и н «iraphical ones. The latter, as may have been noticed, are conveyed in Ukrainian/English in the same way as the proper names of people, I.e., they are traditionally transliterated or transcribed: Arkansas Л| ж; інзас (ріка) but Аркенсо (штат США); Belfast/Chicago Белфаст/ ' Іик, іго, Dublin/Ottawa Дублін/Оттава, San-Francisco Сан-Франциско, І if іхмач Bakhmach, Бровари Brovary, Горлівка Horlivka, Ізмаїл/Канів Ismail/Kaniv, Лисянка Lysianka/Lysyanka, Суми Sumy, etc.


A considerable number of English geographical names are also rendered into Ukrainian by way of transcription only: Buckingham­shire Бакінгемшир, Capetown/Ohio Кейптаун/Огайо, Dashwood Дешвуд, Dundee Данді, Freetown Фрітаун, Newfoundland Ньюфаундленд, Seattle Сіетл, Sutherland Сазерленд, Greenfield Ґрінфілд, Hull Галл, Leeds Лідс.

Many English place names, along with other geographical and proper names, are conveyed in Ukrainian partly with the help of tran­scription and partly via transliteration. This can be observed in the two-syllable names in the examples below. The first (1) group of the geographical names has the initial syllables transliterated and the closing syllables transcribed, whereas the second group (2) contains geographical names with the initial syllables transcribed and the closing syllables transliterated:

(1) (2)


Kingstown Бірмінгем Brighton Брайтон

Midway Кінґстаун Greensboro Ґрінзборо

Sheffield Мідвей Houston Гюстон

Шеффілд Wyoming Вайоминґ (штат США)

A few geographical names and some proper names of people have a traditionally established orthographical form which does not reflect in any way their pronunciation or their real orthographic form in the English language: the Arctic Ocean Північний Льодовитий океан; Maine Мен (штат США); Mexico Мехіко; New Orleans Новий Орлеан; Ulster Ольстер; Texas Texac (штат США), Lake Superior Озеро Верхнє.

Names of seas, oceans, bays, archipelagos, isthmuses, straits, channels, administrative territories and compound names of coun­tries having the structure of word-combinations are always translated: the Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean Атлантичний/Тихий/Індійський океан; the Grampians (Appalachians) Грампіанські (Аппалацькі) гори; the Gulf of Mexico (Salonika) Мексиканська (Салонікська) затока; the Isthmus of Suez/Panama Суецький (Панамський) перешийок; New South Wales Новий Південний Уельс (Австралія); Strait of Magellan/Gibraltar Маґелланова/Ґібралтарська протока; Карпати/ Карпатські гори the Carpathians/Carpathian Mts.); Закарпаття Transcarpathia (Transcarpathian Region of Ukraine); Краснодарський/ Ставропольський край Krasnodar/Stavropol Territory; Південо-український зрошувальний канал the South Ukrainian Irrigation Canal; Азовське/Каспійське море Sea of Azov, the Caspian Sea; Керченська

І Іршока/Карські Ворота Strait of Kerch/Kara Strait; Курільські/ і Іркнейські о-ви Kuril(e) Islands/Orkney Islands, Stratford-on-Avon і і ратфорд-на-Ейвоні, Ростов-на-Дону Rostov-on-Don.

The geographical names formed on the basis of common nouns which acquired the status of proper names are generally translated (Tom English into Ukrainian and vice versa: Cape of Good Hope/Cape M. iv мис Доброї Надії/мис Кейп-Мей, Cape Verde Islands о-ви Зеле­ної о Мису; Golden Gate Золоті Ворота (протока поблизу м.Сан-Франциско); Grand Bank(s) Велика Мілина (поблизу о-ва Ньюфаундленд); Great Slave Lake Велике Невільничне озеро; Ni и them Highlands Північно-Шотландське нагір'я; the Rocky Moun-I. uns/the Appalachians Скелясті гори/Аппалачі/Аппалацькі гори.

Still other geographical names having single word and word-11H nhination structures require some identifying element in the target language (an appositional noun, an adjective, etc.). These elements explain the nature and the real meaning of the geographical name in the l.irget language: the Azores/the Seychelles Азорські/Сейшельські її ми; Idaho Falls місто Айдаго-Фолз; New England Нова Англія, M.nne штат Мен, Massachusetts штат Массачузетс, Connecticut штат КоннектІка(у)т, Rhode Island (штат) Род-Айленд, Vermont штат Вермонт; Saint Vincent/Saint Helena Island о-ви Сент-Вінсент/Святої < Гієни; the Saint Lawrence p. Святого Лаврентія; Sutherland і . і»;рленд (графство Шотландії); Буг/Десна/Рось the Buh/the Desna/ theRos' (rivers in Ukraine); Верховина Verkhovyna (in Ukrainian Carpathians); Донбас Donets Basin/Donets coal field(s); Поділ Podil (lower part of Kyiv city, a city district); Херсонщина/Львівщина/ Полтавщина Kherson/Lviv/Poltava region/ now more often oblast.

Foreign geographical names as well as many proper names of poople are often reproduced in English not in the spelling form of the lOlirce language but in the traditionally established spelling form of її и • larget language: Аахен (Germ. Aachen) Aix-la-Chapelle; Антверпен (Flemish Antwerpen) Antwerp; Варшава (Pol. Warszawa) Warsaw; Венеція (Ital. Venezia) Venice; Вогняна Земля (Span.) Tierra del і і її 'і)о; Гаага (Dutch den Haag) the Hague; Генуя (Ital. Genova) Genoa; Італія (Ital. Italia) Italy; Кельн (Germ. Koln) Cologne; Ліворно (Ital. I ivorno) Leghorn; Лотарінгія (Fr. Lorraine) Lorraine; Майнц (Germ. M.nnz) Mayence; Maas (Germ. Maas) Meuse; Мюнхен (Germ. Munchen) Munich.

Ukrainian geographical names should be translated into Eng­lish as close to their source language form as possible unless other of


their forms are historically or traditionally established: Ананьїв Ananiiv/ Ananyiv; Богуслав Bohuslav; Виноград Vynohrad; Моринці Moryntsi; Запоріжжя Zaporizhia/Zaporizhya; Кам'яний Брід Kamianyi/Kamyanyi Brid; Жуляни Zhuliany/Zhulyany; Чернігів Chemihiv; Щигри Shchyhry or Scyhry; Київ/Одеса Kyiv/Odesa; Хутір Михайлівський Khutir Mykhailivskyi.

The students must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms/variants too: Кольський півострів Kola Peninsula, Ладозьке озеро Ladoga, Онезьке озеро Onega, Мала Азія Asia Minor, Середня Азія Central Asia, Неаполь (It. Napoli) Naples, Hebrides Гібриди/Гібридські острови (also Western Isles), etc.

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