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The choice of the method and means for translating English participial constructions into Ukrainian is predetermined by the gen­eral implicit and dependent explicit meanings of the participle itself. These meanings reflect the lexico-grammatical nature of the partici­ple as a verbal. Namely: 1) its voice, tense, and aspect distinctions; 2) its lexical and grammatical meanings; 3) its functions in English and Ukrainian word-groups and sentences.

A peculiar feature of Ukrainian is the restricted use of both the preposed and postposed (to nouns) attributive present participles. As a result it is not always possible to translate English VingN or NV pattern word-groups with the help of these same structural types от word-groups in Ukrainian. Especially when the participles originate from the verbs of motion, due to which the word-groups are translated into Ukrainian mostly with the help of attributive subordinate clauses. For example:

The house was alive with ... Будинок наповнювали го-

running voices. (Mansfield) лоси..., шолунали повсюди.

This present participle may also be translated with the help of the semantically equivalent adjective лункий or even with the help of the verb лунали: Будинок сповнювався звідусіль лункими голосами/ У будинку повсюди лунали голоси.

This same way of translation is employed when conveying the meaning of English word-groups with postpositive attributive present participles whose equivalents in Ukrainian are attributive subordinate clauses:

In the night, going slowly along Уночі, відходячи запрудже-

the crowded roads we passed ними дорогами, ми бачили
troops marching under the rain, військові частини, шо крокува-
guns. horses
, pulling wagons, ли під дошем. гармати, коні,
, motor trucks, all moving що тягли вози, мули, ванта-
from the front. (Hemingway) жівки, які всі відступали з


As can be seen, the postpositive present participles in the sentence above are all translated with the help of attributive subordi­nate clauses: troops marching under the rain- військові частини, що/які крокували під дощем; horses, pulling wagons- коні, що


тягли вози; motor trucks, all moving from the front- вантажівки, що всі відступали з фронту.

The last word-group, naturally, can also be translated with the help of the finite verb: motor trucks, all moving from the front- всі

/вони/ відступали з фронту.

There exist some exceptions, however, when attributive present participles are translated with the help of Ukrainian equivalents of the same nature, even though they originate from the verbs of motion:

«I think the whole turning point «Думаю, що причиною

in my life was that a wful Trenchard цього поворотного пункту в
boy...» (Cheever) моєму житті був той

жахливий тип Тренчард.»

There came a rushing clatter Раптом залунали, наро-

of footsteps. (Steinbeck) стаючи, кроки полісменів.

The VingNP pattern of the Ukrainian word-group in the above-given sentence, though grammatically/structurally acceptable, can have some other faithful variants, which are more typical for Ukrain­ian. These are two:

1) the subordinate clause: Почулось, як загупотіли, наближаючись, кроки полісменів;

2) a construction with a diyepryslivnyk: Почулось, як загупотіли, наближаючись, кроки полісменів.

English attributive past participles, on the other hand, are mostly translated into Ukrainian with the help of their morphological, lexical, and functional equivalents, e.g., past participles. This makes no prob­lems in the choice of Ukrainian faithful equivalents for English attribu­tive word-groups of this type. For example:

«... many disappointed hearts « ... не одна розчарована

still wonder why Coleman never душа й досі дивується, чому
married. (W.Maken) Колеман не одружився.

Her face... with swollen eyes її обличчя ... з підпухлими

and swollen lips looked terrible, очима та розпухлими губами
(Mansfield) мало жахливий вигляд.

They came to a deserted Вони прийшли до поки-

store. (Ibid.) ну тої/залишеної комори.

All round lay the black night. Довкола все накрила темна

speckled and spangled with ніч, усіяна мерехтливими
. (Lawrence) зірками-світлячками.

English predicative participle» may sometimes undergo, when being translated into Ukrainian, a morphological/structural transfor­mation and turn into a finite form of the verb, i.e., into a simple verbal predicate:

..he went out to Chancery Lane, buying a paper on his way. (Galsworthy) The weather looked settled. (Ibid.) Sunshine came spilling upon us. (Cronin)

...він вийшов у провулок Чансері Лейн і по дорозі купив газету/купивши по дорозі га­зету.

Настала, здавалось, по­года.

Сонце залило нас своїм промінням.

The compound predicates with component participles (looked, settled, came spilling)have for their equivalents respectively simple verbal predicates настала (погода), нас сонце осяяло.

The English past participle used as part of a compound verbal/ nominal predicate may often be translated with the help of perfective and non-perfective verbs. The latter, depending on the meaning of participles, may be personal or non-personal:

What is done can not be urt Що зроблено, те зробле-

done. (Proverb) ho.(Що з воза впало, те про-

The street was deserted. Вулиця спорожніла (була

(Snow) безлюдна).

When used in an adverbial function, the English indefinite and perfect participles have mostly diyepryslivnyks for their semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian:

Reading the works of men, who had arrived, he noted every result achieved by them. (London) Having gained her degree, she was doing no more reading. (Ibid.)

Читаючи твори авторів, що досягни успіху, він схоп­лював усі особливості їхнього стилю.

Отримавши вчений

ступінь, вона вже не відводила стільки часу на читання.

The perfect participle, naturally, can be translated in the last sentence by means of a paraphrase: Після отримання/Після того, як вона отримала вчений ступінь ...

Some present participles with the implicit predicative meaning

and function may be rendered into Ukrainian either with the help of a corresponding diyepryslivnyk or with the help of a finite verb (simple verbal predicate):

Then he cut chemistry from Потім він викреслив із

the list, retaining only physics, списку хімію, залишивши
(Ibid.) тільки фізику.

Instead of the diyepryslivnyk, like in the example above, the finite form of the verb may also be used in Ukrainian here: Потім він викреслив із списку хімію і залишив тільки фізику.

In some sentences the translator may have difficulties while choosing in Ukrainian the language unit or its particular form for the English participle. This is because of the existence of some ways of conveying their meaning: a) with the help of a simple verbal predicate or b) with the help of the diyepryslivnyk. For example:

When shaving,or dressing,or combinghis hair, he conned these lists (of words) over. (London)

Коли він голився, одягався or: Голячись, одягаючись чи
чи розчісувався, він усе зубрив розчісуючись, він усе зубрив
ці слова. ці слова.

When translating English passive participles (predicative con­structions with them) preference is given, however, to diyepryslivnyks:

Ashamed of our stupidity, she Вражена нашою нетяму-

murmured: «Of course, of щістю, вона промимрила:
course.» (Leacock) «Авжеж, авжеж».

«I am going the same day my- «Затримавшись тут два

self having been detained here дні через повінь, я тепер і сам two days by the flood. (Goldsmith) поїду звідси в цей самий день.

Some other faithful variants of translating participles and parti­cipial constructions are not excluded either, which is predetermined by the factors already mentioned above.

Exercise V. Choose an appropriate Ukrainian equivalent for each English present/past participle first and then suggest a faithful translation of the following sentences:

1. The barking dog increased his tempo. (Steinbeck) 2. Dr. Maephal looked at the falling rain. (Maugham) 3. He heard the soft snow falling from a branch. (Hemingway) 4. A few early fallen oak-leaves strewed the terrace already... (Galsworthy) 5. Along the unpaved

roads there were a few little houses-... (Steinbeck) 6. Here was a woman sitting before the fire. 7. Wherever you looked, there were couples strolling, bending to the flowers, greeting, moving on over the lawn. 8. She found herself in a wretched little low kitchen lighted by a small lamp. (Mansfield) 9. She was in their bedroom sitting by the window. (Cheever) 10. A cold wind swept the pavement, bearing a scrap of silver paper from a chocolate box across the lamp-light. (G.Greene) 11. He was in an ecstasy, dreaming dreams and recon­structing the scene just past. 12. So Martin went on into a thorough study of evolution, mastering the subject more and more himself and being convinced by the corroborative testimony of a thousand inde­pendent writers. (London) 13. Having shaken himself free from his old companions and old ways of life, and having no new companions, nothing remained for him but to read. 14. Maria, having heard his groans through the thin partition, came into his room, to put hot flat-irons against his body and damp cloths upon his aching eyes. 15. ... being unused to such appraisements, he did not know how to value it. 16. But she, who knew little of the world of men, being a woman was keenly aware of his burning eyes. 17. He halted, with a laugh, and turned, facing them. (London) 18. The street was full of people, laughing and going home. (Greene) 19. Wishing him to finish the work in time, Andrew decided to ask Chris to help him. (Cronin)

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