The combinability of English and Ukrainian statives is characterized



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The combinability of English and Ukrainian statives is characterized



By both isomorphism and allomorphism. Isomorphic are the following

patterns of statival word-groups in English and Ukrainian:

Stative + Vinf.: afraid to answer; треба працювати.

St. + prep. + N: ashamed of the deed / step; соромно за хлопця.

St. + prep. + I: afraid of this / of everything; соромно за неї / за всіх. St. + prep. + Q: afraid of the two / three; треба для / на двох.Pertaining to English only is the combinability of statives with the gerund(cf. afraid of answering, ashamed of having said that ).

Far from common are the functions of statives in the sentence where they can

be, in both English and Ukrainian: a) as predicative : “Ruth was aghast “.

(London ) І все-таки було тоскно … на серці. ( Гончар ); b) as simple

nominal predicate: He, afraid ? Мені їх не шкода, мені їх не жаль. (Шевченко)

Divergent is the function of the attribute, typical of English only ( the child

asleep, the house ablaze).

 

Semantic groups of modal words/phrases in English and Ukrainian, and their origin

The lexical units belonging to this part of speech are characterized in both

languages by their meaning of “modality “. They are used to express the speaker’s

judgement concerning the action in the sentence. These words / phrases in English

and Ukrainian are as follows: certainly, indeed, maybe, perhaps, possibly,

probably, of course, no doubt - певне, непевне, звичайно, може, можливо,

безумовно, безсум-нівно та ін.

Modals are traditionally classified as follows:

1. Modal words / phrases expressing various shades of certainty: certainly, of

course, surely, no doubt, assuredly, indeed, undoubtedly, really - певне, напевне,звичайно, безсумнівно, безперечно, безумовно, зрозуміло, правда:

“ Yes, certainly they ( pigeons ) will Так, звичайно, вони ( голуби )

fly “. ( Hemingway ) повилітають.

2. Modal words expressing various degrees of probability: maybe, perhaps,

possibly, probably - може, можливо, мабуть, ймовірно, видно, здається.

“Maybe it was all a lie…”. (Steinbeck) Може,все це була неправда.

3. Modal words expressing various shades of desirability: happily, fortunately,

unfortunately, which have a restricted number of direct semantic equivalents in

Ukrainian (на щастя, на жаль).“Fortunately, it didn’t come true “. На щастя, це не здійснилося.(Jacobs)

4. Modal words expressing doubt, uncertainty and coinciding in form with the

modal words denoting probability : maybe, perhaps, probably - може, можливо,мабуть.

Maybe it’s not yet time…? (Cald- Може, ще не настав час? well)

The subjective and objective attitude of the speaker towards the action may

often be expressed by several other parenthetic words and phrases which may

point:

a) to the authorship of the idea / assertion expressed in the sentence, eg.: they say,

as reported, in my view, to my mind, I think - кажуть, як повідомляють, на мою

думку, як говориться тощо; b) words and phrases expressing an estimation of the idea expressed in the sentence, eg: shortly speaking, generally speaking, in a word, - коротко кажучи, відверто кажучи, одне слово, etc. ; c) words pointing to the order or succession of ideas expressed in the sentence, eg: firstly, secondly, on the contrary - по-перше, по-друге, навпаки, etc.

One more common feature of modals in the contrasted languages is their

positi-on in the sentence. Most of them may occupy any position according to the

emphasis they are given by the author / speaker. Cf. Perhaps he will come. He will

perhaps come. He will come perhaps. (Можливо, він прийде; він, можливо,прийде; він прийде, можливо ).

Modals may also be used in both contrasted languages as elliptical answer

sentences, eg:Maybe it was all a lie… “ “Мабуть, усе то була брехня…” “ Maybe”. (Steinbeck ) “Можливо”.

 

Isomorphism and allomorphism in the structural forms and types of word-groups of the contrasted languages

The word-group in both contrasted languages consists of two or more

grammatically connected notional parts of speech expressing some content. Wordgroups

in English and Ukrainian may be free or idiomatically bound (constant), eg;

1) to learn much, to learn hard, to learn quickly, etc; 2) to have dinner/supper, to

have a lesson, etc.

Common features are observed in the structural forms of word-groups. They

are:

1. Simple or elemental word-groups which consist of two components

connected synthetically or analytically: this book - these books; to read well;

people of rank; ця книжка - ці книжки, читати добре, вийти з метро.

2. Equally common are word-groups of complicated structure and

grammatical form, eg: writing and reading letters (co-ordinate and analytical), to

see Mike driving a car (analytical and predicative) - ці книжки та журнали, бачити когось у метро.

There are also structurally more complicated word-groups in both languages,

eg: those long sentences for you to analyze and translate - ті довгі речення длятебе для аналізу й перекладу.

However, there exist no quantitative correlation in the means of

grammatically connection of constituents in English and in Ukrainian wordgroups.

Since present-day English is mainly analytical in structure, the principal

means of its grammatical connection are naturally analytical. They are syndetic

(prepositional) and asyndetic. These two forms of analytical connection are very

often of equal relevance, eg:

Syndetic connection Asyndetic connection

books for home reading home-reading books

production of suger cane suger cane production

books at the institute library the institute library books

In Ukrainian, with its mostly declinable nominal parts of speech, nouns,

adjectives, numerals, pronouns and particles, which when used as adjuncts, mostly

agree with the head word in number, case and gender, eg: рання весна – ранньої

весни – ранній весні – ранньою весною.

Type of syntactic connection in English in Ukrainian

1. Synthetic connection

(agreement and government) less common dominant

2. Analytical connection (syndetic and asyndetic) dominant less common

Pertaining to English only are substantival word-groups of the NN, NNN,

etc. Patterns like cotton yarn, cotton yarn production, cotton yarn production

figures; Kyiv street traffic, Kyiv street traffic violations, etc.

Types of Word-Groups. Co-Ordinate Word- Groups

According to the existing interrelations between their immediate

components all word-groups in the contrasted languages split into 1) co-ordinate,

2) subordinate, and 3) predicative.

Co-ordinate word-groupsin English and Ukrainian are formed from

components equal in rank connected syndetically or asyndetically: books and

magazines; to read, translate and retell; книжки й журнали; читати, перекладати й переказувати.

According to the structure of the components and their number, co-ordinate

word-groups may be elemental and enlarged. Elemental word-groups consist of

two components only, eg: he and she, all but me; він і вона, всі крім мене.

Enlarged co-ordinate word-groups consist of structurally more complicated

components: to read the text , to analyze stylistically and translate it – читати текст, аналізувати його стилістично й перекладати його.

SubordinateWord-Groups

Subordinate word-groups in all languages consist of a head component, and

one or more adjuncts/complements. They may be either a single notional word or a

group of words, eg: my pen, her father and mother, take part in the conference,

bad for you.

According to the morphological classification, the following seven

common paradigmatic classes of word-groups are singled out in English and in

Ukrainian:

1. Substantival Word-Groups, in which the mainly attributive adjuncts may

be in pre-position or in post-position to the noun head. Their way if connection is

mainly analytical in English and synthetic in Ukrainian, eg.: street traffic rules –

гра оркестру телестудії; last spring football matches – період розпаду ядер

урану; rays of hope – вісті з полів.

2. Verbal word-Groups are: 1) with simple objective or adverbial

complements; 2) with extended or expanded complements; 3) with simple or

extended/expanded objective and adverbial complements.

Simple unextended word-groups with the transitive verbal head take

nominal and adverbial complements/adjuncts. Their patterns are common in

English and Ukrainian. Cf., to receive five, to love him, to love truly; отримати

п’ятірку, кохати його, щиро любити. Common are also prepositional

complements in verbal word-groups: to speak of somebody, to divide by two;

говорити про когось, ділити на два.

Extended and expanded complements have mainly common structural

patterns in the contrasted languages, eg: to like to play the piano – любити

пограти на піаніно; to like to read and to translate the English texts – любити

читати і перекладати англійські тексти.

3. Adjectival Word-Groups have a much smaller number (and varieties) of

structural models, eg: simply beautiful, glad to hear, best of all, good for you, so

very unusual, very nice for boys; просто гарний, радий чути, кращий за всіх,

зручний для нас, аж надто важкий, аж надто гарний для хлопців.

Pertaining to English only are adjectival word-groups with gerundial

complements, eg: worth reading (the book), proud of his having being invited, etc.

Ukrainian adjectival word-groups have free location of most of adjuncts

which is absolutely impossible in English. Cf. дуже добра - добра дуже, значно

молодший за мене - за мене молодший. Ukrainian head adjectives express the morphological categories of number, case and gender which is impossible in English. Cf. гарний зовні, гарна зовні, гарні; гарної зовні, гарною зовні.

4. In Pronominal Word-Groups most often the heads are indefinite, negative

and demonstrative pronouns. The most common adjuncts are pronoun,

prepositional nouns, adjectives, infinitives, verbal word-groups and subordinate

clauses, eg: he himself, something new, much to do, poor me, many of the workers,

some of them, nothing for him to say; він сам, щось нове, щось робити, бідний я, дехто з учнів, нічого для неї передавати.

The usual place of these adjuncts is post-position, though in Ukrainian they

may be used in pre-position as well. Also Ukrainian pronouns are all declinable,

eg: ми всі, нас усіх, нам усім, нами всім, etc. Ukrainian pronominal word-groups

have free word order which is never possible in English. Cf. щось нове – нове щось, нічого казати – казати нічого, etc.

5. Though some grammarians avoid even mentioning the Numerical Word-

Groups,their existence in English and Ukrainian can not be denied. The most

common adjuncts are prepositional nouns, pronouns, adjectives, infinitives,

subordinate clauses, eg: two of the pupils, the firs to come, two of the workers who

were absent; двоє з групи, перший співати; двоє з робітників, що не були

присутні.

6. Adverbial Word-Groups in the contrasted languages can be headed by

adverbs or by adverbial phrases. The adjuncts may be expressed by adverbs or by

adverbial phrases, eg: terribly well, late that evening, earlier than he could think

of; страшно добре, пізніше того вечора, раніше, ніж він міг подумати.

7. Statival Word-Groups rarely correlate in the contrasted languages

semantically and even structurally. This is because English statives have few direct

lexical equivalents in Ukrainian and vice versa. The structural patterns of statival

word-groups in English and Ukrainian are mostly common, though their

components almost never lexically coincide. Cf. afraid to answer, ashamed of the

deed, soon asleep, never afraid of the rain; страшно заснути, важко на душі, значно тепліше, завжди прикро за примхи.

Gerundial complements, naturally, pertain to English statival word-groups

(cf. afraid of being sent away). Also, English statives have a fixed position for a

certain morphological class of word-groups, eg: ashamed/afraid of something, but:

soon asleep. The position of Ukrainian statives in the word-group is free, eg: йому добре тут – тут йому добре – добре йому тут.

Predicative word-groups

Unlike the previous two types of word-groups, predicative word-groups are

only partly common in English and Ukrainian. Completely isomorphic are primary

predication word-groups, eg: The student works hard. The book was published last

year. Студент багато працює. Книжка була опублікована торік.

Secondary Predication Word-Groupsare represented in English by the

following syntactic constructions/complexes:

1. The objective with the infinitive constructions, eg: I heard him roll in

blankets. (Hemingway) Again he saw Michael moisten his lips. (Galsworthy)

2. The subjective with the infinitive constructions, eg: Irene was known to

take very sudden decisions. (Galsworthy)

3. The infinitival prepositional constructions, eg: For you to go there just

now would be to walk into a trap with your eyes open. (Voynich)

4. The objective with the participle constructions, eg: I’m sorry to have kept

you waiting… (Saroyan) He could see her face bent over the little kitten in her

arms. (Ibid)

5. The subjective with the participle constructions, eg: He could be seen

following her with his eyes. (Galsworthy) The rain was heard clattering…(Trease)

6. The gerundial constructions , eg: Hope you don’t mind my coming.

London) Excuse my being busy. (Dickens)

7. The objective with the adjective, stative or noun constructions, eg: Get the

coffee ready. (Bronte) I woke… and found George awake. (J.K.Jerome) They

called the baby Arthur. (Lawrence)

8. The nominative absolute participle constructions, eg: The two walked in

silence, Soams watching him out of the corner of his eye. ( Galsworthy) They

having the keys, no entrance was possible. (Ibid)

The Ukrainian language has only two structurally similar, if not identical,

models of secondary predication: 1) the participle constructions, eg: дівчина/воназастала двері зачиненими; читачі вважають роман цікавим; ми/студенти пам’ятаємо цього викладача молодим/об’єктивним; 2) the objective

constructions like Ми обрали Іваненка головою; Вони назвали хлопця Петром.

 

Structural types of simple sentences in the contrasted languages. One-word sentences/Quasi-sentences.

 

In the contrasted languages there are distinguished the following common

structural types of sentences: 1) two-member sentences; 2) one-member

sentences.

Binary sentence structures are more characteristic of English, i. e., they are

represented by a larger variety of paradigmatic subtypes than in Ukrainian. This

quantitative correlation of two-member sentences in English and Ukrainian

constitutes the main typological difference in the system of simple sentences of the

two languages.



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