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is used after the verbs denoting a) perceptions of senses*:   to see to hear to feel to watch to observe to notice   I saw him get off the bus. Did you hear her sing? She felt her voice tremble. I watch her enter the shop. We observe the direction constantly change. Nobody noticed him come in.


b) wish, intention, emotions:   to want to wish to like to dislike to hate to intend should/would like I want you to help me. He wished the work to be done at once. He likes dinner to be in time. I dislike you to say such words. I hate you to talk like that. He intended me to go with him. I should like you to say here.


c) mental activity:   to consider to believe to think to find to know to expect to suppose I consider him to be right. I believe her to be a good teacher. We thought him to be sleeping. We find this value to be accurate enough. I know him to have said that. We expected her to return. I suppose him to be about fifty.


d) order, request, permission, advice, compulsion: to order to ask to request to allow to advise to recommend to cause to force get to make* to let*     He ordered the children to stop talking. I asked Tom to help me. He requested the matter to be kept secret. She doesn’t allow anyone to smoke. She advised me to tell the police about it. I wouldn’t recommend you to stay here. Her laziness caused her to fail. He forced me to go there. I got him to repair my car. What makes you think so? Let me go.

*The verbs to make, to letand the verbs of physical perception are followed by the infinitive without«to».


is used with a) the verbs of speech:   to say to report to inform She is said to write a new novel. They are reported to have left London. He was informed to have arrived in Kyiv.
verbs denoting: b) mental activity:   to consider to believe to think to find to know to expect to suppose He is considered to be a good speaker. He is believed to know English. He was thought to have gone. They are found to be unfit for service. History is known to repeat itself. She is expected to come any minute. He is supposed to know these things.
c) perceptions of senses:   to see to hear to feel to watch to observe to notice He was seen to cross the street. She was heard to mention your name. She was felt to be suffering. He was watched to dance in the hall. The woman was observed to follow him. He was noticed to unlock the door.
d) order, request, permission, advice, compulsion:   to order to ask to allow to advise to force to make They were ordered to go to bed. She was asked to come on Monday. I wasn’t allowed to watch the film. We were advised not to drink the water. He was forced to give up this work. He was made to repeat the rule.
e) with the verbs:   to seem to appear to happen to chance to prove to turn out The child seems to be asleep. He appears to know a lot of things. I happened to see him yesterday. He chanced to have recognized me. Your advice proved to be very useful. He turned out to be a good friend.
f) with the expression:   to be likely to appear to happen to chance to prove to turn out   They are likely to come here. He is unlikely to come tomorrow. He is sure to go hunting. He is sure to ring you up.




Form Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
Active voice Passive voice Active voice
Participle I (Present Participle) writing being written going
Participle II (Past Participle)   written gone
Perfect participle having written having been written having gone
Seeingthat I was late I hurried. Be careful while crossing the street. Being left alone I went on with my work. She tried to calm the cryingchild. Not knowing what to say he kept silent. Participle I (Active and Passive) denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb.
Having written the letter he went to post it. Having finished their classes the students went home. Perfect Participle (Active and Passive) denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.
Being asked for her opinion she blushed. Having been shown the wrong direction he lost his way. Perfect and Non-Perfect Participle (Passive) denotes a passive action.





is used with the verbs denoting a) sense perceptions:   to see to hear to feel to watch to observe to notice I saw her walking along the street. We heard him speaking in the next room. She felt her hand trembling. I watched the children playing in the garden. The teacher observed the students writing compositions.
b) wish and mental activity   to want to wish to find to leave I want the letter posted at once. I wish your dreams realized. When I returned I found her gone. He left his work unfinished.


to have to get She had her dress made here. I must have my hair cut. He will have his coat cleaned. She must have her hair done. Have you got your car repaired?  




is used with the verbs denoting sense perceptions: to see to hear to watch to notice to consider She was seen walking along the street. Two people were heard quarelling. They were watched playing in the garden. He was noticed entering the office. The work was considered finished.  


The rain having stopped, we went home. The day being fine, she went for a walk. Time permitting, we’ll go to the forest. In this complex Participle has its own subject expressed by a noun in the Common Case or a personal pronoun in the Nominative case.


Functions Examples
Complex Subject (The Subjective Participle complex) They were heard speaking in a lively manner. He was seen surrounded by a group of students. He was noticed entering the library.
Complex Object (The Objective Participle complex) I saw the workers packing the goods. They watched the car being repaired. They want the goods shipped on Monday.
Attribute The cars being produced at our plant are very good.
Adverbial Modifier Walking in the park, he met his old friend.
The Absolute participle complex The letter being written, I went to post it. He being tired, I decided not to disturb him.




Gerund Active Passive Uses
Indefinite reading being read The action expressed by the gerund: a)
She likes reading. She likes being read.
Perfect having read having been read  
Thank you for having helped me. I remember having been asked this question.


Functions Examples
Subject Reading books is useful. Smoking is harmful. Reading love stories made her cry.
Predicative His hobby is collecting stamps. The main thing is getting there in time. Seeing is believing.
Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate She went on reading. She stopped smoking.
Direct Object I couldn’t avoid speaking to her. The film is worth seeing. I don’t mind waiting.
Prepositional Object I am fond of reading. He insisted on doing the work himself. I don’t like his habit of making people wait.
Attribute All liked the idea of going to the country. I have no intention of discussing this question. There are different ways of solving this problem.
Adverbial Modifier On entering the room he came up to me. He left the room without saying a word. Excuse me for being so late.



The Gerundial Complex consists of a noun (in the Common or Possessive Case) or a possessive pronoun and gerund.
Functions Examples
Complex Subject Your coming here is very desirable. It’s no use my telling you a lie.
Predicative What annoys me is his being careless.
Direct Object I don’t like his reading aloud. Forgive my saying it.
Prepositional Object I insist on your doing it. Everything depends on your getting there in time.
Attribute Everyone liked the idea of his joining us. I don’t know the reason of your leaving.
Adverbial Modifier He entered the room without his seeing it.



Type of condition if-clause main-clause Examples
Type I Real condition (refers to the future) Present Indefinite Future Indefinite can + Infinitive If I have enough money. I will/can buy a car.
Type II Unreal condition (refers to the present or future) Present Subjunctive II (Past Indefinite) would/could + Infinitive If Ihadenough money, I would/could buy a car
Type III Unreal condition (refers to the past) Past Subjunctive II (Past Perfect) would/could have + Past Participle If I had had enough money, I would/couldhave bought a car.



Infinitive Past Indefinite Past Participle  
abide arise awake be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech beset bet bid bind bite bleed bless blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy cast catch choose cleave cling clothe come cost creep cut dare deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling fly forbid forecast forego foresee foretell forget forgive forsake freeze get gild give go grind grow hang have hear heave hew hide hit hold hurt keep knit know lade lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet melt mislay mislead mistake mow outdo outgrow overbear overcast overcome overdo overdraw overhear overtake overthrow partake pay put read rebuild relay rend retell rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shear shed shine shoe shoot show shut sing sink sit slay sleep sling slink slit smell sow speak speed spend spoil spread stand stave steal stick stride strike strive swear swell swim swing take teach tear tell think throw thrust understand undertake wake wear win withdraw withhold write abode, abided arose awoke was, were bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereaved, bereft besought beset bet, betted bade, bid bound bit bled blessed, blest blew broke bred brought broadcast (-ed) built burnt, burned burst bought cast caught chose clove, cleft clung clothed (clad) came cost crept cut dared (durst) dealt dug did drew dreamed, dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbade, forbad forecast, forecasted forewent foresaw foretold foregot forgave forsook froze got gilded, gilt gave went ground grew hung, hanged had heard heaved, hove hewed, hid hid hit held hurt kept knitted, knit knew laded laid led leant, leaned leapt, leaped learnt, learned left lent let lay lighted, lit lost made meant met melted mislaid misled mistook mowed outdid outgrew overbore overcast overcame overdid overdrew overheard overtook overthrew partook paid put read rebuilt relaid rent retold ridded, rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook sheared shed shone shod shot showed shut sang sank sat slew slept slung slunk slit smelt, smelled sowed spoke sped, speeded spent spoilt, spoiled spread stood staved, stove stole stuck strode struck strove swore swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought threw thrust understood undertook woke, waked wore won withdrew withheld wrote   abode, abided arisen awaked, awoke been borne, born beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent, bended bereaved, bereft besought beset bet, betted bidden, bid bound bitten, bit bled blessed, blest blown broken (broke) bred brought broadcast (-ed) built burnt, burned burst bought cast caught chosen cloven, cleft clung clothed (clad) come cost crept cut dared dealt dug done drawn dreamed, dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forecast, forecasted foregone foreseen foretold foregotten forgiven forsaken frozen got, gotten gilded given gone ground grown hung, hanged had heard heaved, hove hewed, hewn hidden, hid hit held hurt kept knitted, knit known laden laid led leant, leaned leapt, leaped learnt, learned left lent let lain lighted, lit lost made meant met melted, molten mislaid misled mistaken mowen outdone outgrown overborne overcast overcome overdone overdrawn overheard overtaken overthrown partaken paid put read rebuilt relaid rent retold rid, ridded ridden rung risen run sawn, sawed said seen sought sold sent set sewn, sewed shaken shorn, sheared shed shone shod shot shown, showed shut sung sunk, sunken sat slain slept slung slunk slit smelt, smelled sown, sowed spoken sped, speeded spent spoilt, spoiled spread stood staved, stove stolen struck stridden, strid struck, stricken striven sworn swollen, swelled swum swung taken taught torn told throught thrown thrust understood undertaken waked, woken worn won withdrawn withheld written   терпіти виникати будити бути нести; народжувати бити ставати траплятися виробляти починати помічати згинати(ся) втрачати благати, просити оточувати битися об заклад пропонувати ціну зв’язуватися кусати(ся) кровоточити благословляти дути ламати(ся) розводити приносити передавати по радіо будувати палити, горіти спалахнути купувати кидати; скидати ловити вибирати розколювати(ся) чіплятися вдягати приходити коштувати повзти; повзати різати сміти; наважуватися займатися копати; рити робити тягти; малювати мріяти пити водити; їхати жити; мешкати їсти падати годувати відчувати битися знаходити тікати; уникати кидати(ся) літати забороняти передбачати передувати передбачати провіщати забувати прощати залишати; покидати морозити отримувати золотити давати ходити точити; шліфувати рости вішати мати чути піднімати рубати ховати(ся) ударяти тримати завдавати болю тримати в’язати; плести знати навантажувати класти; накривати вести нахиляти(ся) стрибати вивчати залишати позичати дозволяти лежати запалювати(ся) втрачати робити означати зустрічати танути загубити вводити в оману помилятися косити перевершувати переростати перемагати хмаритися перемогти перебільшувати перевищувати підслуховувати доганяти перекидати брати участь платити класти читати відбудовувати міняти; заміняти рвати; розривати переказувати позбавляти їхати верхи дзвонити вставати бігати пиляти казати бачити шукати; просити продавати посилати ставити; класти шити; зашивати трусити; хитати стригти губити; втрачати світити; сяяти взувати стріляти показувати зачиняти(ся) співати тонути; осідати сидіти приголомшити спати кидати; шпурляти іти крадькома розрізати вздовж пахнути сіяти; засівати говорити поспішати витрачати псувати(ся) поширювати(ся) стояти розбитися красти колоти переходити бити; страйкувати старатися присягати(ся) збільшуватися плавати гойдати(ся) брати навчати руйнувати розповідати думати кидати штовхати розуміти починати; братися будити носити вигравати відкликати відмовляти писати  



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·…sort of vehicle for transmitting information – деякий засіб передачі інформації

·…the business in question – фірма, про яку іде мова; дана фірма


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