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Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb He is at home now. The students are in the classroom.
2. An Auxiliary Verb He is writing a letter. I was asked a difficult question.
3. A Link Verb John is a student. He is intelligent. He is the best student in our group.
4. A Modal Verb We are to meet at noon. They are to begin this work at once.



Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb She has a large family. We have got a comfortable flat.
2. An Auxiliary Verb He has graduated from the University. I have been waiting for you for half an hour.
3. A Modal Verb I have to get up early on Mondays. They had to go there. He will have to do it.



Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb The exercise was done well. You didn’t do anything to help her.
2.An Auxiliary Verb a) The Present and Past Indefinite (interrogative and negative forms) b) The Imperative Mood (negative form) c) to express emphasis     He doesn’t work here. Did you see him yesterday? — Yes, I did. Don’t be late for lessons. But I do know him.  




Predicate or auxiliary verb Sub- ject Part of the Predicate Object Adverbial Modifiers Short Answers
          Affirmative Negative
Is Do Does Did Will Are Was Can   he you she it he you Ann you   take live rain be living? studying?   swim?     books   French? at home? here? in Kyiv? last night? there? in class? Yes, he is. Yes, I do. Yes, she does. Yes, it did. Yes, he will. Yes, I am. Yes, she was. Yes, I can. No, he isn’t. No, I don’t. No, she doesn’t. No, it didn’t. No, he won’t. No, I’ m not. No, she wasn’t. No, I can’t



Jack can come, can’t he? Fred can’t come,can he? A tag question is a question added at the end of a sentence. Speakers use tag questions chiefly to make sure their information is correct or to seek agreement.
AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE + NEGATIVE TAG = AFFIRMATIVE ANSWER EXPECTED Mary is here, isn’t she? Yes, she is. You like tea, don’t you? Yes, I do. They have left, haven’t they? Yes, they have.
NEGATIVE SENTENCE + AFFIRMATIVE TAG = NEGATIVE ANSWER EXPECTED Mary isn’t here, is she? No, she isn’t. You don’tlike tea, do you? No, I don’t. They haven’t left, have they? No, they haven’t.
This/That is your book, isn’t it? These/Those are yours, aren’t they? The tag pronoun for this/that = it The tag pronoun for these/those = they.
There is a meeting tonight, isn’t there? In sentences with there + be, there is used in the tag.
Everything is okay, isn’t it? Everyonetook the test, didn’t they? Personal pronouns are used to refer to indefinite pronouns.They is usually used in a tag to refer to everyone, someone, everybody, no one, nobody.
Nothing is wrong,is it? Nobody called on the phone, did they? You’ve never beenthere, have you? Sentences with negative words take affirmative tags.
I am supposed to be here, am I not? I am supposed to be here, aren’t I? am I not? Is formal English. aren’t I? is common in spoken English.



When did they arrive? When will you come? Yesterday. Next Monday. When



Where is she? Where can I find a pen?   At home. In that drawer.   Where  




Why did he leave early? Why aren’t you coming with us?   Because he’s ill. I’m tired.   Why  




How did you come to school? How does he drive? By bus.   Carefully. Howgenerally asks about manner.
How much money does it cost? How many people came? Ten dollars.   Fifteen. Howis used with much and man.
How old are you? How cold is it? How soon can get there? How fast were you driving? How long has he been here? How often do you write home? How far is it to Paris from here? Eighteen. Ten below zero. In ten minutes. 50 miles an hour.   Two years.   Every week.   500 miles. How is also used with adjectives and adverbs. How longasks about length of time. How oftenasks about frequency. How farasks about distance.





QUESTION ANSWER   To answer a): Spell the word. To answer b): Say the word. To answer c): Pronounce the word
a) How do you spell “coming”? C-O-M-I-N-G. b) How do you say “yes” in Japanese? Hai. c) How do you say/pronounce this word?
d) How are getting along? Great. e) How are you doing? Fine. f) How’s it going? Okay. So-so. In d), e), and f): How is your life? Is your life okay? Do you have any problems? NOTE: f) is often used in greetings: Hi, Bob. How’s it going?
g) How do you feel?Terrific! How are you feeling?Wonderful! Great! Fine. Okay. So-so. A bit under the weather. Not so good. Terrible! Awful! The questions in g) ask about health or about general emotional state.
h) How do you do?How do you do?   How do you do? Is used by both speakers when they are introduced to each other in a somewhat formal situation.




Who can answer that question? Who came to visit you? I can. Jane and Tom. Who is used as the subject of a question. It refers to people.
Who is coming to dinner tonight? Who wants to come with me? Ann and Tom. We do. Who is usually followed by a singular verb even if the speaker is asking about more than one person.




Whose bookdid you borrow? Whose key is this? (Whoseis this?) David’s. It’s mine. Whose ask questions about possession.



What made you angry? What went wrong?   His rudeness. Everything. What is used as the subject of a question. It refers to “things”.
What do you need? What did Alice buy? What did he talk about? About whatdid he talk? (formal) I need a pencil. A book. His vacation.   What is also used as an object.
What kind ofsoup is that? What kind ofshoes did he buy? It’s bean soup. Sandals. What kind of asks about particular variety or type of something.
What did you do last night? What is Mary doing? I studied. She is reading a book. What + a form of do is used to ask questions about activities.
What countries did you visit? What time did she come? What colour is this hair? Italy and Spain. Seven o’clock. Dark brown. What may accompany a noun.
What is Tom like? What is the weather like? He’s kind and friendly. Hot and humid. What + be like asks for a general description of qualities.
What does Tom look like? What does her house look like? He is tall and has dark hair. It’s a large, red brick house. What + look like asks for a physical description.




I have two pens. Which pen do you want? Which one do you want? Which do you want? Which book should I buy? The blue one.   That one. Which is used instead ofwhat when a question concern choosing from a definite, known quantity or group.
Which countries did he visit? What countries did he visit? Which class are you in? What class are you in? Paris and Canada.   This class. In some cases, there is little difference in meaning between which and what when they accompany a noun.


  Present Past Future Future-in-the-Past
Indefinite Letters are written every day. The letter was written yesterday. The letter will be written tomorrow. (He said that) the letter would be written the next day.
Continuous The letter is being written now. The letter was being written at 5 o’clock yesterday.
Perfect The letter has already been written. The letter had been written by 5 o’clock yesterday. The letter will have been written by 5 o’clock tomorrow. (He said that) the letter would have been written by 5 o’clock the next day.
Perfect Continuous
to be + III форма дієслова
to take
Present Indefinite Passive
I am taken He is taken She is taken It is taken We are taken You are taken They are taken I am not taken He is not taken She is not taken It is not taken We are not taken You are not taken They are not taken Am I taken? Is he taken? Is she taken? Is it taken? Are we taken? Are you taken? Are they taken?
Past Indefinite Passive
I was taken He was taken She was taken It was taken We were taken You were taken They were taken I was not taken He was not taken She was not taken It was not taken We were not taken You were not taken They were not taken Was I taken? Was he taken? Was she taken? Was it taken? Were we taken? Were you taken? Were they taken?
Future Indefinite Passive
I shall be taken He will be taken She will be taken It will be taken We shall be taken You will be taken They will be taken I shall not be taken He will not be taken She will not be taken It will be taken We shall not be taken You will not be taken They will not be taken Shall I be taken? Will he be taken? Will she be taken? Will it be taken? Shall I be taken? Will you be taken? Will they be taken?
I take (я відводжу) — I am taken (мене відводять) I took (я відвів) — I was taken (мене відвели) I shall take (я відведу) — I shall be taken (мене відведуть)


Запам’ятайте цю міні-розповідь: He was talked about. He was sent for. He was waited for. He was looked at. He was listened to. He was laughed at.


Запам’ятайте ці вирази: The house wasn’t lived in. The bed wasn’t slept in.


Запам’ятайте: Це потрібно зробити – It must be done Це можна зробити – It can be done





Uses Present/Future Past
1) ability; capability I can run fast. I can help you. I am able to help you. I will be able to help you. I could run fast when I was a child, but now I can’t. I was able to help you.
2) informal permission You can use my car tomorrow.
3) polite request Can I borrow your pen? Could I borrow your pen? Could you help me?
4) impossibility (negative only) That can’t be true! That couldn’t be true! That can’t have been true! That couldn’t have been true!
5) suggestion — I need help in math. You could talk to your teacher. You could have talked to your teacher.  
6) less than 50% certainty — Where is John? He could be at home. He could have been at home.
7) doubt; astonishment (interrogative)   Can she know Japanese?   Can he have done it?  


Uses Present/Future Past
1) polite request May I borrow your pen? Might I borrow your pen?
2) formal permission You may leave the room.
3) less than 50% certainty   —Where is John? He may be at the library. He might be at the library   He may have been at the library. He might have been at the library.

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