PHRASEOLOGY OF REPORTS AND SPEECHES



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PHRASEOLOGY OF REPORTS AND SPEECHES





Coherent and generalization phrases


 

1. Взагалі, мені здається, що …

2. У доповнення до …

3. Загальноприйнято, що …

4. Очікують …

5. Без сумніву …

6. Це факт, що …

7. Бажано …

8. Немає потреби говорити …

9. Як ствержувалось раніше …

10. Якщо це так …

11. Незалежно від цього …

12. Кажучи іншими словами …

13. Як результат …

14. Немає причини для …

15. Більше того …

16. За усією ймовірністю …

17. Слід запам’ятати, що …

18. Необхідно нагадати, що …

19. Навпаки …

20. Особливо важливо …

21. Саме через цю причину …

22. Слід підкреслити …

23. Торкаючись цієї проблеми …

24. Приймаючи до уваги …

25. Не дивлячись на той факт, що …

26. Саме в цьому зв’язку …

27. Ось чому необхідно …

28. В цьому сенсі …

29. За всією ймовірністю …

30. Очевидно, що …

31. По-перше (по-друге) …

32. Нарешті …

33. Основне питання, яке все ще не вирішене …

34. Тому …

35. Більше того …

36. Однак …

37. Хоча …

38. Істотно …

39. Тим не менше …

40. У порівнянні з …

41. Відповідно …

42. В цілому …

 

1. Generally speaking it seems to me …

2. In addition to …

3. It is the general idea that …

4. It is expected …

5. It is beyond doubt …

6. It is a fact that …

7. It is desirable to …

8. Needless to say …

9. As previously stated …

10. It this is so …

11. Apart from this…

12. In other words …

13. As a result of …

14. There is no reason for …

15. What is more …

16. In all probability …

17. It should be remembered that …

18. It is necessary to remind …

19. On the contrary (vice versa) …

20. It is especially significant …

21. It is for this reason that …

22. It must be stressed …

23. Touching upon this problem …

24. Taking into account …

25. Despite the fact that …

26. It is in this connection …

27. That is why it is imperative to …

28. In this sense …

29. In all probability …

30. It is evident that …

31. First (secondly) …

32. Finally …

33. The main question not yet solved …

34. Therefore …

35. Moreover (over and above) …

36. However …

37. Though …

38. Essentially …

39. Nevertheless …

40. Compared with …

41. Hence …

42. On the whol



Phrases that are used in admission expressions


 

1. У цій доповіді мені б хотілося підняти декілька питань, що стосуються …

2. Я хотів би розпочати свою доповідь з …

3. Маючи на увазі основні напрямки …

4. Я хотів би вказати …

5. Я хотів би лише згадати …

6. Особисто я вважаю за необхідне підкреслити, що …

7. Невірно стверджувати, що …

8. В цьому зв’язку хотілося б підкреслити, що …

9. В такому контексті …

10. Необхідно відмітити …

11. Торкаючись проблеми …

12. Саме через цю причину …

13. Тут я маю на увазі …

14. Цей приклад чітко показує, що …

15. Основне питання, яке все ще є невирішеним …

16. Нарешті, мені хотілося б сказати, що …

17. Я хотів би привернути Вашу увагу до…

18. Очевидно важливо зробити висновок…

 

  1. In this paper I would like to raise some questions related to …
  2. I should like to begin my report with …
  3. Bearing in mind the main directions …
  4. I should like to indicate …
  5. I would like to mention only …
  6. Personally I find it necessary to emphasize that …
  7. It is incorrect to state that …
  8. In this connection particular importance should be attached to …
  9. Within such a context …
  10. It must be clearly noticed …
  11. Touching on the problem of …
  12. It is for this reason that …
  13. I have in mind here …
  14. This example clearly shows …
  15. The main question not yet solved is …

 

  1. Lastly I’d like to say that …
  2. I’d like to draw your attention to …
  3. It may be important to conclude …



GENERAL EXPRESSIONS THAT ARE USED IN THE PROFESSIONAL SPEECH

Know v

 


  1. Наскільки мені відомо...
  2. Було б корисно знати ... чи ...

 

  1. As far as I know …
  2. It would be helpful to know if

Hesitation n


  1. Я поділяю Ваші сумніви.
  1. I share your hesitations.

 

Agree v


  1. I would agree with you that …
  2. I cannot agree that …
  1. Я б повністю погодився б з Вами в тому, що ...
  2. Я не можу погодитися з тим, що ...

 

Disagree v, etc.


  1. I surely cannot agree with …
  1. Я, звичайно, не можу погодитися з ...

Support v, etc.


  1. I would like to support …
  2. I maintain very firmly that …

 

  1. Мені б хотілося підтримати ...
  2. Я категорично наполягаю на тому, що ...

Realize v


  1. I realize that …
  2. I do not realize that …
  1. Я розумію, що ...
  2. Я не розумію того, що ...

See v, mistake v


  1. As you see …
  2. If am not mistaken …
  1. Як Ви бачите (розумієте)
  2. Якщо я не помиляюсь ...

 

Interested a, etc.

 


  1. It is of interest that …( it is interesting that …)
  2. It is interesting to know whether …
  1. Цікаво, що ...
  2. Цікаво знати ... чи ...

 

Attention n


  1. I would like to call your attention to…
  2. I just wanted to bring to the attention of audience …
  1. Я б хотів звернути Вашу увагу на...
  2. Я щойно хотів запропонувати увазі аудиторії ...

Thank v, grateful a

 


  1. I would like to thank Mr. N. For his helpful comments.
  2. I am most grateful for expert advise on …
  3. Thank you very much, Prof. D., for a very complete discussion of his problem.
  1. Я б хотів подякувати містерові Н. За його корисні зауваження.
  2. Я надзвичайно вдячний за кваліфіковану пораду щодо ...
  3. Велика подяка, професоре Д., за дуже докладне обговорення цього питання.

Glad a, etc.


  1. I am content with your answer.
  1. Я задоволений Вашою відповіддю.

Sorry a, etc.


  1. I am sorry to say …
  2. It a pity that …
  3. It is unfortunate that …
  1. На жаль, я повинен сказати ...
  2. Жаль, що ...
  3. На жаль ...

Surprise v


  1. It seems to one surprising that …
  1. Дивним здається те, що ...

 

Sure a (certain a)


  1. Я впевнений, що...
  2. Я не можу бути впевненим

 

  1. I am quite sure (certain) that …
  2. I cannot be sure (certain) …

 


 

GRAMMAR REVISION TABLES

NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL
Singular Plural Uses
day bird street rose days birds streets roses The plural of a noun is usually made by adding –s to the singular
tomato match dish class box tomatoes matches dishes classes boxes Nouns ending in –o, -ch, -sh, -s, -ssor –x form their plural by adding –es. (NOTE: words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in –o and –s only: dynamo – dynamos; kilo – kilos; photo – photos; piano – pianos);
baby city babies cities Nouns ending in –y following a consonant form their plural by dropping the –y and adding –ies.
loaf wife wolf calf half knife shelf life sheaf loaves wives wolves calves halves knifes shelves lives sheaves Twelve nouns ending in –for –fe drop the –f or –fe and add –ves: loaf, wife, wolf, calf, half, leaf, self, knife, life, sheaf, shelf, thief. (Exceptions: beliefs, chiefs, roofs, cliffs, safes, cuffs, handkerchiefs). The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf take either –s or –ves in the plural: wharfs or wharves, hoofs or hooves; scarfs or scarves.
man woman foot goose foot louse mouse child men women feet geese teeth lice mice children A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change.
sheep deer fish species swine sheep deer fish species swine Some nouns have the same the same form for singular and plural.
crisis criterion datum crises criteria data Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.

 

NOUNS: COMMON AND POSSESSIVE CASE

 

a) Singular Noun the girl my wife my baby Tom Archimedes Pythagoras Thomas Carlos my brother-in-law Possessive Form   thegirl’s name my wife’s coat my baby’s toys Tom’s friend Archimedes’ Law Pythagoras’ Theorem Thomas’s/Thomas’ Carlos’s/ Carlos’ my brother-in-law’s guitar  
  1. ′s is used with singular nouns not ending in –s.
   
  1. Classical names ending in –s usually add only the apostrophe.
  2. Other names ending in –s take ′s or the apostrophe alone.
  3. With compounds, the last word takes the ′s.
b) Plural Noun the girls the men my children Possessive Form the girls’ names the men’s work my children’s toys  
  1. A simple apostrophe (′) is used with plural nouns ending in –s.
  2. ′s is used with plural nouns not ending in –s.

COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS

 

  1. I bought a chair.
Tom bought three chairs.
  1. We bought some furniture.
INCORRECT: We bought a furniture. INCORRECT: We bought some furnitures.
Chair is a count noun; chairs are items that can be counted. Furniture is a noncount noun. In grammar, furniture cannot be counted.
Singular Plural
COUNT NOUN a chair one chair chairs two chairs some chairs a lot of chairs many chairs A count noun: a) may be preceded by a/an in the singular; b) takes a final –s/es in the plural.  
NONCOUNT NOUN furniture some furniture a lot of furniture much furniture   A noncount noun: a) is not immediately preceded by a/an; b) has no plural form; does not take a final –s/-es.
         

 

SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS

1. Whole groups made up of similar items: baggage, clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, mail, machinery, make-up, money/cash/change, postage, scenery, traffic.
  1. Fluids: water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc.
  2. Solids: ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold, iron, silver, glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool, etc.
  3. Gases: stream, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smoke, smog, pollution, etc.
  4. Particles: rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, grass, hair, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc.
 
  1. Abstractions:
ï beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality, importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laugher, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress, recreation, significance, sleep, truth, violence, wealth, etc. ï advice, information, news, evidence, proof; ï time, space, energy; ï homework, work; ï grammar, slang, vocabulary.
  1. Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc.
  2. Fields of study: economics, chemistry, engineering, history, literature, mathematics, psychology, etc.
  3. Recreation: baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, bridge, poker, etc.
  4. General activities: driving, studying, swimming, travelling, walking (and other gerunds).
  1. Natural Phenomena: weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, gravity, rain, lightning, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity, fire.
 

USING NOUNS AS MODIFIERS

  1. The soup has vegetables in it.
It is vegetable soup.
  1. The building has offices in it.
It is an office building.
When a noun is used as a modifier, it is in its singular form.
  1. The test lasted two hours.
It was a two-hour test.
  1. Her son is five years old.
She has a five-year-old son.
When a noun used as a modifier is combined with a number expression, the noun is singular and a hyphen (-) is used.

THE INDEFENITE ARICLE

Use of a/an Examples
1. Before a singular countable noun, when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing: I can see a book on the table. They live in a flat. He bought an ice-cream.
2. Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of things: A child needs love = All children need/Any child needs love.
3.With a noun complement. This includes names of profession:   My friend is a manager. She’ll be a dancer.
4.With certain numbers.     Before half when half follows a whole number. But ½ kg = half a kilo, though a + half + noun is sometimes possible. With ⅓, ¼ , etc a is usual:   a dozen, a hundred, a million (but one dozen, one hundred, one million is also possible). 1 ½ kilos = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half; a half-holiday, a half-portion, a half-share; a third, a quarter etc., but one is also possible.
In expressions of price, speed, ratio etc.:   5p a kilo, sixty kilometres an hour, four times a day; (Here a/an = per)
6. Before a singular countable noun after the word what in exclamatory sentences and after the words such, quite, rather:   Such a long queue! Such long queues! What a pretty girl! What pretty girls! She is still quite a child. It is rather a difficult problem.
7. With the nouns in the function of apposition. But when the apposition refers to a well-known person the is used: The report was made by Petrenko, a student of our University. Jack London, the great American novelist, was born in San Francisco.
8. In a number of set expressions: a lot of, a great deal of, a good deal of, a great number of, a good many, a couple, a little, a few, at speed of, at a time hen, at a time, in time, on a large (small) scale, all of a sudden, by bus (train), to be in a hurry, to be in a position, to be at a loss, it’s a pity, for a short (long) time, as a result of, as a matter of fact, to have a good time, to have a mind, in a loud (low) voice, to have a look, to have a headache, to take a sit, to have a cold, to go for a walk.    

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Use of «the» Examples
1. Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned: I saw a new film on TV yesterday. The film wasn’t very interesting.
2. Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phase or clause: the girl in blue; the boy that I met; the place where I met him.
3. When the object or group of objects is unique: the earth, the sea, the sky, the moon, the sun, the world.
4. Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one particular thing: Ann is in the garden. (the garden of this house). Please open the window.
5. Before superlatives and first, second etc. used as adjectives or pronouns, and only: the first week; the best day; the only way.
6. Before a noun that represents a class of animals or things: But man, used to represent the human race, has no article. The cow is a domestic animal. The pine is an evergreen tree. If oil supplies run out, man have to fall back on the horse.
7. The + adjective represents a class of people: the old = old people in general. the rich = rich people in general.
8. Before certain proper names of oceans, rivers. Seas, gulfs, groups of islands, chains of mountains, plural names of countries, deserts, and before certain other names: The Atlantic, the Thames, the Alps, the Black Sea, the Crimea, the City, the United States of America, the Sahara, the Persian Gulf
9. Before the adjectives east/west etc. + noun in certain names: the East/West End, the East/West Indies, the North/South Pole.
10. Before other proper names consisting of adjective + noun or noun +of + noun: The National Gallery, the Tower of London.
11. Before names of newspapers, ships, orchestras, pop groups etc. the Times, the Great Britain, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Beatles.
12.the+ plural surname can be used to mean «the … family»: the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith (and children).
13. the + a singular countable noun (type of machine, invention, musical instruments). The bicycle is an excellent means of transport. When was the telephone invented? The piano is my favourite instrument.

NO ARTICLE

 

Uses Examples
1. Before plural nouns: My friends are students.
2. Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense: Men fear death. but: The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader.
3. After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective: the boy’s uncle = the uncle of the boy It is my (blue) book = The (blue) book is mine.
4. Before names of meals: The Scots have porridge for breakfast. but: The wedding breakfast was held in her father’s house.
5. Before names of games: He plays golf.
6. Before parts of the body and articles of clothing, as these normally prefer a possessive adjective: Raise your right hand. He took off his coat.
7. When home is used alone, i.e. is not preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase: He is at home. He went home. I arrived home after dark. I sent him home.
8. Before the nouns: bed, church, court, hospital, prison, school/college/university, when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose. We can be/get back from school/college/university. We can leave school, leave hospital, be released from prison. But: When these places are visited or used for other reasonsthe is necessary. We go: to bed to sleep; to church to pray; to court as litigants; to hospital as patients; to prison as prisoners; to school/college/university to study; similarly we can be: in bed, sleeping or resting; at church as worshippers; in hospital as patients; at school as students. Sometimes he goes to the prison to give lectures.
9. work = place of work. He is at work. He’s on his way to work.
10. We go to sea as sailors. To be at sea = to be on a voyage (as passengers or crew). But to go to or be at the sea = to go to or be at the seaside. We can also live by/ near the sea.

 

 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

The Nominative Case The Objective Case
I – я he – він she – вона it – воно (він, вона) we – ми you – ви, ти they – вони me – мене, мені him – його, йому her – її, їй it – його, йому, її, їй us – нас, нам you – вас, вам, тебе, тобі them – їх, їм

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Conjoint Form Absolute Form
my– мій, моя, моє, мої his – його (чоловічий рід) her – її its – його (середній рід), її our – наш, наша, наше, наші your – ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші, твій, твоя, твоє, твої their– їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні     mine – мій, моя, моє, мої his – його (чоловічий рід) hers – її — ours – наш, наша, наше, наші yours – ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші, твій, твоя, твоє твої theirs – їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні  

 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

 

Persons Singular Plural
1stpers. 2ndpers. 3rdpers. myself yourself himself, herself, itself сам(а) ourselves yourselves themselves самі себе
1. He looked at himself in the mirror.   A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject of a sentence. He and himself refer to the same person.
2. He himself answered the phone, not his secretary. 3. He answered the phone himself. Sometimes reflexive pronouns are for emphasis.
4. She lives by herself.   The expression by + a reflexive pronoun usually means «alone».
         

 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

 

Sentences -thing -body, -one -where
Affirmative some any something що-небудь anything усе, що завгодно somebody someone хтось хто-небудь anybody/anyone усякий будь-який somewhere anywhere десь де-небудь anywhere де завгодно куди завгодно
Interrogative any anything що-небудь anybody anyone хто-небудь будь-хто anywhere де-небудь куди-небудь
Negative not ... any no not ... anything нічого nothing not ... anybody not ... anyone ніхто nobody/no one not ... anywhere ніде, нікуди nowhere ніде, нікуди
Affirmative Interrogative Negative every everything усе everybody everyone усякий, кожний, усе everywhere скрізь, усюди

 

QUANTITIVE PRONOUNS

few little мало, мало хто недостатньо Few birds can be seen in that place. (= almost none) I know little about painting. (=almost nothing) Few and little have a negative meaning. They mean not enough.
a few кілька a little трохи A few birds can be seen in that place. (= some birds) I know a little about painting. (=something) A few, a little have a positive meaning. They mean some though not much (many)

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Singular Plural
this – цей, ця, це that– той, та, те these – ці those – ті
       


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