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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Types of Word-Groups in English and Ukrainian
According to the existing interrelations between their immediate components all word-groups in the contrasted languages split into the following three types: 1) co-ordinate word-group 2) subordinate word-groups and 3) predicative word-groups.
I. Co-ordinate word-groupsin English and Ukrainian are formed from components equal in rank which are connected either syndetically (with the help of conjunctions) or asyndetically (by placement). For example: books and magazines; to read, translate and retell; neither this nor that, книжки й журнали; читати, пере-кладати й переказувати, ні те й ні се. Co-ordinate word-groups are non-binary by their nature; this means that they may include several IC's of equal rank, though not necessarily of the same lexico-grammatical nature. Cf. (They were) alone and free and happy in love. (Abrahams).
Such and the like word-groups in both contrasted languages perform the function of homogeneous parts of the sentence, eg: There they were: stars, sun, sea, light, darkness, space, great waters. (Conrad) — Тут ними були: зірки, сонце, море, світло, темінь, простір, великі води. Не was clean, handsome, well-dressed, and sympathetic. (Dreiser). Він був чистий, гарний, прекрасно одягнений і симпатичний. It was done thoroughly, well and quickly. — Це було зроблено досконало, гарно й швидко.
According to the structure of the ICs and their number, co-ordinate word-groups may be elemental and enlarged. Elemental word-groups consist of two components only, eg: Pete or Mike, he and she, read and translate, all but me; Піт чи Майк, він і вона, читати й перекладати, всі крім мене.
Enlarged co-ordinate word-groups consist of structurally complicat-
ed components: to read the text, to analyze it stylistically and translate it — читати текст, аналізувати його стилістично і перекладати його.
As to the expression of sense, co-ordinate word-groups in the contrasted languages may be closed or unclosed, i. e. infinite. Closed word-groups denote some actions, objects and phenomena. They consist of two components only, eg: rivers and lakes, neither he nor she, all but me — річки й озера; ні він, ні вона; всі крім мене. Common in both languages are also the unclosed or infinite word-groups consisting of several constituent components the number of which may still be continued (as by enumerating). These constituents may be connected by means of conjunctions or asyndetically, eg: books, note-books, bags, pens and pencils; ні гори, ні гірські потоки, ні звірі чи птахи, ні рослини (не цікавили їх).
A common means of expressing homogeneousness as well as forming co-ordinate word-groups in both languages is also intonation. Cf He speaks /English, /German, /French, /Spanish and \Russian.
/Явором, /канупером, /чебрецем, /м'ятою, /любистком запахло \літо (К. Гордієнко).
II. Subordinate word-groupsin all languages are binary by their nature. It means that they consist of a head component, which is the nucleus of the word-group, and of one or more adjuncts/complements. They may be either a single notional word or a group of words/word-group functionally equal to it and having the function of a notional word, eg: my pen, his "oh", your "r", her father and mother, take part in the games, bad for you, the film "They fought for their Motherland", Peter's brother, etc.
Among the existing classifications of word-groups the morphological (paradigmatic) classification remains one of the most embracing. It is based on the lexico-grammatical nature of the head component or on its functional substitute. As a result, the following seven (according to the number of national parts of speech) common paradigmatic classes of substantival word-groups are to be singled out in English and Ukrainian:
1. Substantival Word-Groups,in which the mainly attributive adjuncts may be in pre-position or in postposition to the noun head. Their way of connection is analytical in English and synthetic in Ukrainian, though not without exceptions, as can be seen in the following table:
There are noun word-groups with synthetic or analytical-synthetic connection in English as well (when the complement/adjunct is a pronoun in the objective case, eg: books for them/ for her, or when the adjunct is the demonstrative pronoun this/that, these/those, such a/such (this day — these days, such a book — such books).
Analytical (asyndetic) connection.'" N<Stative word-groups are of predicative nature in Ukrainian (cf. мені краще).
Consequently, the combinability of the noun as head of the substantival word-group is practically isomorphic in the contrasted languages. The only exceptions form a) the NprepVger pattern (books for reading), b) the N<Stative pattern word-group which is of attributive nature (the child ashamed the house ablaze, etc.). c) the N<Iposs.abs. pattern word-group are not available in Ukrainian since in край наш/Україно моя! both pronouns (наше and моя) are possessive conjoint but not possessive absolute which are not available in our language. Besides, the N<Stative pattern word-groups in Ukrainian are of predicative type (дитині страшно, жах бере) and not attributive as in English (the boy asleep), d) The English language has no I < Stative pattern word-groups like йому страшно, нам сором(но), etc. which present an allomorphic feature for the English language.
No full synthetic expression of agreement or government can be observed in Ukrainian appositive word-groups like число три/числа три, поет Данте/поета Данте, поетові Данте, фільм "Вони воювали за Батьківщину", (у) фільмі "Вони воювали за Батьківщину", etc.
Note.Pertaining to English only are also substantival word-groups with adjuncts expressed by the definite or indefinite articles, which acquire a lexical meaning in a syntaxeme, i.e. in the context. For example, in such sentences as the following:
What his sister has seen in the man Що його сестра знайшла в цьомуwas beyond him. (London) чоловікові,він не міг збагнути.
Не hadn't a penny. (Maugham) Він не мав жодногопенні/ламаного
2. Verbal Word-Groupsare also characterised in English and Ukrainian by some isomorphic and allomorphic features. Generally common in both languages are the structural types of verbal word-groups that may be: 1) with simple objective or adverbial complements; 2) with extended or expanded complements; 3) with simple or extended/expanded objective and adverbial complements. Of common pattern in both languages are verbal word-groups with pre-posed and postposed complements.
Simple unextended word-groups with the transitive verbal head include nominal and adverbial complements/adjuncts. Their pattern is com-
mon in English and Ukrainian. Cf. V<N or I, Q, A, Stative: to like books, to receive four, to love her, to prefer blue (to red), to love it to be asleep; любити книжки, отримати четвірку, кохати її, любити синє, щиро любити, почуватися краще, etc. The head verb may also be extended or expanded: to ardently love somebody (дуже любити когось), etc.
Common are also prepositional complements in verbal word-groups of this pattern: to speak of somebody, to divide by two; говорити про когось, ділити на два (на двоє). Ukrainian has no equivalents, however, for the V<Ving and V<Vger English word-groups patterns as to sit reading, to like reading/being read (or having read it/the book). It has, however, the V<Vdiyeprs pattern word-groups instead which are unknown in English. These are as follows: читати стоячи, іти співаючи or VdiyeprV/VP співаючи іти/іти далі (IVQD) patterns which are alien to English читаючи/прочитавши (поему/їі), гарно прочитавши, прочитаєш двічі, співаючи іти додому/здому, etc. The English equivalents of these and other verbal word-groups are participial VingD (going home, going quickly) or V<Vger(go on reading, stop talking), etc.
It should be pointed out, however, that unlike English, most of Ukrainian complements and adverbial adjuncts have no fixed position in the word-group. Cf. слухати музику — музику слухати, гарно співати
— співати гарно, вийти з лісу — з лісу вийти, сидячи читати — читати сидячи, почуватися краще — краще почуватися and consequently D<D or D>D as in гарно дуже — дуже гарно.
Neither is the position of pre-posed complements/adjuncts fixed in Ukrainian. Cf. VprepN or prep N>V: думати про майбутнє — про майбутнє думати.
Some English complements, when emphasised, may also change their position, eg:
to speak of whom? — Of whom to speak? to be invited by Peter
— by Peter to be invited?
Extended and expanded complements/adjuncts have mainly common structural patterns in the contrasted languages. Cf. Vinf < VP: to like to play the piano; любити пограти на піаніно; Vinf<Vinf co-cj Vinf<N: to like to read and translate a passage; любити читати й перекла-
дати текст. In other words, the verbal head may have a VP structure.
Allomorphism is observed in the nature of some complements (gerundial, infinitival, participial) which often form predicative complexes in English verbal word-groups, eg: Vinf prepN<V: to wait for Ann to read; Vinfprep N'sVger: to rely on Bob's reading the article; Vinf<DV<N<Ving< D: to go down to see the boy waiting outside. Similarly in Ukrainian: зайти додому взяти книжку заховану десь.
3. Adjectival Word-Groups.Due to the restricted combinability of different notionals with the adjectival head, this paradigmatic class of word-groups has a much smaller number (and varieties) of structural models. The most productive and usual in English and Ukrainian are the following simple and extended models with different dependent components.
Allomorphic, і. е. pertaining to English only are adjectival word-groups with gerundial complements (A<Vger), eg: worth reading (being read): A<VgerN(P): worth reading the book; AprepN(I)Vger: proud of Pete/ him being decorated, proud of his having been invited.
Apart from the non-existence of gerundial complements, Ukrainian adjectival word-groups are characterised by some other features of their own. Among these, for example, is the free location of most of adjectival and complements adjuncts which is absolutely impossible in English. Cf. дуже добра — добра дуже; радий чути — чути радий; значно
молодший за мене — за мене значно молодший, добрий до всіх - до всіх добрий.
Nevertheless, it is impossible to change the order or position of any immediate constituent as in the word-groups like багато молодший, ніж вона but not* ніж вона, багато молодший, though the pattern can not be considered completely ungrammatical for a predominantly synthetic language, like Ukrainian either.
Ukrainian head adjectives, however, express the morphological categories of number, case and gender which is impossible in English. Cf. гарний зовні, гарна зовні, гарні зовні; гарної/гарній зовні, гарною зовні; добрий/добрим до всіх; рідна/рідної для нас, etc.
4. Pronominal Word-Groupsin the contrasted languages have some general features in common. Thus, most often the heads are indefinite, negative and mostly demonstrative pronouns, and much rarer personal and reflexive pronouns. The usually common adjuncts in both languages are pronouns, prepositional nouns, adjectives or adjectival word-groups, infinitives, verbal word-groups and subordinate clauses. The most common place of these adjuncts is postposition, though in Ukrainian they may be used in preposition as well. Besides, Ukrainian pronouns are all declinable. Cf. ми всі — нас усіх — нам усім — нами всіма; хто з учнів — 'кого з учнів — кому з учнів/з них.
Pronominal word-groups, however, are formed in both languages according to some common structural models/patterns. For example:
A characteristic/allomorphic feature of Ukrainian pronominal word-groups is their considerably free position within the pattern which is never possible in English. Cf. щось нове — нове щось, нічого казати — казати нічого, дехто з учнів — з учнів дехто.
5. Numerical word-groupsform a separate group in the English and Ukrainian languages as well. They can not and should not be neglected or avoided, since they have in English and Ukrainian some isomorphic and allomorphic features of their own. Despite all this some grammarians often avoid even mentioning the numerical word-groups[39; 15; 3], whose existence in English and Ukrainian can not be overlooked. This morphological class of word-groups has the following combinability with other parts of speech:
As can be observed from the given above paradigmatic models of numerical word-groups, only one of them is missing in English - that one which is presented in Ukrainian by the Q<N(I) model (багато часу, мало нас), etc., since much or many are not numerals in English.
One more characteristic feature of most Ukrainian numerical word-
3 1 8
groups (except those with the sub-clauses) is their considerably free permutation (change of place) of the immediate constituents, which is impossible in English word-groups of the same structural models. Cf. двох з того класу — з того класу двох; перший співати — співати перший; п'ятий із тих попереду — із тих попереду п'ятий; чимало грошей — грошей чимало, etc.
Isomorphic, however, is the ability of numerical word-groups to become extended. For example, the Qord NVinf the second man to come may be extend to QordNVD (the first man to come here) or even to QordNVinf D+D: the first man to come here tomorrow, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian: перше бажання виграти - перше бажання виграти там ~ перше бажання виграти талі узавтра.
6. Adverbial Word-Groupsin both contrasted languages can be headed by adverbs or by adverbial phrases. The adjuncts/complements may be expressed by adverbs or by adverbial (usually prepositional) phrases used in preposition as well as in postposition to the head adverb. This position, i.e. placement is predetermined by the meaning of the adjunct and by its structural form, the structurally complicated adjuncts having usually a fixed position even in Ukrainian word-groups. This is not so with simple adjuncts which may change their place in Ukrainian under the influence of some type of stress. Cf.
There is, therefore, a complete coincidence in the form of structural models of adverbial word-groups in the contrasted languages. Allomorphism can be observed only in the placement of some Ukrainian components which can be free in Ukrainian as in далеко звідси - звідси далеко or the use of the English once a year corresponding to the Ukrainian prepositional word-groups of the same meaning — DprepN(P) раз на рік/ раз на весь рік.
7. Statival Word-Groupsrarely correlate in the contrasted languages semantically and structurally. This is because English statives have few direct lexical equivalents in Ukrainian and vice versa. Moreover, Ukrainian statives are often identified only at the syntactic level, since the same word may be in one word-group or sentence an adverb and in another — a stative. Or: Він живе добре (adverb); Кому там добре (stative); Надворі вже краще (adverb). Йому вже краще (stative). The English equivalent of "добре", however, is either an adverb (well) or an adjective (good). Eg. He speaks good French. Despite all this, the structural patterns of statival word-groups in English and Ukrainian are mostly common, though their components almost never coincide lexically. For example:
Gerundial complements, naturally, pertain only to English statival word-groups (cf. afraid of being sent away). Also, English statives have a
fixed position for a certain morphological class of word-groups as, for example, in the word-group ashamed/afraid of something, but: soon asleep. The placement of Ukrainian statives in such word-groups is generally free, eg: йому добре тут — тут йому добре — добре йому тут, нам добре скрізь - скрізь нам добре.
It should be added that the function of any paradigmatic class of word-group in the sentence coincides in both languages with the function of its head word. For example, in the sentence He knew his subject very well the substantival word-group his subject performs the function of the noun, i.e. the object, and the adverbial word-groups very well performs the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. Both these functions of the word-groups are identical in Ukrainian. Cf. Він знав свій предмет (extended object) дуже добре (adv. modifier).
Similarly with other morphological/paradigmatic classes of word-groups. For example, in the sentence She was neither ashamed nor afraid of saying that quite aloud the italicised word-groups perform the functions respectively of the predicative (neither ashamed nor afraid), of a prepositional object (the substantival function of the gerundial word-group of saying that) and of the adverbial modifier, which coincides with the adverbial nature and meaning of the word-group quite aloud. No need to emphasise that the meaning and functions of these word-groups in Ukrainian are the same. Cf. їй було ні соромно ні страшно (predicative) за все сказане (prep/ object) на весь голос (adv. modifier).
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