III. Predicative Word-Groups

Unlike the previous two types of word-groups, i.e. the co-ordinate and subordinate word-groups, the extensively used in English predicative word-groups are only partly found in present-day Ukrainian. Completely isomorphic, naturally, are primary predication word-groups, which are singled out in the sentence and comprise the subject and the predicate. For example: The student works hard. The book was published last year. Студент багато працює. Книжка була опублікована торік.

The syntactic interdependence between the components The stu-

dent and works, The book and was published remains unchanged when the predicative word-group is singled out of the sentence. So are the syntagmatic relations between the components reflected by the verb works(The student works and was published (the book) — Студент працює. Книжка опублікована була.

Secondary Predication Word-Groups/Syntagmemes.Apart from the primary predication word-groups there also exist the so-called "comlexes" [10; 16; 257-260; 19, 96-106; 47, 261] or "clauses" [54,317-318] which are mostly termed by our grammarians as "secondary predication word-groups". These pertain to the English language, though Ukrainian utterances are not always devoid of some similar structures either.

Secondary predication syntagmemes/word-groups are represented in English in the following structural types or syntactic constructions which are often referred to as complexes:

1. The objective with the infinitive constructions which are per tained not only to English, but also to German, French, Italian, etc. may have the following structural models: NVinf, IVinf, NPVinfNP, N/Iinf prepN and some others. For example: Again he saw Michael moisten his lips. (Galsworthy), I heard him roll in blankets. (Hemingway) This almost caused Jemima to faint with terror. (Thackeray)

2. The subjective with the infinitive constructions in English are of the following models: NVinf, IVinf, NPIVinfNP, eg: Irene was known to take very sudden decisions. (Galsworthy) He is reported to have been taken into custody. (F. News) The young man's ears seemed to droop on his skull. (Galsworthy) He was a fool to attempt to make a pretence that way. (London)

3. The infinitival prepositional constructions of the forN/IVinf, or the forNPVinfN(I), forN(I)VinfD, etc. models: For you to go there fast now would be to walk into a trap with your eyes open. (Voynich) The only thing to do is for you to whip him, Edward. (Mansfield) The boy stood aside for me to go by. (Galsworthy)

4. The objective with the participle constructions in English are of the following models: NVing, IVing, I/NVen(D), VenNP, NPVphrase, etc: I'm sorry to have kept you waiting... (Saroyan) Morning found him still reading. (London) I saw Fleur coming. (Galsworthy) He could see her face bent over the little kitten in her arms. (Ibid.)

5. The subjective with the participle constructions in English are of the following models: N... VingNP, NP...VenNP, NP...Ving: He could be seen following her with his eyes. (Galsworthy) From time to time their voices could be heard uplifted in clamorous argument. (Norris) The rain was heard clattering... (J. Trease)

6. The gerundial constructions/complexes are of the following mod els: IpossVger, N'sIVger, prepN/IVgerNP: Hope you don't mind my comings. (London) I wonder at Jolyon's allowing this engagement... (Galsworthy) Excuse my being busy. (Dickens) He was aware of Tan ya watching his face. (Hailey).

7. The objective with the adjective, stative, or noun constructions are in English of the following models: VI/NA: Get the coffee/it ready. (Bronte) VNStative I woke... and found George awake. (J. K. Jerome) VNN: They called the baby Arthur. (Lawrence)

Note. As will be shown further, the above-mentioned predicative constructions of the last two models (NStative and Nappos.N) are pertained to the Ukrainian language as well (cf. Він назвав хлопця сином. NDStative: Тепер дитині значно легше).

8. The nominative absolute participle constructions which exist in English in the following structural models: NVingNP: The two walked in silence, Soams watching him out of the corner of his eye. (Galswor thy), IVingNP: They having the keys, no entrance was possible. (Ibid.) INDVing: Jame's face protruded naively,., his mouth slowly opening. (Ibid.) IVingD: This being so, I should like to go out. (Ibid.)

Nominative absolute participle constructions may have extended or contracted forms of models like ND and NprepN, which appear as a result of contaminating the participial constructions, eg: The lesson having been over, the students left the room — The lesson being over, the students left the room, The lesson over, the students left the room.

The Ukrainian language has only two structurally similar, if not identical, models of syntagmemes expressing the so-called secondary predication. They are: 1) the participle constructions having the same grammatical nature and semantic meaning as the corresponding English constructions of the NVing, IVing, NPVing, NVen, IVen, NPVen and NA models. For example: Пам'ятаю хлопця/його накульгуючим; дівчина/

вона застала двері зачиненими/вікно розбитим; санітарка знайшла бійця пораненим; читачі вважають роман цікавим; ми/студенти пам'ятаємо цього викладача молодим/об'єктивним; 2) the second type of objective secondary predication constructions in Ukrainian constitute the NN and IN models/patterns word-groups which are used in the following sentences: Ми вибрали Іваненка головою; Вони назвали хлопця Петром.

The italicised parts of the sentences are treated in Ukrainian as the so-called double predicates (like the NVen or NA patterns predicative constructions above: дівчина прийшла стомлена, Ми його знали молодим, etc.).

Typology of the Sentence

Unlike word-groups which are subject of investigation in Minor syntax, the sentence is investigated in the so-called Major syntax. Hence, the sentence in the contrasted languages has a large number of typologically relevant features in common. The existence of such isomorphic features both in the simple and in the composite sentence is predetermined by the main common types of aspects characteristic of the sentence as a peculiar language unit. These aspects are three: 1) structural; 2) semantic and 3) pragmatic. This aspective trichotomy directly correlates with the meaning, form and functioning of the sentence in speech where it realises its explicit form of an utterance corresponding to a logically complete proposition.

These three aspects are practically of universal nature; they constitute the main basis for a systemic arrangement and systemic contrasting of simple and composite sentences in all languages. Apart from this, the mentioned aspects can also serve as reliable distinguishing features between the main syntactic units, i. e. sentences on the one hand and the word-groups that are used to form sentences, on the other.

The principal distinguishing features characterising the sentence as a universal language unit are as follows: 1) the sentence is the main language unit; 2) it is the main syntactic unit and 3) it is the main integral part of speech, in other words - the principal communicative unit. Unlike

word-groups, sentences in the contrasted languages are distinguished from word-groups and words, that are as lower in rank language units, by some peculiar features, the main of which are the following four: 1) an intonation contour; 2) predication; 3) modality; 4) and a relative sense completion.

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