Structural Types of Sentences in English and Ukrainian

According to the way in which the expressed content correlates with reality, there are distinguished in the contrasted languages the following common structural types of sentences: 1) two-member sentences 2) one-member sentences.

Binary sentence structures are more characteristic of English, i.e. they are represented by a larger variety of paradigmatic subtypes than in Ukrainian. This quantitative correlation of two-member sentences in English and Ukrainian constitutes the main typological difference in the system of simple sentences of the two languages.

As a result, English two-member sentences are represented by a larger variety of extended and expanded models, than Ukrainian two-member sentences. Consequently, English two-member sentences are represented by a larger variety of paradigmatic subtypes than in Ukrainian.

The basic kernel structure of two-member sentences constitutes the binary S — P (Subject — Predicate) model which can be extended through complementation to S — P — O, S — P — O — M, S — P — О — М — M, etc. Thus, a kernel (ядерна основа) of the simple extended sentence Dave stayed in the house for another four months (Cardwell) is, of course, Dave stayed which is enlarged (extended) to Dave stayed in the house and then to the complete sentence Dave stayed in the house for another four months... (Caldwell). This process of extension can be observed in Ukrainian as well: Дейв залишився, Дейв залишився в будинку, Дейв залишався жити в будинку ще якихось чотири місяці,

Simple two-member sentences in the contrasted languages are equally exposed to the syntactic process of expansion, i. e. enlargement of their component part through the co-ordinate catenation of homogeneous elements/parts of the sentence. Cf.: Mr. Dick and I soon became the best

of friends... (Dickens) Fields, trees, hedges streamed by. (Mansfield) The woman... turned round, traversed the crowded room... and clutched the lean arm of her host. (D. Parker) Similarly in Ukrainian: Містер Дік і я невдовзі стали найкращими друзями. Пробігали поля, дерева, живоплоти.

Two-member sentences in the contrasted languages may be of two subkinds: 1) conventionally complete and 2) properly complete. The former are elliptical sentences in which any part/some parts of the sentence is/are deleted: "And when are you going?" — "On Monday". (Galsworthy) Nobody under the table, nobody under the sofa. (Dickens) "What time is it now, Dick?". — "Quarter past nine". (Steinbeck) The same in Ukrainian: "І коли ви від'їжджаєте?" — "В понеділок". "Нікого під столом, нікого під канапою". "Котра година, Діку?" — "Чверть на дев'яту".

These elliptical sentences in English and Ukrainian are connected with their preceding kernel sentences, as a result of which they can easily be completed. Cf. "And when are you going " - I am going on Monday. Nobody is/was under the table, nobody was under the sofa, etc.

Note.Many English sentences, traditionally qualified as elliptical, are structurally close to Ukrainian definite personal sentences. Cf. "Much obliged to you". (Galsworthy) "Sleeping in this morning?" (Prichard). "Hear them coming yet?" (Steinbeck) Looks like rain.

These and other sentences of the kind do not in any way depend on the preceding sentences. They lack the subject (or the subject and the predicate), which is easy to define, however, from the content of the sentence. Cf. (I am) much obliged to you. (Are/were you) sleeping in this morning? (It) looks like rain, etc.

But whatever the nature of these sentences, they can be easily replenished completed which is a convincing testimony to the existence of typologically common sentence structures in the system of simple utterances of the contrasted languages. At the same time two-member sentences have a larger representation in English than in Ukrainian, which constitutes a typologically allomorphic feature of the two languages. The only two-member sentences, which are non-existent in Ukrainian, are the following:

1. Impersonal sentences which are introduced by the impersonal pro noun/subject it: It is thundering. It drizzles. It snowed. It has rained/ snowed.

2. Indefinite personal sentences in which the subject is expressed by the indefinite personal pronouns one, they, you, eg: Onesays. Theysay. Youdon't say so.

3. Sentences with the above-mentioned introductory "it" or "there" like Itis time to start. Thereis nothing/much to say.

4. Sentences with the implicit agent and passive predicate verb fol lowed by a preposition like He was sent for.The project is objected toeverywhere.

5. Sentences with the above-mentioned secondary predication con structions as the following:

I thought him to be a teacher. We saw her cross the street. She made herself seem friendly. All were waiting for the results to be announced. He is said to be a sportsman. She was seen crossing the street. She is said to be preparing for the examination. He entered the room, pipe in month.

Such English two-member sentences have in Ukrainian either simple or complex definite personal sentences for their semantic equivalents. Cf. Я думав, що він учитель. Ми бачили, як він переходив вулицю. Кажуть, що він спортсмен. Усі чекали оголошення наслідків/що оголосять наслідки. Він зайшов у кімнату з люлькою в зубах.

6. Sentences with the gerundial complexes used as predicative (sec ondary predication) constructions. These sentences have in Ukrainian complex or simple sentences for their semantic equivalents. For exam ple: We learnt of his being decorated. They spoke of her passing all exams successfully. You can rely on her coming in time. Ми дізналися про його нагородження (про те, що його нагороджено). Ви можете розраховувати на її вчасний прихід (на те, що вона вчасно прийде). Говорять про її успішне складання всіх іспитів/що вона успішно склала всі іспити.

The bulk of two-member sentences are of common structural form in the contrasted languages. These are sentences with the subject expressed by a notional word or its equivalent and the predicate expressed by a

finite verb, eg: Breakfast was not yet over... (Mansfield) She looks entirely different off the stage. (Parker) That was Coleman. (Maken) At dark the rain stopped. (Caldwell)

Such sentences have their structural and semantic equivalents in Ukrainian as well: Ідуть дощі. (Коцюбинський) Сава Андрійович раптом замовк. Любив дід гарну бесіду й добре слово. (Довженко)

Note. There are no equivalents in Ukrainian to the English two-member sentences with the formal "there" and "it" as formal subject. Cf. There is a book on the table. It is necessary to read more. На столі книжка. Необхідно/треба читати більше.

Common in the contrasted languages are also two-member sentences with the simple nominal predicate expressed by a noun, an adjective, a numeral, an infinitive, a participle or a phrase. Such a predicate may follow the subject or precede it. Hence, there may be a) the S — P model sentences and b) the P — S model sentences. For example, the S — P model sentences: Anything the matter, Michael? (Galsworthy) My idea obsolete!!! (B. Shaw) The Future, how, how uncharted! (Galsworthy) The P — S model sentences: Poor little thing. (Maugham) Nice manners and everything. (Parker) Bad to stick, sir. (Galsworthy) Моя пропозиція непотрібна??? Майбутнє, як, як невизначене! Бідна вона. Гарні манери і все інше. Нас троє.

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