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Other Peculiar Features of English and Ukrainian Verbs



Not only verbals with their nomenclature, forms, meanings and functions have in each contrasted language some peculiarities of their own. Allomorphisms are also observed in the formation of Ukrainian perfective verbs for which various prefixes are used. The main of them are as follows: з-, е-, за-, на-, по-, пра-, про-:казати - сказати, родити -


зародити, сидіти - засидіти, жити - нажити, їсти - поїсти, ходити -приходити, грати - програти/виграти, etc.

There also exist correlating pairs of perfective verbs formed on the basis of the counteropposition of non-perfective vs. (versus) perfective aspect. Cf. жити - зжити/зажити, пхатись - впхатись, гнати -пригнати/загнати. Ukrainian suffixes may also be used to form imperfective verbs from perfective ones. These suffixes are: -ува-, -юва-, -овува, -ва, -а: відшукати - відшукувати, скупити - скуповувати, зігріти - зігрівати, оббити - оббивати, оцінити - оцінювати, etc.

Similarly formed in Ukrainian are some imperfective verbs from perfective ones with the help of the correlating suffixes -и- vs. -a-, -i- vs. -a-, -e-vs. -й-. For example: кінчити - кінчати, лишити - лишати, пустити -пускати. These suffixes can also express some other aspective meanings in Ukrainian. Cf. летіти - літати, котити - качати, нести - носити.

Allomorphism in Ukrainian expression of aspective meanings can be observed also in conveying some tinges of meaning via perfective verbs. For example, to express momentous action which is conveyed by the suffixes -ну- and -ону-: гукати - гукнути, стукати - стукнути, смикати - смикнути, кусати - куснути, рубати - рубнути and рубонути, цмокати - цмокнути, махати - махнути and махонути.

Present-day Ukrainian has also a small group of preffixless verbs which express both perfective as well as non-perfective meanings that can be formed within the microtext. Cf: веліти, вітати, атакувати, женити, наслідувати, телеграфувати, телефонувати. For example: Викладач велів перекласти текст (perfective aspect). Живи, як велить тобі Біблія (non-perfective aspect).

Similar verbs are observed in English as well. Thus, durative and terminative (corresponding to Ukrainian perfective) verbs in English are the following: to kneel, to know, to sit, to stand, to remember. Cf: He always sits in the armchair. But: he went to the table and sat close to her. Or: He stood at the table (non-perfective) and: He went and stood (termin.) at the table.

Non-perfective (i.e. durative action) express the following English verbs: to admire, to esteem, to detest, to hate, to hope, to love, to lie, to smoke, to sleep, to work, to watch, to possess, to want, to move, etc.


Constantly non-perfective in Ukrainian are also some a) prefixless verbs as гидувати, гордувати, гребувати, вимагати, мислити, чекати, ворогувати, ледарювати, працювати, говорити, стежити, and others; b) prefixal verbs formed from verbs denoting unrestricted (non-terminative in English) meanings which denote thinking, perception of some action and are used with the prefix no-:погукувати, поспівувати, почитувати, пописувати, потріскувати, посвистувати, etc.

Note.Only perfective, i.e. corresponding to English terminative verbs are the following Ukrainian verbs formed with the help of the prefixes від-, за-, на-, по-, про-, раз-: відправляти, відбути, відпрацювати, запрацювати, замирити/замиритися, надуматися, нажитися, натерпітися, навчитися, повчитися, по/пробідкуватися, поплавати, поплакати, провчитися, походити, and some others.

Both English and Ukrainian have also transitive and intransitive verbs which are of the same semantic class, as the following transitive or objective verbs: take - брати, think - думати, read - читати, build -будувати, construct - конструювати, find - знаходити, etc. Intransitive or subjective verbs: to sleep ~ спати, to walk - xodumu,to go - йти, to come - приходити, to sit - сидіти, to lie - лежати, to rise вставати, etc. The English language, however, has more transitive verbs as several intransitive verbs may become in some contexts transitive. Cf. to run the office, to walk the dog, to fell (trees), etc.





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