Communicate Types of Sentences

Table 25






English Affirmative Negative Ukrainian Стверджувальні Заперечні
Communicative type Paradigmatic form Communicative type Paradigmatic form
Declarative Common + + Розповідні Common + +
  General questions + +   Загальні запитання + +
  Disjunctive questions + +   Диз'юнктивні + +
Interrogative Alternative questions Special questions + + Запитальні Альтернативні Спеціальні + +
  Rhetorical questions + +   Риторичні + +
  Suggestive questions + +   Сугестивні + +
Imperative and inducive sentences + + Наказові та спонукальні речення + +
Exclamatory sentences + + Вигукові речення + +
Sentences of hypothetic modality + + Речення гіпотетичної модальності + +

particle not, by the double conjunction neither nor/either or, and by the negative pronoun no. They have their equivalents in the Ukrainian negative particles не, ні and in the double conjunction i — i, as in the following sentences: Hi Джордж, ні я не насмілювались повернутись. Джонні не підпалював будинку.

Neither George nor I dared to turn round. (Jerome)

Ірен не відповіла/не дала відповіді. ...Він і не відповідав, і не ворушився.

Johnny didn't start the fire. (Saroyan) Irene made no reply. (Galsworthy) ...He neither spoke nor moved. (Bronte)

Небуло видно жодногособаки. Я і справді нічого не знаю...У мене ще ніколи не булотакого чудового свята...

Allomorphism is observed in English negative statements with the negative pronouns and negative adverbs no, nobody, nothing, nowhere, never, etc. which have double negation in Ukrainian where it is formed by the negative pronoun or negative adverb and the negative particle не, eg: Mrs. Dyke was nowhereto be seen. (Norris) Пані Дайк ніде небуло видно. No dog was to be seen. (Irving) But really I know nothing...(Doyle) 1 neverhad such a wonderful holiday... (Cusack)

Sentences of interrogative modality, however, have a common communicative function and mostly identical structural forms in both contrasted languages.

Their types are as follows: general questions("yes-no" questions) and special questions("pronominal" or "wh"-questions). All other sentences of interrogative modality ("tag-questions", rhetorical and alternative questions) are in both languages practically structural and communicative modifications of these two structural types.

A. General Questionsin English mostly open with an auxiliary, modal or linking verb followed by the subject. Ukrainian general questions may open with any part of the sentence. Rather often Ukrainian general questions also open with a particle: "Did you do it?" (Saroyan) To, може, ти це зробив? Це каже хто? А можна/Хіба можна так сказати? Shall we pack up and go? (M. Spark) Може спакуємось і поїдемо?

Note. To express inquiry, suggestion or uncertainty, general questions may open in colloquial English with the finite verb or with the subject of the sentence (as in Ukrainian): "Got a cigarette, Root?" "Hear

anything?" "Scared of the dark, kid?" (Steinbeck) "Know them?" (Mansfield) "You know our new neighbour?" (H. Munro). Hence, the colloquial forms of English general questions testify to the existence of similarity, if not identity in the structural forms of general questions in English and Ukrainian.

B. Disjunctive/Tag-Questionshave in English and Ukrainian se mantic and structural equivalents as well. Structural identity is observed in disjunctive questions consisting of an affirmative or negative state ment followed, respectively, by a negative and/or affirmative question tag. "She is rather sweet, isn't she?' "Вона гарненька, чи не так?" "You're not afraid, are you?" (Steinbeck) "Ти ж не боїшся, так?/ правда?/ Чи не так?"

Allomorphism is observed, however, in the ability of some Ukrainian tag-questions to be transformed into general questions. For example: "You are all right, aren't you?" "У тебе все гаразд, чи не так? or Правда ж, у тебе все гаразд?"

C. Alternative Questionsare characterised in both contrasted lan guages by absolutely isomorphic features only. The latter manifest them selves in the existence of a semantically and structurally common alter native conjunction or corresponding to the Ukrainian чи. The introducto ry part in these sentences coincides in both languages and may be either a general question or a special question by its structure. The very exist ence of alternative questions, however, is regarded by some grammari ans as disputable today. Despite this the alternative questions can not be denied specific semantic and structural peculiarities of their own. Thus, the introductory part, whether a general or a special question by its form, is always pronounced before the alternative conjunction with a rising tone: Are there among the football hooligans only the British fans or there are some Belgians too? (F. News). To серед футбольних хуліганів / тільки одні англійці чи є і бельгійці? Is he / married or single? (Sheri dan) Він /"одружений чи ще ні?

D. Special/Pronominal Questionsare characterised in the con trasted languages by generally common if not presumably universal fea tures. They open with an interrogative pronoun or adverb which may

sometimes be preceded by prepositions, particles or interjections. For example: Who said so? (Hemingway) What did you say? (Spark.) And what is it? With whom have they come? Oh, what was it? These sentences have absolute structural equivalents in Ukrainian: Хто це так сказав? Що ти сказав? А що це таке? З ким вони прийшли? О, що то було? О, то що то було?

Allomorphic is only the often use of prepositions in the closing position of the special question in English: What are you quitting for? (London) Where do you come from? (Conrad) What do you point to?

E. Sentences of Hypothetic Modality/Речення гіпотетичної модальності. The semantics of hypothesis may be expressed in the contrasted languages both with isomorphic as well as with allomorphic lexical means. Isomorphic is the expression of hypothetic modality by means of predicative parts or through the inserted notional words/phrases which are either modal words/phrases or predicates that include notional and modal verbs or their lexical equivalents. As, for example, in the following sentences:

Perhaps he was really not so young

as he looked. (Conrad)

"They are more likely to tickle us".


Може, він і справді не був таким молодим, як із вигляду. Більш імовірно, що вони розсмішать нас.

The expression of hypothetic modality through modal words is therefore identical in both languages. So is, generally, the expression of this kind of modality by means of the modal verbal predicates. Pertaining to Ukrainian, however, is mostly the predominant expression of hypothetic modality through the modal particles б/би, десь, ледве, ніби, наче, либонь, чи не, ледве (чи) не, навряд чи and some others. For example:

"Навряд чи й двоє з ним справились

би ". (Гончар)

Після нас хоч (і) потоп.

"Even both of them would have hardly managed to overpower him.". After us the deluge. (Saying)

F. Rhetorical Questionshave a modal meaning which does not contain any new information for the speaker. Structurally interrogative

by form, these questions contain a negative or an affirmative statement with a respective implicit answer. Rhetorical questions realise structurally a statement and a question simultaneously. Cf.: Can the leopard change his spots? or: Have I not suffered things to be forgiven? (Byron) Is it fair to take advantage of a man like this? (B. Shaw) Or in Ukrainian: Хіба горбатого могила виправить? А кого це кортить? Що ти кому казатимеш? Що тут удієш?

G. Sentences of Incentive Modality/Речення спонукальної модальності. Incentive modality originates in English and Ukrainian from optative modality and may have the meaning of incentiveness proper or it may express wishful incentiveness. Hence, the two different structural types of sentences to express these varieties of incentiveness:

1. Imperative sentences, i. e. such sentences in which the main in centive meaning constitutes a categorial demand which is expressed through the imperative mood forms of verbs denoting order, command, request, warning, prohibition, persuasion, etc. The incentive meaning of this type is realised through a) one-member sentences, eg: Silence! Stop talking! b) through two-member sentences, eg: Vanish the dream! Van ish the idle fears! (Longfellow) Згинь, ця думко! (Згинь же, безпід ставний страх!) "Clear the road, you bums." (Caldwell) Зійдіть з дороги, волоцюги!/ Тікайте з дороги, волоцюги!

Incentive modality may also be expressed in exclamatory sentences through the meaning of the auxiliary verb "let" and in Ukrainian by the particles нум or нумо. Cf. "Let me go and see him alone." (Maugham) Хай / Нум я сам зайду до нього. Let George do it. Хай/Нехай хтось інший робить це. Let bygones be bygones! Що було те загуло. (Saying)

2. Exclamatory as well as some other semantic types of sentences may have the form of a) affirmative or interrogative sentences: He took no notice of Mariam! (Lawrence) Він навіть не помічав Маріам! What a medley of opinions! (Goldsmith) Яка мішанина думок! "Isn't it mar vellous?" (Parker) Хіба ж це не чудово! b) Exclamatory sentences of this type may also have the form of unextended or extended infinitival sentences: But to sneak her (Fleur) like this! (Galsworthy) Щоб так оце викрасти її! с) They may also have the form/structure of nominal sen tences: The sky, the flowers, the songs of birds! (Galsworthy) — Чисте

небо, квіточки, пташиний спів! The rain. The welcome rain! (Longfellow) Дощ, давно очікуваний дощ!

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