ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Typology of the Compound Sentence



Clauses in compound sentences of the contrasted languages are mostly joined by means of co-ordinate conjunctions which provide parataxal relations between them. Conjunctions joining clauses in compound sentences of the contrasted languages are practically of the same semantic nature: copulative, adversative, and causal/or (in English only). Equally common in the contrasted languages are various connectives that join co-ordinate clauses. These are as follows: therefore, consequently, accordingly, then, hence, so, while, as well as and some explanatory connective words (that is to say, such as, like, let me say and others),


which have corresponding functional (and semantic) equivalents in Ukrainian (отже, та, а саме, звідси, тобто, тоді, як-то, так-як, ...так, скажімо, то...то).

Co-ordinate conjunctions, as well as various connectives, realise their functional and semantic meaning in structurally and semantically identical English and Ukrainian compound sentences. This is to be explained by the existence of common relations that are created between the coordinate clauses of compound sentences and to a large degree by the semantic meanings of conjunctions/connectives that join these clauses.

As a result, isomorphism, if not exact likeness, is observed in the nature of some subtypes of English and Ukrainian compound sentences. These isomorphic features find their expressions in the existence of the following subtypes of them:

1. Compound Sentences with Free/Neutral Interrelations
between Their Clauses

Co-ordinated clauses of this subtype of compound sentences change their position without effecting in any way their semantic structure or the communicative aim of the expression. Cf. It was like singing and it wasn't like singing. (Faulkner) When transformed with the help of changing the position of clauses into "It wasn't like singing and it was like singing" the content of the sentence does not change, though the order of actions becomes reverse. Similarly in the following sentence: I smiled and he smiled. (Dreiser) which may be transformed into "He smiled and I smiled. " Though the sequence (the order) of the events is changed, the general content of the sentence is not changed on the whole. This kind of transformation can be performed on the Ukrainian variants of the two sentences. Cf. Це було не схоже на спів і це було схоже на спів. Я засміявся і він засміявся. = Він засміявся і я засміявся.

In compound sentences consisting of more than two semantically neutral clauses, the first clause may not always change its place with other clauses. The restriction in transformation through the change of place is due to the semantic interrelation existing between the main clause and the other clauses of the compound sentence. Cf. They were all from Milan, 1) and one of them was to be a lawyer, 2) and one was


to be a painter, 3) and one had intended to be a soldier. (Hemingway) In this sentence the second and the third clauses can change their place with the preceding or with the succeeding clause without changing in any noticeable way the sense and the structure of the composite sentence as a whole. Cf. They were all from Milan 1) and one of them was to be a lawyer, 2) and one of them was to be a painter. Or: They were all from Milan, 2) and one of them was to be a painter, 1) and one of them was to be a lawyer, 3) and one had intended to be a soldier. The Ukrainian variant of this sentence undergoes similar transformation through the change of place of the same neutral clauses. Cf. Вони всі троє були з Мілана, 2) і один з них мав був стати художником, 3) один мав колись намір стати військовим, І) а один мав був стати правником. Transformations/transpositions of the kind are not always possible, however, in compound sentences whose clauses in the contrasted languages are joined with the help of some other copulative conjunctions. Cf.

 

The hall was not dark, nor was it lit... (Bronte) Передпокій не був темний, як не був він і освітлений.

Nevertheless, a transformation through the change of position of clauses is not excluded in compound sentences with the conjunction "as" having "як" for its functional and semantic equivalent in Ukrainian. Cf.

 

He had never quite accepted it, as he had never accepted other aspects of his life. (Maltz) Він ніколи не схвалював цієї, як не схвалював він і інших сторін свого життя.

Cf. He had never accepted other aspects of his life, as he had never accepted it. Similarly in Ukrainian: Він ніколи не схвалював інших сторін свого життя, як не схвалював він і цієї.





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