Elements of Direct Address in English and Ukrainian

Direct address in the contrasted languages belongs to isomorphic syntactic phenomena. It may have the structure of a word, word-group or a sentence. Direct address is used in both contrasted languages, with the aim of drawing attention of the reader or listener to some information, object or person. For example, in English.

Men of England, heirs of glory. Люди Англії, спадкоємці слави. Heroes of unwritten story... (Shelley) Герої ще не написаної історії. As can be noticed the English word-group of direct address expressing the vocative case relation do not have it expressed synthetically as it is in Ukrainian: Люди Англії, спадкоємці слави... The vocative case in Ukrainian is mostly an explicit form of expressing one's address to any notional part of speech. Cf. Думи мої, думи мої, Лихо мені з вами! (Т. Шевченко) or Донеччино моя, моя ти Батьківщино... (Сосюра) Україно, ти для мене диво! Україно! Ти моя молитва! Ти моя розлуко вікова! (Симоненко) Чого ти, сину, став такий смутний! (Н. Левиць-

кий) Present-day English has no vocative case inflexion to express direct address which is to be conveyed in Ukrainian:

"Good night, Mary dear. Good night, "На добраніч, дорога Мері. На до- Bob" (F. King) браніч, Бобе."

The expression of direct address in Ukrainian may sometimes be only partial. It happens, when the addressee noun is indeclinable in Ukrainian. For example:

"Are you married, Mr Poirot?" (Christie) "Ви одружений, пане Пуаро?"

Words of address in both languages can sometimes form synonymic strings which have equivalents in either of them. For example: Світе милий, краю милий, моя Україно!(Т. Шевченко) or: Сини мої, Орли мої! Летіть в Україну!(Ibid.) Their English semantic equivalents will have, of course, no vocative case explicit distinctions, though their semantic structure will remain unchanged: О my still world, my homeland dear, My sons, my brave eagles! Fly to my beloved Ukraine!

The addressee syntagmemes/elements are also endowed with predication, the minimal degree of which is pertained to proper names. Cf.:

"Dear Sally, what I like about you is "Дорога Саллі, що мені найбільше

your beautiful honesty." (Jessing) подобається в тобі, то це твоя пре-

красна чесність."

Direct addresses are often used in both languages to convey modality and emotions: disgust, dissatisfaction, joy, sorrow, fright, prohibition and others. Cf. "Thanks, Mike, thanks!" "Дякую Майку, дякую!" (Ibid.) "Oh, Guy, don't blame me. It really is not my fault." (Maugham) "Ой, Гаю, не вини мене. Тут я і справді не винна."


A composite sentence in English and Ukrainian, like in all other languages, contains two or more primary predication centres mostly repre-

sented by as many corresponding clauses. The structural types of the composite sentence are identified on the ground of the syntactic reflection (and connection) of its predicate parts which are not always distinctly identified. Thus, common in the syntactic systems of English and Ukrainian are sentences that are semantically intermediate between simple extended on the one hand and composite sentences on the other. These are the so-called semi-compound and semi-complex sentences. For example, the sentence "One does not give up a god easily and so with White Fang." (London) can not be treated as a simple extended one. Neither can it be identified as a composite sentence since the second part in it (and "so with White Fang") contains no subject and no predicate and wholly depends on the predicative centre of the first clause. Though the implicitly perceivable subject is the demonstrative pronoun "it" which logically requires the predicate verb "be". Cf. One does not give up a god easily, and so (it is/or was) with White Fang in Ukrainian equivalents are as follows:

1) He так легко відмовитися від свого 2) Не так легко відмовитися від

власника — бога, саме так і в свого власника — бога, саме

Білозубця. так (було це) і Білозубцеві.

Similarly with English extended sentences containing the secondary predication constructions or complexes, as they are traditionally called, that represent semi-complex sentences as well. They mostly correspond to Ukrainian complex sentences. Cf. White Fang felt fear mounting in him again. (London) Білозубець відчув, що "ним опановує страх" (the construction "fear mounting in him" becomes an object clause: White Fang felt /how?/that fear was mounting in him).

Present-day Ukrainian, as has been pointed out on the foregoing pages, has only some similar constructions of this nature. Cf. 1) Він застав двері зачиненими. == Він застав двері (вони були) зачиненими. 2) Санітари знайшли вояка пораненим. == ... (він був) пораненим.

The absence of almost all the secondary predication constructions in Ukrainian makes it impossible to obtain direct correlative transforms of some simple and composite sentences. Hence, English compound sen-

tences may have complex sentences for their equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.

He leaned far out of the window and Він висунувся далеко з вікна і

he saw the first light spread. помітив, що починають

(Galsworthy) пробиватися перші промені.

Because of the objective with the infinitive construction in the second/succeeding English clause of the compound sentence above the Ukrainian equivalent of it can be only an object subordinate clause.

There are, however, many common features in the system of the composite sentence of English and Ukrainian. One of them is the semantic ambiguity of some compound sentences that have the implicit meaning of complex sentences, which will be exemplified on the forthcoming pages. For example, the compound sentence "It (the play) stinks, but I'm Benedict Arnold" (Salinger) has an implicit concessive meaning of "Though the play stinks, I'm Benedict Arnold" (i. e., I'll act the part of Benedict Arnold in it). Similarly in Ukrainian: "П'єса препогана, але ж я граю Бенедикта Арнольда", і. е. Хоч/незважаючи на те, що п'єса препогана, але я погодився грати в ній головну роль..." Nevertheless there is much common in the nature and structure of the composite sentence in the syntactic systems of English and Ukrainian. Isomorphism is observed first of all in the nomenclature of the Major Syntax units represented by the compound and complex sentences.

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