Attributive Relations Predicative Relations

гарна погода, червоне небо; Погода гарна, небо червоне,

працююче колесо/ устаткування; Колесо/ устаткування працююче,

розбита клумба, засіяне поле, etc. Клумба розбита, поле засіяне.

As can be ascertained, prepositive adjectives as well as present and past participles form the attributive relation, whereas those same adjectives and participles in postposition to those same nouns form in Ukrainian a predicative relation. Eg. Тепле літо - Літо тепле. Посаджені дерева - Дерева посаджені. In other words, preposed adjectives and past participles express quality and postposed adjectives/participles express state of things and form simple nominal (and not compound nominal) predicates. This assertion is based on the absence of the linking verb which can be substantiated in Ukrainian via an extension of the sentence, eg.: Грядка засіяна гарної добірним зерном/ торік пізньої осені, etc.

//. Secondary predicative relation is formed in English by verbals in connection with other nominal parts of speech. The secondary predication constructions are formed in English by the so-called infinitival, participial and gerundial complexes, which function as various parts of the sentence. The nomenclature of them is as follows 1) the objective and the subjective with the infinitive constructions which perform respectively the function of the complex object and that of the complex subject. For example:

He stood by the creek and heard Він стояв біля струмка і чув як він

it ripple over the stones. (Cusack) (струмок) хлюпоче по камінцях.

He stood watching the red dawn Він стояв і спостерігав, як народжуєть-

break in the east. (Caldwell) ся (червоний) світанок на сході.

It goes without saying that the complex object expressed in this Ukrainian translation through the object subordinate clauses can also be conveyed with the help of nouns. Cf. Він чув хлюпіт/жебоніння води по камінцях or in the second sentence: Він спостерігав за народженням світанку на сході. Neither of these Ukrainian variants conveys the nature of the secondary predication expressed by the English objective with the infinitive constructions.

Similarly with the subjective with the infinitive complexes, which may be formed by turning the objective with the infinitive constructions passive. Cf. it (creek) was heard to ripple over the stones i.e. чулося/ було чути, як вода хлюпоче по камінцях. Or in such sentences:

You seem not to have caught my - Ти, здається, не зовсім зрозумів, що

idea. (Наrley) The operation is я хочу сказати/ мою думку.

expected to start in 48 hours. Очікується, що (антитерористична)

(К. Post) операція почнеться за 48 годин.

The subjective with the infinitive construction in English sentences has the function of the complex subject that is allomorphic for Ukrainian. Lexically and structurally isomorphic, however, is the English multifunctional secondary predication construction/complex of the for + to + infinitive. This English construction can perform the function of the complex subject, complex predicative, complex object, complex attribute and complex adverbial parts of the sentence. For example, the complex subject: "For you to decide it won't be easy." (Hartley); the complex predicative: "That is for you to decide is it not?" (C. Doyle); the complex object: She wanted to wait for the moon to rise. (Galsworthy); the complex attribute: "There is nothing for us to change at present, you see." (A. Wilson), etc.

One more secondary predication group constitute participial constructions/complexes which are functionally similar to the infinitival constructions and are: a) the objective with the present or past participles performing the function of the complex object: She heard the door closing. (Galsworthy). I will have some photographs taken. (Caldwell). These secondary predication constructions perform the same functions in the English sentences as the objective with the infinitive complexes.

Note.It should be repeatedly emphasised that there is one more secondary predication construction which is practically identical in English and Ukrainian. It also performs the same function in the sentence. This is the already mentioned objective with the past participle (or adjective) construction, which has not only an identical meaning in both contrasted languages, but also the same structural form. It is treated in present-day Ukrainian grammars as double predicate (подвійний присудок). For example:

1 found the windows closed. Я застав вікна зачиненими.

We remember him quite young. Ми пам'ятаємо його зовсім молодші.

They found the soldier wounded. Вони знайшли воїна пораненим.

Consequently, the predicative nature of the objective with the past participle is isomorphic in the contrasted languages, which is not the case with the objective present participle construction, that is completely allomorphic for Ukrainian. Cf. I hear you reading (pronoun you+present participle). Я знаю, як ти читаєш (connective adverb як + objective subordinate clause, i.e. a complex sentence), which is but a simple (extended) sentence in English.

One more English secondary predication construction constitutes the subjective/ nominative absolute participial complex that is practically allomorphic for Ukrainian. The functions of this secondary predication construction is mostly adverbial. For example: She walked steadily, the showel in front, held like a spear in both hands. (D. Lessing) or: Charlie stood with the rain on his shoulders, his hands in his pockets. (Ibid.) Both italicised adverbial constructions have the functions of the complex attendent circumstances (How/ in what way did he hold her showel? How/ in what way did Charlie stand?). The nominative absolute participial construction may also perform the functions of the adverbial modifiers of time or cause. For example: This being done, they set off with light hearts. (Irving). In this sentence two functions may be implicit simultaneously - that of the adverbial modifier of time (When did they set off!) and that of the adverbial modifier of cause: Why did they set off! The answers may also be respectively two: either 1) after that being done or 2) because that was being done.

///. Objective relations. These, like the predicative, attributive and adverbial relations are undoubtedly pertained to all languages without exception. They are directed by the action of the transitive verb on some object, which may be either a life or lifeless component. Hence, the notions of seeing/hearing somebody or something of being given smth. by somebody, etc. are pertained to each single language and to all lan guages of the world irrespective of their structural/typological differenc es. Hence, depending on the concrete language, these relations may have different/unlike forms of expression i.e. realisation. Thus, the notion to giving something to somebody can be expressed as follows:___________________________________

Language Realisation of case relation
In Ukrainian дати книжку (accusative case) Петрові (dative case)
In English Give a book to Peter/give Peter a book (no case forms)
In German Ein Buch (accusative case) dem Peter (dative case) geben Dein Peter (dative case) ein Buch (accusative case) geben
In Italian Dare il libro a Pietro/ dare a Pietro il libro (no case forms)
In French donner la livre a Pierre/ donner a Pierre la livre
In Spanish dar a Pedro el libro/ dar el libro a Pedro

Therefore only in Ukrainian and German the objective case relation of nouns and in the former the accusative case of them (cf. Взяти/дати книжку, листа, дитину) have a synthetic way of expression. English, German, French, Italian and Spanish (like some other languages) have no synthetic expression of case (objective, accussative and some others) of nouns and consequently of case relations either, which are expressed analytically (by means of prepositions). Cf.

"Come on", said Mr. Sloan to Tom, "we're late". (Fitzgerald)

"Ходім", - сказав Томові пан Слоан, -ми запізнюємось.

Isomorphism is observed, however, in the syntactic connection of the English or Italian objects expressed by some personal pronouns which take the objective case form (cf. for me, her, him, us, them; a me, a te, a noi/a voi, etc.). The expression of the objective relation coincides then not only in English and Ukrainian (cf. in German: gib ihm/ ihnen or in Italian date mi, etc.). This can be seen in following examples:

"Tell him we could wait, will you?" But the rest offended her. (Ibid.) "Скажіть йому, ми почекаємо. Добре?" Все інше ображало її.
Objective relations can also be expressed via a preposition and the synthetic form of the governed nominal part of speech (usually personal pronoun in English). Eg:
"You hadn't any pity for me, had you?" Walter could only stare at him. (L.P. Hartly) "Ти не мав до мене ніякого жалю, правда ж?" Волтер тільки вирячився на нього.
Objective relations, therefore, can be expressed in English and in several other languages with the help of analytical means including the syntactic placement of objective complements. For example, in English:
Mary sat next to Diana. "Just listen to your husband", Diana exclaimed. (Ibid.) Мері підсіла до Діани. - Ти тільки прислухайся до свого чоловіка! - вигукнула Діана.

As can be ascertained, objective relations in each English sentence are perceived due to the logico-grammatical nature of the parts of the sentence and due to their functional significance. In the sentence above the objective relations are realised partly through the position of the objects which (their position) is usually stable in English, i.e. always following the predicate, as well as with the help of prepositions: next to Diana, to your husband. In Ukrainian these objective relations are conveyed with the help of the prepositional government (preposition plus the dative case ending: до Діани) and via inflexions (свого чоловіка, the accusative case of the direct object чоловіка).

The fixed placement of these objects in Ukrainian is not obligatory and can easily be changed without ruining the objective relation in the sentences. Cf. До Діани підсіла Мері, or: свого чоловіка тільки послухай. Such kind of transformation is usually impossible in English. Though not without exceptions either, as in some emphatic sentences like Talent Mr. Micowber has, capital Mr. Micowber has not. (Dickens) In Ukrainian too placement on rare occasions can be employed to distinguish the

subject from the object or vice versa as in the following sentences:

Радість сповнює серце (object) but: Серце (subj.) сповнює радість (object). Дні змінюють ночі (object) but: Ночі (subj.) змінюють дні (object).

Вітри супроводжують дощі (object) but: Дощі (subj.) супроводжують вітри


Such cases can naturally be considered coincidental, since objects in Ukrainian have mostly inflexional identification except for cases when nouns are indeclinable, as in sentences like Вони оформили фойє, ми взяли таксі, їй подобається кімоно/сарі, etc. Foreign indeclinable nouns of the kind do not loose their objective functions as a result of transposition. Cf. Фойє (object) оформили вони; Сарі (object) їй подобається/ не подобається; Таксі (object) ми взяли, etc.

IV. Attributive relations.These are formed in all languages between adjuncts and head words (subordinating parts) of nominal word-groups. This can be seen, for example, in the following English sentence and its Ukrainian counterpart:


The young man was still fresh, with jaunty fair hair and alert eyes. (D. Lessing) Молодий шахтар ще був свіжим новачком з неслухняною світлою чуприною і жвавими очима.

The attributive components in the English sentence (young man, jaunty fair hair, alert eyes) do not agree syntactically with their head nouns as their Ukrainian equivalents do (cf. молодий шахтар, неслухняною чуприною, свіжим новачком, жвавими очима). Each Ukrainian adjunct reflects the grammatical number, case and gender of its head noun through the corresponding endings. The English adjuncts, on the contrary, rarely combine with their head components by means of their inflexions, the main means being semantic and syntactic placement (often with prepositions). This becomes especially evident in cases with the indeclinable adjuncts which are, for example, infinitives, gerunds, adverbs and other parts of speech (or their paradigmatic forms). For example: books for reading, books to read/to be read and to be translated, September five/fifth, the then governments, etc. Such kind of adjuncts are

rare through not completely excluded in Ukrainian. For example: бажання виграти, бажання відпочити, номер два (alongside of номер другий/ другий номер), etc. The overwhelming majority of Ukrainian adjuncts, however, agree with the head word in number, case and gender. Cf. гарний день, гарна погода, гарне вбрання, гарні квіти; перший день, першого дня, першої зміни, першій зміні, перше змагання, першого змагання, перші сходи, перших сходів, першим сходам, etc.

Therefore, attributive relations in Ukrainian are mostly expressed with the help of synthetic means, i.e. via inflections, which is observed only in some four cases in English (when the adjuncts are the demonstrative pronouns this, that, such_a and many_a in singular and these, those, such and many in plural). Eg: this dumb beast, that hand, these bandages, those bitter lips, such a day - such days, many a boy - many boys (S. Chaplin). In Ukrainian, naturally, all adjectives, ordinal numerals, participles and adjectives-pronouns agree in number, case and gender with the head word. Cf.: червоний місяць, червона квітка, червоне небо, червоні очі; працюючий мотор, працююча зміна, працююче колесо, працюючі люди; твій брат, твого брата, твоя сестра, твоєї сестри, твоє пальто, твого пальта, (в) твоєму пальті, твої проблеми, твоїх проблем, твоїм проблемам, etc.

Nevertheless Ukrainian adjuncts may sometimes not agree in number, case and gender (as it is mostly in English). It happens when the adjunct is an indeclinable part of speech or a word-group. Eg.: бажання поспати, фільм "Вони боролися за волю батьківщини", акція "Допоможемо дітям-інвалідам", etc. Such and the like attributive word-groups are common in English. Cf. They fought for their motherland picture, America fights back action, boy and girl affair, night shift workers, etc.

Generally, however, attributive relations in English and Ukrainian are realised with the help of quantitatively the same but qualitatively rather different means and ways of connection (and expression).

V. Adverbial relationsin the contrasted languages are created both in co-ordinate and in subordinate word-groups to express different adverbial meanings. The latter may find their realisation in isomorphic by syntactic connection and componental structure co-ordinate or subordi-

nate word-groups. Subordinate word-groups can be in all European languages substantival, verbal, adverbial and others. Co-ordinate word-groups expressing adverbial relations may be a) substantival: in winter and/or in summer (time) зимою та/чи літом; by hook or by crook усіма правдами і неправдами (manner), b) adverbial, i.e. consisting of adverbial components: quickly and well швидко й добре (manner or attendant circumstances); neither seldom nor often ні часто ні рідко (time or frequency), etc.

Subordinate word-groups expressing adverbial relations and meanings may be 1) substantival:rains in March; university winter examinations in Ukraine, the harvest of 2002, дощі в березні, зимові іспити в університетах України, урожай 2002 року', винаходи 20 cm., etc.

2) Verbal word-groupsexpressing local or temporal meanings and those of attendant circumstances: to work/to be working there (local adv. relation), соте/coming soon, raising early, arrive next week/on Sunday (temporal relations), to work hard, to speak slowly, (adverbial relation of manner), etc. Similarly in Ukrainian: мешкати в Україні, працювати тут/там, приходити невдовзі/скоро, приїжджати наступного тижня/в неділю, вставати рано, працювати добре, говорити повільно.

3) Adverbial word-groupsare formed on the basis of adverbs or adverbial phrases (as heads): very well, seriously enough, rather well, very early, soon enough, late on Sunday, early in 2001, somewhere there, almost here, etc. And in Ukrainian: досить добре, зовсім серйозно, дуже рано, ще рано, пізно в неділю, наприкінці 2002 року, десь там, майже тут/ на окраїні.

4) Co-ordinate adverbial word-groups:soon and well, slowly but certainly, early or late, neither here nor there, here and everywhere, etc. скоро й повільно зате напевне, рано чи пізно, ні тут ні там, тут і скрізь, etc.

The adverbial relations in all languages usually coincide with various adverbial meanings, the main of which are as follows:

1. Temporal relationswhich express adverbial meanings of time or frequency: the meeting in 1991 or: the 1991 meeting, the detention of last August or: the last August detention, зустріч 1991 року, затримання минулого серпня, зустріч у понеділок, etc.

2. Local relations:the house in Manhattan, life near the seaport, meetings at the hotel, помешкання в Мангеттені, життя біля/ поблизу морського порту, зустрічі в готелі.

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