ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

D. Compound Sentences with Determining Clauses/Склад носурядні речення з детермінованими складовими



The existence of compound sentences whose clauses are joined by different conjunctions and connectives which express determining is a testimony of some features being common in composite sentences of parataxal and hypotaxal ways of joining their clauses. Determining clauses in English and Ukrainian have more or less clear reference to some adverbial meaning — temporal, causal, resultative, concessive, etc. which may be more or less clearly expressed in the second or third clauses. Cf. 1) The tracks ground up and away heading out of it all and the peasants plodded in ankle deep dust. (Hemingway) 2) Larry puffed at his pipe and Suzanne waited for him to go. (Maugham)


The second clauses in both compound sentences can change their place without any harm to their general content. Cf. The peasants plodded in ankle deep dust and the trucks ground up and away heading out of it all. Or in the second sentence: Suzanne waited for him to go and Larry puffed at his pipe. This same transposition can be performed on the Ukrainian variants of both sentences. Cf. 1) Вантажні машини, буксуючи, обганяли всіх, а селяни брели по кісточки в пилюці. Or: Селяни брели по кісточки в пилюці, а вантажні машини обганяли всіх. 2) Лері попихкував люльку, а Сузанна чекала на нього. — Сузанна чекала на нього, а Лері попихкував люльку.

Apart from temporal determining meanings, copulated clauses may express additional support or justification of the action in the main clause, eg:


I got the place with Harry and I like Burt fine. (Anderson) But after all I had to work and there was no work to be got. (Ibid.)


Я працюватиму разом з Гаррі та ще я люблю там Берт. Зрештою, я мусив стати до роботи, а роботи не можна було ніде знайти.


The place of the second clause ("and I like Burt fine") in the first sentence is fixed, because it presents an additional confirmation of the action in the first clause ("But I got a place with Harry"). If the place of clauses were changed, it would disrupt the (logic the content) of the sentence as a whole. Cf. *I like Burt fine and I got the place with Harry...

No change of place/transposition of clauses is ever possible in the second sentence either. This is because of the justification contained in the second clause ("and there was no work to be got") which, when moved to the closing position, would make the sentence ungrammatical. "There was no other work to be got (and) / but after all I had to work". Beside that, the meaning of the conjunction "and" in Ukrainian is adversative (a), which is emphasised by the introductory "but" (after all).

The bulk of copulative clauses in English and Ukrainian, however have an adverbial implicit (sometimes almost explicit) determining meaning. These clauses are joined by different conjunctions which may often be treated as regular connectives that introduce subordinate clauses. The adverbial implicit meaning in compound sentences of this subtype


may be single, i.e. pure (those of time, cause, purpose, result, concession) or combined with other adverbial relations (such as cause and result, cause and consequence, time and result, time and cause, etc.)

Among the single/simple determining adverbial relations expressed by the second clauses, joined by copulative conjunctions, the following are most occurrent:

1. The Relation of Result /Наслідкові відношення:

 

a) Still life's life, and we have to work through it and ourselves somehow. (Dreiser) b) She was leaning back on the chair and the fire light shone on her... face. (Hemingway) Однак життя є життя, i ми маємо зрештою якось переборювати і його, і себе. Вона прихилилася спиною до крісла і полум'я освітило її приємне обличчя.

The action of the verb-predicate in each second clause of the above-given compound sentences results from the action of the corresponding main clause. Thus, "We have to work through it and ourselves" as a result of the fact that "life's life" (a sentence), whereas the fire light could shine "on her pleasantly lined face" as a result of her "leaning back on the chair" in the main clause of the sentence.

2. Cause or Causal Relations/Причину чи причинні відношення:

 

He didn't have any money and he was ashamed. (Quin) It was a Saturday and the shop was full... (R. Lardner) Він був зовсім без грошей, і йому було соромно. Була одна із звичайних субот, і крамниця була повна людей...

Cf "he was ashamed" because he had no money, "the shop was full" because it was the weekend ("a Saturday").

3. Time or Temporal Relations/Час або часові відношення:

 

The dusk was blue and the birds were flying in it. (M. Le. Sueur) It was Easter Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. (Hemingway) Сутінки стали синіми i в них пролітали птахи. Була великодня неділя, і фашисти просувалися/рвалися до річки Ебро.

 


Temporal relations in both these sentences can be identified by means of the corresponding questions: 1) When were the birds flying? — When it was dusk. 2) When were the Fascists advancing toward the Erbo? — On Easter Sunday.

Among the combined adverbial relations which can often be expressed by compound sentences or rather by second clauses in them, commonly observed in the contrasted languages are the following:

1. The Relations of Cause and Consequence/Причинно-наслід-кові відношення:


The fire in the stove had gone out

and he undressed in the cold.

(Anderson)

Money was by no means plentiful

and in consequence there was

endless borrowing and "paying up"

among them. (Dreiser)


Вогонь у пічці потух, і він роздягався у холоді.

Грошей рідко коли вистачало і внаслідок цього серед них панували постійні позичання й "розпланування/віддавання".


The relation of cause and consequence can easily be established in any of the above-given sentences with the help of questions to the predicate of the second clauses. Cf. Why did he undress in the cold? The answer is given in the main clause: because "The fire in the stove had gone out".

2. The Relations of Time and Consequence (Result)/Часово-наслідкові відношення:

Like all other determining adverbial relations, temporal and consequence / resultative meanings in the contrasted languages are created by the predicate/verb in the main clause:


Father woke up and it was time for breakfast. (Faulkner) Then Jason got smoke in his eye, and he began to cry. (Ibid.)


Батько прокинувся, і (отож) був час снідати. Тоді у вічі Джейсонові зайшов дим, і він розплакався.


 


The partaking of food, or rather the breakfast of the family, becomes possible in the first sentence as a result of "Father's waking up". In other words, the action in the second clause results from the action in the


 


dominant clause (father's waking up). This action is the consequence of the action performed in the first clause. Or in the second clause of the second sentence: "he began to cry" in consequence of the action performed in the clause "Jason got smoke in his eyes".

3. The Relation of Time and Concession /Часово-допустові відношення:

The interrelations existing between the action in the semantically dominant clause and in the succeeding clause may be that of time and concession. Cf. It was getting dark in the swamps, and he had ten miles to go. (Caldwell) На болота спадала ніч, а йому ще було йти десять миль.

The concessive adverbial meaning/determination of the second clause becomes explicit when the sentence is transformed: "It was getting dark in the swamps" despite that "he had ten miles to go". In Ukrainian: "Ha болота спадала ніч, а (хоч) йому ще треба було йти десять миль".

English and Ukrainian co-ordinate clauses may be joined by connective words, whose meaning is close to that of the copulative conjunction. The most often used connectives of this group are so, while, then, hence, only, whereas, corresponding to Ukrainian тож, як /і, тимчасом, тоді, тільки.

When joined by these connectives, the clauses acquire some additional implicit meaning (causal, resultative, etc.).

He couldn't figure things fast, so Він не міг схоплювати чужі думки

he had figured them slow. (Bennett) швидко, тож (і) він схоплював їх по-

вільно.

The connective "so" introduces the clause of causal and resultative meaning being at the same time lexically close to the conjunction "and". So it is with some other English connectives of co-ordinate clauses:

He was in leash to the French Він був пов'язаний з цією фран-

school... only I did not know it at цузькою школою... тільки я не

the time. (Dreiser) знав тоді цього.

The meaning of "only" in this sentence is close to the adversative meaning of the Ukrainian conjunctions а, але (only I did not know it at


the time" — тільки/але я не знав тоді про це). Such clauses are intermediary between copulative and adversative, they have the meaning of both of them. Their place in the sentence is fixed in both languages.

Close to the copulative conjunction "and" arealso some other determining connectives in both languages. For example, while:


A head waiter... escorted him to a table near the window while the occupants... gazed at him spellbound and whispered, "Conrad Green". (Lardner).


Старший офіціант... провів його до столу біля вікна, і/а приголомшені відвідувачі, затамувавши подих, зашепотіли: "Конрад Ґрін!"





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