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Case Allocation of Ukrainian Preposition.



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case form Structural Types of Prepositions
Genitive Simple Compound Derivative Composite
без, біля, у, в, від, ради, окрім, з, коло, між, etc. задля, заради, з-за, з-межи (з-між), з-над, з-поза, з-перед, etc. близько, вглиб, вздовж, відносно, довкола/довкіл, замість, зверху, мимо, etc. в ім'я, в інтересах, за винятком, за допомогою, за рахунок, з боку, на основі, в силу, etc.
Dative к, ік   слід, всупереч, навздогін, навперейми, назустріч, наперекір, напереріз, etc. на (у) противагу
   
Accusative У (в), за, крізь, між, на, над, о (об), перед, під, по, повз, про, проз, через, etc. Поза, поміж (помежи), понад попри, проміж, etc.   Зважаючи на, незважаючи на, у відповідь на, з огляду на, etc.
 
Instrumental з (із, зі), за, між (межи), над (наді), перед (переді), під (піді), etc. Поза, понад, поміж (помежи), проміж, etc.   вслід (слідом) за, згідно з (навздогін) за, нарівні з, на чолі з, одночасно з, паралельно з, побіч з, порівняно з, поруч з, разом з, у зв'язку з, в унісон з, etc.
 
Locative у (в), на, о (об), по, при      
     

Even a passing look at the table proves the existence of a quantitative disproportionality concerning the allocation of Ukrainian prepositions among separate case forms. Thus, no derivative prepositions are used with the accusative, instrumental and locative case forms. Besides, the dative


case lacks derivative and composite prepositions, whereas the locative case has only some 5 simple prepositions to govern nominal parts of speech. The overwhelming number of prepositions, however, are used in Ukrainian with the genitive case. Their number more than two times exceeds the number of prepositions used with all other case forms.

One more is also an isomorphic feature pertained to the contrasted languages which finds its expression in the occasional use of some Ukrainian (like English) prepositions to perform a purely linking function. This happens in cases when prepositions are used to connect (not govern!) unchangeable foreign nouns. Cf. їхати в таксі, вийти з фойє, ходити без кольє, бути в кімоно/сарі, народитися в Туапсе, мешкати в Бордо/Ліворно. Despite this the syntactic functions of prepositional phrases are common in both languages. They may be in the sentence as subject (cf. For me to read it was easy), predicative (this is for me to decide), as an attribute (a book for you to read) or as an adverbial modifier. [I left something under your door for you to read it. (Carter)] In other words, prepositional phrases may be complements to verbs, adjectives (Cf. The need of doing something, sorry for something). They can perform the functions of attributive or adverbial adjuncts (books for reading, singing in the room), or serve as disjuncts (to my surprise, the student answered well), or conjuncts (on the other hand, she was free).

Typology of the Conjunctions

Conjunctions in the contrasted languages are functional words realising the connection of homogeneous parts in co-ordinate word-groups and sentences or linking subordinate clauses in composite sentences. As to their structure, conjunctions in English and Ukrainian are generally characterised by isomorphism. The various types are as follows: 1) Simple (and, but, or, if, that, till і /й, а, бо, ні, та/. 2) Derivative/compound: all + though --» although, un + less -» unless, be + cause — » because, un + till -» until, where + as -» whereas, a + бо -» або, за + те -» зате, про + те — проте, як + що -» якщо, як + би -» якби, etc. 3) Composite (складені): as if, as soon as, in order that; так що; через те, що; для того, щоб; з того час, як; відтоді, як, etc.

The use of conjunctions may be non-repeated (and, but, since a,


але, що) and repeated (in Ukrainian) or correlative (in English), eg: both... and, either..or, neither... nor, no sooner... than (ii, ніні, тото, чичи, не тоне то, не стількискільки).

As to their syntactic functions, conjunctions in the contrasted languages fall into two common-isomorphic groups: a) co-ordinating conjunctions and b) subordinating conjunctions. A graphic presentation of all classes of co-ordinating and subordinating conjunctions in English and Ukrainian is as follows:

Table 23

 

Copulative and, both... and, neither. . .nor, as well as, etc. і, й, та, ні... ні Disjunctive or, either. ..or, neither... nor, або, ато, чи, чи... чи, ато... ато Adversative but, still, yet, however, але, проте, зате, однак, все ж, etc. Resultative so, hence, тож, отож, тобто, а саме, etc. Causal for


Adjoining

and, also, and still, та й, та ще й


Co-ordinating conjunctions


Gradational

not only... but also, not

so much...than

що не тільки, а навіть;

не тільки, а й /але й


CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS


of comparison

as...as, not

so...as, than, as

if, as through,

мов, немов,

неначе, наче


Subordinating Conjunctions


Of Cause

because, as, since,

seeing,

бо, тому що,

оскільки


 

of place of time of condition of concession of purpose of results
where, after, till, until. if, unless. though, although, lest, that, in that, so that,
wherever. since, before, provided, despite, whoever, order that, so що, так
де, звідки, while, supposing, whatever, that, що/ й
куди, туди доки, поки, якщо, якби, хоча (б), дарма аби, щоб, для  
  як, аж поки коли б, якщо б що, хай, нехай того, щоб  

As can be seen in the table, co-ordinating conjunctions in the contrasted languages fall into the following subclasses:

1) Copulative (єднальні): and, nor, neither... nor, as well as, both... and, not only... but also; і/й, та, також, і... і, ні... ні, як... так і, не тільки... але й/і. Copulative conjunctions in the contrasted languages have a bilateral combinability. They connect separate components, com ponental parts of word-groups or clauses in compound sentences which are of equal rank, eg: In the afternoon he and Jolly took picks and spades and went to the field. (Galsworthy), "It was a cold fall and the wind came from the mountains". (Hemingway). По обіді він і Джоллі взяли кайла і лопатий пішли на поле. Була холодна осінь, і вітер віяв з гір. І пить будем, і гулять будем. (Ukr. Folk-song)

2) Disjunctive (розділові) conjunctions denote in both languages sepa ration. They are: or, either... or або, ато, чи, або... або, чи... чи, то... то, чи то...чи то, eg: "I must weep, or else this heavy heart will burst". (Byron) "I have nothing of the artist in me, eitherin faculty or character". (B. Shaw). Я мушу плакати, ато від горя серце розірветься. "Все пішло то на податі, то на борги, то на оренди". (Гончар) 3) Adversative (протиставні): but, still, yet але, проте, зате, однак, все ж and others. Eg: Andrew turned towards her distressed, yet still determined to carry out his intention. (Cronin) Ендрю повернувся до неї занепокоєний, але готовий здійснити свій намір. 4) Resultative (пояснювальні): so, hence так, що, тож/отож, тобто, а саме, як от, eg: The grass was drenching wet, sohe descended to the road. (Galsworthy) У траві стояла вода, тож він вийшов на шлях. І він катапультується, тобтовистрілює себе з літака разом з сидінням. (Гончар). 5) The causal conjunction (for) is pertaining only to English, eg: The windows were open, for it was hot. (Galsworthy). The corre sponding semantic equivalent of this conjunction in Ukrainian are, бо, тому що, оскільки- all of subordinating nature which testifies its allomorphism in the system of co-ordinate conjunctions in the contrasted languages. Consequently, it is sometimes far from easy for Ukrainian students to differentiate Ukrainian causal clauses in a complex sentence. It is not so with the subordinating conjunctionsintroducing subordi nate clauses. These conjunctions also include in both languages the group


of the so-called connectives standing separate from regular subordinating conjunctions. Regular conjunctions of this group are: that, whether, if, що, чи, якщо/якби which are used to introduce in both languages subject, object, predicative and attributive clauses. Eg. Whether/if he is going to come or not is still unknown. The question is whether he is going to come or not. He asked if was going to come. I know that he is going to come. This is the flower that was bought there, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian: Чи він прийде ще - не відомо. Питання полягає в тому, що/ чи він ще прийде. Я вірю/знаю, що він прийде. Common functions in both contrasted languages are also performed by connective or conjunctive/relative (as they are often referred to) pronouns: who, what, which, how many, хто, що, який, котрий, чий, скільки; and by connective/ conjunctive adverbs: where, when, how, why, де, коли, куди, як, чому.

Subordinate conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses are of isomorphic nature, i. e. common in both contrasted languages, too. They express different sense relations and fall into the following groups:

1. Conjunctions of time: since, until, till, as long as, after, before, while, as soon as, коли, відколи, поки, аж поки, доки, аж доки, як, після того як, в міру того як, як тільки, тільки що, щойно, ледве.

2. Conjunctions/connectives of place and direction: where, wherev er, whence, де, де б, куди, звідки.

3. Conjunctions of cause or reason: as, because, since, seeing, бо, через те що, тому що, затим що, оскільки.

4. Conjunctions of condition: if, unless, provided, supposing якби, якщо, якщо б, коли б, аби, скоро.

5. Conjunctions of purpose: lest, that, in order that, so that, щоб, для того щоб, з тим щоб.

6. Conjunctions of result: so that, that, так що, отож:, тож.

7. Conjunctions of concession: though, although, as, even if, even though, however, wherever, whatever, whichever, хоч, хай, нехай, дарма що, незважаючи (на).

8. Conjunctions of comparison: as, as...as, not so... as, than, as if, as though, як, що, мов, мовби, немов, немовби, наче, неначе, начебто, ніби, нібито.





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