Socially, Stylistically and Functionally Distinguished Classes of Words

Apart from the above-stated, there exist some other approaches and principles that are typologically relevant for the systemic arrangement and classification of lexicon. As has been already mentioned, among them is first and foremost the social principle, according to which the dialectal layer of lexicon is distinguished. Thus, one of the most characteristic territorial differences in the lexicon of English dialects is the London cockney with its distinguishing use of /h/ in several words with initial vowels as in hopen for open, hup for up, hus for us, etc. In some other words with the initial /h/ this sound is also omitted in speech (cf. am for ham, ill for hill, Arry for Harry). The concluding /g/ in cockney is often omitted too as in doin', readin', mornin', etc.

Clearly distinguished is also the Scottish dialect that once had claims, due to Allen Ramsay's and R. Burns' poetic works, to functioning for some time as a literary English variety. Besides, the Irish dialect and some others can still be clearly distinguished on the British isles.

Dialectal differences are also observed in Ukrainian, the most distinguishing of them being Western, Northen and Central regional dialects. In western Hutsul dialects, for instance, дєдя and нянько are used for father, верховина for uplands; in Halych region когут is used for півень, вуйко for uncle (дядько), вуйна for дядина, файний for гарний, etc. Nevertheless, the difference between the Ukrainian dialects and literary standard Ukrainian is never so stricking as it is between cockney and Standard English or, for example, between literary German and its dialectal variations. That is why the dialectal lexicon or dialectal phonetics and other aspects of dialectal English, Ukrainian, German and other languages is always in the focus of typologists' attention.

Socially predetermined in each language, however, is not only the appearance and existence of dialects and dialectal lexicons or dialectal prosody. Due to the natural development of human society socially predetermined is even the hierarchical distinction in the relationship of some notionals that are used for the expression of family relationships. Thus, there are universally distinguished and indisputably acknowledged in all

languages such higher from the point of view of subordination notions as parents (father and mother) on the one hand and their hierarchically lower in rank concerning their age and position children, who are dominated by their parents, on the other.

Typologically relevant and isomorphic is also the social ranking of some other notions. The king or president in a country is higher in rank than any minister, and a master is higher in rank than his apprentice. But undoubtedly the most striking evidence of the social factor's influence upon the lexicon in each single developed language is the borrowing of internationalisms which reflects some definite social stages in the development of human society in general. In consequence there appeared many new notions borrowed first from ancient Greek (apostle, church, priest, poet, theatre, history, zoology, democracy, etc.) and Latin reflecting the progress of the Roman social science and culture. Consequently, there appeared social, political, juridical and medical terms of Lain origin: parliament, senate, jurisdiction, angina, appendicitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, military terms like army, port, wall, mile, legion and many others. Under the influence of the latest social and mainly scientific and technological revolution all languages of developed nations have borrowed an immense number of foreign words originating from different spheres of life and being mostly international. Thus, in Ukrainian apart from the already existing lexical units only during the last two decades there appeared in our mass media and in everyday usage such English words as коми'ютер, дисплей, менеджмент, маркетинг, бартер, імпічмент, інтернет, кліп, дискета, сканер, серфінг, валеологія, Грант, офшорний, провайдер, траст, пабліситі, тренінг, фрістайл, боді шипінґ, пауерліфтинґ, фітнес, кікбоксинг, плеймейкер, топ-шоу, дог-шоу, памперси, etc. The American mass culture, which has become a very influential element of social life, brought to Ukrainian many hitherto unknown words and notions as гim/xim, топ, кліп, шоу, саунд-трек, кантрі (music), etc. The English language itself has also borrowed many new international terms of different origin. Apart from the already known bo-rowings as blitz, blitzkrieg, U-boat (German), Molotov cocktail, Bolshevist, Gulag, Duma (Russian) or hryvnia (Ukrainian), etc. the English lan-

guage has acquired a large number of quite new words i.e. neologisms. The latter have come from different languages, both European and Asian and belong to various spheres of social life and human activities as:

a) social relations and other social phenomena. For example: yakuza /ja:ku'za:/ Japanese gangster (from Japanese), Chorzim /ho:z'i:m/ re- emigrated to Israel Jews (Hebrew); brigatisti /brigatisti/ members of the brigate rosse (Ital. terrorists); (Al) fatah Palestine guerilla group organisation (its member).

b) Neologisms belonging to the sphere of cultural life: Cafe theatre /kse:

feiteiae:tre/ room for lecturing and theatrical performances, policier/ pousjei/ detective novel or film (both of French origin), hayashi Japanese theatre (from Japanese), salva (Spanish) Caribbean dancing music (mambo, jazz and rock-like).

c) Neologisms reflecting borrowings from various cusines as calzone (Italian) high curds pie; burrito (Spanish) maize pancakes wrapped around the minced veal, curds and fried beans; hoisin sauce (Chi nese) thick dark-red soy and garlic sauce with spices.

d) Eastern sports terms as iaido (Japanese) kind of fencing, basko a fifteen matches competition in sumo.

e) Terms designating religious and medical notions as satsang (Sanskrit)

Hindo sermon, zazen (Japanese) meditation in dzen Buddhism, shiatsu (Japanese) kind of healing massage; sulfazin/sulphazin (Russian) medicine (for the mentally ill), etc.

Very wide-spread during the last decades became the derivative means of forming neologisms in English as workaholic heavy worker, closeaholic (lover of clothes), milkaholic lover of milk, chonoholic i. e. sweet tooth солодун, etc.

No less productive is also the use of prefixes to form neologisms in English. Cf. megadual smth. better than twice as good, megarich i.e. very rich, megafirm a very large firm, megaprojects very rich or complicated projects, etc.

Suffixes are also used to form neologisms. Thus, the international suffix -ism forms afroism admirer of the African culture, hyppyism adherent of hyppies. The suffix -y/-ie forms neologisms as groupie a fan/ admirer of a music group or popular star, preppie pupil/schoolboy of a

private school or offspring of the middle class, fundie adherent of fundamentalism or any radical group, etc.

Many neologisms are regular collocations characteristic not only of the English language. The most common of them have the N+N or A+N structure as athmic cleansing, i.e. banishment, hot button, i.e. high interest in goods (or political figures) social structures; safe haven protected zone in a country to safeguard a religious or national minority, shake holder economy an attractive for all citizens economy or economic progress.

Apart from word and phrasal neologisms the English language makes use of abbreviations which are usually different terms like the VCR video-casette recorder, MTV Music Television, OMOV one member-one vote, GASP Group Against Smoke and Pollution, ASH Actions on Smoking and Health, SMAT special weapons and tactics (juridical term); HDTV High Definition Television, i.e. TV having high distinctness of picture; Gerbill (Brit.) Great Education Reform Bill(of 1988); CLASS Computer-based Laboratory of Automated School System (classes of programmed teaching).

Many neologisms form a common subgroup of lexicon in the contrasted languages (as well as in all languages). They may sometimes coincide in English and Ukrainian (when they are wide known or internationalisms). Among these are, for example, clarifier (the hearing aid), ADVIL (medical pills), AIDS and respectively СНІД in Ukrainian. English new borrowings from Russian and Ukrainian are, for example, cosmodrome", glasnost, perestroika, Rukh movement, hryvnia, Rada (the Verkhovna Rada), salo and others. Comparatively new borrowings from the English language in present-day Ukrainian are брокер, джинси, котон, бартер, дискета, дисплей, касета, гіт/хіт, блюз, рекет, маркетинґ, офіс/офісний, ретро, менеджмент, сервіс, аудит, стільниковий зв'язок, мобільний телефон, і-мейл, гамбургер, чізбурґер (from English), піцца (from Italian), бістро'/бистро' (from French) and several others.

One more subgroup constitute colloquial newly-formed neologisms which are characteristic only of a national living language. They designate some new notions formed on the basis of the previously existing as

well as on the basis of previously non-existing denotata. For example, in English: spiv (black marketeer), sky-mobile/egg-beater (helicopter), Iran-gate, Ramboism (violence shown in films/on TV), "wellness " i.e. health (cf. to return patients to "wellness"), wimp i.e. nonentity (ніщо, нікчема), yuppy i.e. young upwardly-mobile professional, etc. Similar neologisms, both colloquial and literary, exist in Ukrainian. Cf. "зелені" (амер. долари), "телек" (телевізор), "шкура" (шкіряна куртка), "Бушові стегенця" (стегенця американських бройлерів), кравчучка (вертикальний/легенький двоколісний візок), кучмовоз (більший і міцніший двоколісний вертикальний візок типу тачки), попса (американські чи інші естрадні пісні низької якості), стречі (вузькі дівчачі штани), капрі (дівочі штани-кльош із розрізом унизу), фритюр (смажіння), мондіаль (світовий чемпіонат), візаж (косметичний і художній догляд за обличчям), etc.

Closely related to the last group are also individual artistic language neologisms created by poets and authors for the sake of expressiveness as in Ukrainian: розкрилено (рости), горіти пожежно, блискітно-горобинно, аркодужні мости (from Tychyna's poetic works), пісня сонцебризна (М. Bazhan) and others.

Of isomorphic nature in the contrasted languages are also some other peculiarities and consequently subclasses of lexicon. Among these are also such stylistically distinguished layers of lexicon which are usually characterised as various types of colloquialisms, jargonisms, slang-isms, vulgarisms, professionalisms and some others.

The social functioning and stylistic use of these subclasses of words are common not only in the contrasted languages. Thus, the large class of literary colloquial lexicon (розмовно-просторічна лексика) consists in English and Ukrainian of some stylistically common subclasses of words to which belong various emotives (емоціональні слова та вирази), slangisms, jargonisms, argotisms, thieves' lingo, etc. Many of these lexical units represent the same substyles of lexicon and have direct equivalents in both contrasted languages. Therefore, this literary colloquial lexis is represented by several layers of words and expressions often or regularly used in expressive emphatic speech with strongly evaluative (positive or negative) aim. Among them are such English and Ukrainian

words and phrases of negative evaluation as варнякати, молоти/ плескати язиком, кобенипш/матюкатися, чортихатися, гавкати (ab. people), обгиджувати bespit (обхаркувати), bee-head, beatle-head (тупак, тупиця, "ступа", "довбня"), to malt захоплюватися хмільним ("причащатися"), layabout/lazy-bones ліньтюх (ледацюга), etc. A disregarding or contemptuous attitude may express also such words as bike велосипед ("велік"), toned up замкнений ("заціпа"), Aussie австралієць ("австралійчик"), MONDAYISH небажання працювати після вихідного ("понеділок важкий день ") and some other words and expressions.

Often equivalent in English and Ukrainian are also low colloquialisms — vituperative words and phrases (лайливі слова та вирази) like goddamn, hell, rat, swine, cad, pig, skunk, stink-pot and others. In Ukrainian: чорт, зараза, прокляття, свиня, гадюка, смердюк/ смердючка; obscene/dirty words (непристойні слова) as shit, piss and corruption (expression), shit, лайно. Functionally similar to them are vulgarisms which, like the previous group of low colloquialisms, are practically universal by their nature. These are used in oral speech in the main, though vulgarisms may sometimes occur (for stylistic reasons) in written speech as well. Cf. bum зад, задниця; punch пузо/барило, жлукто; mug рило/морда; stinkard смердюк/смердючка; cad тварюка; kiss off тягни (свої) ноги (звідси); bastard вилупок, байстрюк; hound собака, негідник, etc. Unlike vituperatives, such vulgarisms are registered in larger dictionaries, though in recent decades vituperative lexicons have become subject of scientific investigation [55].

Common by nature (and not only in the contrasted languages) are jargonisms and argotisms that seem to belong to absolute universals as well. Like all other low colloquialisms, they may sometimes have not only semantic but also stylistic equivalents in different languages. It goes without saying, however, that they are not necessarily of the same structural form as can be seen from the following examples: beaky носатий/ носач (шнобель), lemon негарна дівчина, lifer довічно ув'язнений, to beef скиглити ("скавуліти"), governor батько (сf. the Ukrainian "предок"), beans (brass, dibs, dough, off) гроші ("лімони"), etc.

There are some other stylistically distinct subclasses of lexicons in the contrasted languages, such as professional words, scientific, poetic, bookish words, etc. Common in English and Ukrainian are the following professionalisms and terms: reaping (or harvesting) косовиця (жнива), threshing молотьба, sowing сівба, electrician електрик, electric train електропоїзд/електричка, school practice педагогічна практика, tutorial(n) консультація (зустріч із науковим керівником), translation practice перекладацька практика; to lecture читати лекції, to have workshops (Amer.) проводити семінарські заняття; to take exams/examinations складати іспит, a sharing experience lesson показовий урок/заняття з обміну досвідом.

Professionalisms and terms are also used in both contrasted languages in the same speech styles. Sometimes they may even acquire the same implied meaning in English and Ukrainian. Cf. an equalizer забитий у відповідь гол/розквитання,"зрівняти рахунок", а right-hander (boxing) удар правою рукою/підступний вчинок, to keep oneб's powder dry тримати порох сухим у порохівниці, to heal the wounds/to repair damage загоїти/"зализати рани".

Identical by nature though not always of identical lingual form, as Mas already been pointed out, are various scientific, social and political terms used in English and Ukrainian in the same speech styles and representing the same spheres of national economy or state affairs. Cf. politics політика, cybernetics кібернетика, finance фінанси, but proton протон, morpheme морфема, suffix суфікс, bacterial бактеріальний, medical медичний, etc. The scientific lexicon implies also several loan internationalisms as equation рівняння, identity тотожність, conductor провідник/громовідвід; summation, підсумовування, subtraction, віднімання, outer space міжпланетний простір, living standard/standard of living життєвий рівень, etc.

Other stylistically distinct layers of lexicon in the contrasted languages include:

a) bookish wordswhich do not always correlate stylistically in English and Ukrainian. As a result, there are words/word-groups which are bookish only in English or only in Ukrainian. Cf. in the English language:

contrariety протилежність/несумісність, disulpate (jurid.) виправдовувати, disenable робити нездатним/скалічити, forthright чесний, brumal зимовий (сплячка), inter-agent посередник (агент), licit законний/дозволений, lacerate рвати (калічити, нівечити), malediction прокляття, malefactor лиходій/злочинець, etc. Bookish only in Ukrainian are властолюбство/властолюбний, power ambition/power ambitious, возз'єднання reunification, всесилля unrestricted power, консеквентний consequent, конфіденціальний confidential, людомор assassin/man-slayer, etc.

Many word-groups and words having a bookish nature (both semantic, stylistic and lingual) in the contrasted languages are actually internationalisms originating from one common source language. Eg: emanation еманація, Hellenic еллінський, macaronic макаронічний, macaronism макаронізм, etc.

b) Poetic words and expressionsform a stylistically common, though semantically not always coinciding subgroup of lexicon in English and Ukrainian as well. Poetic words split into two clearly distinguished groups: a) words/word-groups displaying their poetic nature already at language level, i.e. when singled out and b) words/word-groups acquiring their poetic tinge in a micro- or macrotext only. Thus, the following English words and word-groups are always poetic: affright (frighten), Albion (England), Caledonia (Scotland), adore (to worship), anarch (leader of an uprising/revolt), babe (baby), harken (hear), shrill (shriek), steed (horse), mash (admire), the Bard of Avon (Shakespeare), pass away (die), uncouth (strange), ye (you), the mam (ocean), the brow (forehead), the Kane (cow), etc.

Similarly in Ukrainian whose poetisms are sometimes distinctly marked by their slightly archaic nature or by their Old Slav origin: вольний, враг, злото, дівчинонька, козаченько, кормига (ярмо), криця (крицевий), лжа (неправда), літа (роки), перса, чоло, etc.

Poetic words of the second subgroup (which acquire their poetic tinge in a micro/macrocontext) may often be traditional in a national language. Thus, in English stylistically marked poetic word-groups can be found in Shakespeare's works: simple truth, gilded honour, purest faith, right perfection (Sonnet 66), youthful morn (66), swept love (56), hungry

ocean, immortal life (81), sacred beauty (115), boundless sea (65) cf. in Ukrainian: безмежнеє море. A considerable number of word-groups have also acquired a similar traditionally poetic flavour in Ukrainian due to our folk songs: гора крем'яная, літа молодії, орел сизокрилий, сива зозуля, світ широкий, синє море, чисте поле, чорнії брови, карії очі, червона калина, and others.

Apart from these there are some more common minute groups of stylistically marked words and word-groups in English and Ukrainian lexicons. The main of them are as follows: 1. Archaisms,i. e. old forms of words/word-groups, which are mainly used in poetic works or in solemn speech: algazel (gazelle), avaunt (out), batoon (baton), dicacity (talkativeness, mockery), eke (also), gyves (fetters), mere (pond, lake), a micle (much), parlous (perilous), per adventure (probably, perhaps), well nigh (almost, nearly), thee (you sg.), thou (you pl.), thy (your), ye (you), yonder (there), hereto (to this matter), therefrom (from that), therein (in that place), thereupon (upon that), whereof (of which). To this group also belong some participles ending in - en: a sunken ship, a drunken/drunk man, a shorn lamb; adverbs and set expressions as oft (often), all told, i.e. all counted, etc. The most frequently used archaisms in Ukrainian are as follows: бард (Боян, поет), брань (битва), глас (голос), град (місто), гаківниця (гармата), комоні (коні), пахолок (прислужник), спудей (студент), ланіти (щоки), гостиниця (готель), глагол (слово), рать (військо, битва), пііт (поет), списник (мечник, лучник), колчан (чохол для стріл), and also: ректи, зримо, воздвигати, вражий, лжа, много, узріти, очіпок, копа (шістдесят снопів, яєць), півкопи (тридцять), вершок, гони, лікоть (міри довжини); медок (напій), кваша (страва) and several others.

Apart from the above-mentioned there exist in both contrasted languages (and not only in them) some other typologically isomorphic classes of lexical units. Among these a prominent place belongs to words singled out on the basis of their informational structure/capacity. Accordingly, two types of such words are traditionally distinguished:

1. Denotative words, which constitute the bulk of each language's lexicon and include the so-called nomenclature words and word-groups, which are various terms and professionalisms of unique meaning. For


example, electron, motor, miner, tongs, outer space, specific weight, bus, tailor, football, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian where these notionals are the same: електрон, мотор, шахтар, обценьки, реактор, вертоліт, твід, швець, футбол, питома вага, космічний простір, etc.

Most denotative words (and not only in the contrasted languages) are stylistically neutral. The latter may be represented by the whole lexico-grammatical classes such as: pronouns (he, she, we, you) and numerals (five, ten, twenty), most of verbs (be, live, love), nouns (mother, sister, cow, horse), adjectives (blue, white, old, fat, urban, rural, young) and all adverbs (today, soon, well, slowly, then, there) and some others.

2. Many words in English and Ukrainian may also have both denotative and connotative meanings. Thus, the nouns bear, fox, pig, goose, parrot, rat and some others in their stylistically neutral meaning designate definite animals or birds, but when metonymically reinterpreted, they often acquire a vituperative (abusive) connotation. Correspondingly in Ukrainian: свиня, тхір, собака, папуга, лисиця, корова (коровисько), бицюра, вівця, баран, жаба, ворона /ґава/.

2. Connotative words/word-groupsdirectly or indirectly correlate with their natural denotata, eg: Albion (poet, for England), the Bard of Avon (Shakespeare); Кобзар (Т. Shevchenko), Каменяр (I. Franko), дочка Прометея (Lesia Ukrainka) and some other.

Connotative may become poetisms and neologisms: foe for enemy, kine for cow, dough (slang) for money, mods for admirer of jazz, know-how for skill, chicken (coll.) for baby (lovely boy or girl). Or in Ukrainian: чоло (поет.) лоб, макітра (low colloquial) -голова, рокер (neologism) любитель рок-музики, попса (low quality pop-music or songs), порнуха (pornographic film, performance), etc.

Stylistically marked in both contrasted languages are three more groups of lexical units:

1) ameliorative words:daddy, mummy, sissie, chivalrous, gentleman; матуся, татуньо, дідунь, козаченько, серденько, голівонька; 2) pejorative (лайливі) words: bastard, blackguard, clown, knave; байстрюк, нікчема, негідник, покидьок, головоріз, etc.; 3) constantly neutral words and word-groups/expressions, eg.: smith, geometry, teacher, love, you, he, all, гімнастика/фізкультура,

історія, вчитель, коваль, любити, ненавидіти, я, ти, ми, п'ять, десять, тут, там and a lot others.

Of isomorphic nature in the contrasted languages and certainly universal is one more distinctive feature of lexicon, which finds its expression in the existence of such semantic classes of words as synonymsand antonyms.Synonymous words (and expressions) are semantically similar but different in stylistic use lexical units. There are distinguished in English, Ukrainian (and in other languages):

synonymous nouns as end, close, termination, conclusion, finish, terminus, stopping; in Ukrainian: кінець, закінчення, зупинка, etc.

synonymous adjectives as conclusive, ending, final, terminal, completing, ultimate; in Ukrainian: кінцевий, останній, заключний, etc.

synonymous verbs as the following: act, play, perform, rehearse, star, mimic, imitate, enact, play a part; in Ukrainian: діяти, виконувати, відігравати, брати участь, грати, etc.

synonymous adverbs: surprisingly, unexpectedly, unawares, plump, pop, suddenly, and in Ukrainian: раптово, зненацька, негадано, як сніг на голову, etc.

Antonymsas, for example: lateness - earliness, freedom - slavery; work - play, continue - stop, beautiful - ugly, good - bad, quickly -slowly, up - down, etc.

In Ukrainian like in other languages there are also synonymous and antonymous meanings of different words, i.e. parts of speech. These may be:

nouns: огорожа/горожа, паркан, штахети, тин, живопліт, лиса; or: балакун, говорун, баляндрасник, торохтій, базікало, талалай;

adjectives: безмежний, безкраїй, безконечний, неосяжний, безмірний, неозорий;

verbs: бити, батожити, періщити, дубасити, лупити, лупцювати, гилити;

adverbs: швидко, скоро, прудко, бистро, хутко, шпарко, жваво, прожогом.

Apart from synonyms there are also antonyms: висота - низина; гора - долина; створювати - руйнувати; знаходити - губити; хвалити - гудити; високий - низький; багатий - бідний, гладкий - худий, гарно

- погано, швидко - повільно, високо - низько, тепло - холодно, весело — сумно, etc.

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