The Compound Predicate and Ways of Expressing It

There exists complete isomorphism in the nature, meaning and structural types of the compound predicate in the contrasted languages. Their subtypes are generally common too. Namely:

1. The Compound Verbal Modal Predicate which comprises a modal verb or its equivalent and the infinitive or gerund (the latter in English only). The modal verb expresses the modal lexical meaning of the pred icate as possible, impossible, desirable, obligatory, necessary, certain/un certain, planned, etc. For example: "You ought to be working now." (Joyce) "We'd better go home." (Galsworthy) Ви мали б працювати зараз/ Ви повинні бути на роботі зараз. "That needs a bit of think ing". (A. Christie) Над цим треба/необхідно трохи подумати; I couldn't help smiling. (Maugham) Я не міг втриматися від посмішки.

Common in both languages is also the compound verbal predicate, which comprises verbs denoting desire, intention, determination, hope, attempt, etc. Eg: I want to go home. (Banks) "I'm going to be at the concert..." (Parker) Я хочу йти додому. Я маю намір бути/хочу прийти на концерт... І was trying to learn German. (Maugham) Я пробував учити німецьку мову. "I've tried to do the best I can for her." (F. King) Я намагався зробити для неї все, що міг. Не did not want to speak, not to anyone. (Lawrence) Він не хотів розмовляти, ні з ким.

The compound modal verbal predicate may include phraseological units/set expressions: He said I should take it easy a bit. (D. Lessing) Він казав, щоб я це не брав близько до серця... she was only too included to take advantage of his weakness. (Galsworthy) ... їй тільки дуже кортіло скористатися його слабкістю. "You'd better get off here," Charlie said. (D. Lessing) "Тобі краще б вийти тут", - сказав Чарлі. "I'd better get up by the driver." (Mansfield) Я б краще сіла коло шофера.

2. The Compound Verbal Aspective Predicate consisting of verbs

denoting the beginning, duration or cessation of an action/state plus the imperfective infinitive or gerund (in English). Eg: Her legs began to tire. (Dreiser) I shall continue to endure my fate... (Kipling) Ноги її почали стомлюватися. Я продовжуватиму терпіти/зносить свою долю... Не continued blinking his eyes and trying to smile... (Joyce) Він продовжував кліпати очима й намагався посміхатися... When she was a child she used to sit on the lowest step nursing a rag doll. (Ibid.) ... дитиною вона бувало висиджувала зі своєю ганчір'яною лялькою при землі на останньому східці. Sunshine came spelling upon us. (Cronin) Сонце враз почало заливати нас своїм промінням.

No doubt there can be no direct structural equivalents to some peculiar English parts of the aspective or modal predicates (eg. gerundial parts). Other components of the compound verbal predicate are common in the contrasted languages, however. Among these can be, for example, the compound nominal and aspective predicate as in the following sentences: He must begin at last to study properly. Він повинен, зрештою, розпочати серйозно вчитися.

Note.Only in English, however, there is the so-called compound double verbal predicate formed by the subjective with the infinitive construction, eg: He seemed to have completely lost interest in everything. (Hemingway) The space mission is unlikely to finish this week.

3. The Compound Nominal Predicate consists in both languages of linking verbs which may have a vague lexical meaning (to be, to get) or preserve its lexical meaning (to remain, to become, to grow, to turn, to look, to seem, to feel), which have direct lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. The nominal part of the compound predicate in English may be expressed by the gerund and by predicative constructions, missing in Ukrainian. Eg: deciding is acting. That is for me to decide. It was his reading which impressed me. Other nominal parts are isomorphic in the contrasted languages, with only some specific features of the predicative in English, which are allomorphic for Ukrainian. For example: "I'm off. (Lessing) "You are come?" (Maugham). "That's him". (Kipling) Ukrainian nominal parts of the compound nominal predicate are declinable: "Згадайте — був я вам за тата". (Павличко) Він здавався веселим/виснаженим. Mary was jealous poor dear. (F. King) Мері була ревнива, бідненька.

Apart from the compound nominal predicate of being the linking verb in both contrasted languages may have the meaning of becoming. Eg: Bob, who was growing deaf, could not hear her. (Ibid.) Боб, який ставав усе глухішим, не міг розчути її. The night has become more and more raw. (Cardwell) Ніч ставала все сирішою і сирішою. The snow turned into cold rain. (London) Сніг переходив у холодний дощ. Of isomorphic nature is also the compound nominal predicate of remaining: He remained silent for a while and spoke again. (Caldwell) Він продовжував мовчати якусь мить... The winter continued damp and wet. (Cronin) Зима продовжувалась вологою і мокрою.

The nominal predicate in both languages may also be of seeming and appearing: Yushchenko seems satisfied with first March 31 election results. (K. Post) Ющенко здається задоволеним попередніми наслідками виборів 31 березня. Не appeared. They all seemed very confident hewould be back for Christmas. (A. Christie) Всі вони здавалися дуже впевненими, що він повернеться до Різдва. His face turned red and then purple. Його обличчя стало перш червоним/ почервоніло, а потім стало пурпуровим.

The predicative in the contrasted languages may be expressed by practically the same parts of speech, and their functional equivalents, with be exception of the gerund and the secondary predication complexes which are pertained only to English. For example:

Noun predicative:I have been a thief. (A. Christie) Я був злодієм.

A pronoun:Who was it? (Ibid.) "It's me". (Greene) Це був я.

A numeral:Shan Tung was the sixteenth. (A. Christie) Він був першим.

An adjective:"You look tired," he said. (Joyce) Ти здаєшся стомленим.

An infinitive:To decide is to act. (Saying) Головним було - прийти.

A participle:"I'm just finished." (J. Collier) Місто було зруйноване.

A gerund:Deciding is acting. Seeing is believing. (Sayings)

A stative:He was afraid. (F. King) Йому було страшно.

An adverb:The danger was over. (Ibid.) Надворі було тепло.

4. The Compound Nominal Double Predicate is common in both languages as well, eg: The sunlight sifted golden and heavy... (Cusack) Наталка прибігла сердита, захекана. (Гончар) Шлях лежить великий. (Довженко)

5. The mixed types of the compound predicate are of isomorphic nature in English and Ukrainian. They are a) the compound modal nominal predicate: "It must have been one of the servants". (Maugham) The boy must be forty by now. (Galsworthy) Цьому хлопцеві має бути сорок років. Вона може бути вчителькою; b) the compound phrasal nominal predicate: The scared lad continued to remain silent. (Saroyan) Заляканий учень продовжував бути мовчазним/продовжував мовчати; с) the compound modal phrasal predicate: "You must stop pretending ignorance." (Maugham) "Ти мусиш кинути прикидатися невинною".

Table 27




Simple Predicate Compound Predicate
Language Verbal Nominal Phraseological Secondary Contaminated Verbal Nominal

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