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TYPOLOGY OF THE PHONETIC AND PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Any typological investigation of phonetic/phonological features of two or more languages inevitably involves a Contrastive study of their sounds and phonemes. Accordingly, there are recognised two closely connected branches of linguistic science treating the units and phenomena of the phonetic and phonological levels: 1) Contrastive typological phonetics and 2) Contrastive typological phonology.
The aim of Contrastive typological phonetics is to identify and investigate the isomorphic and allomorphic features of the speech sounds within the sound systems of languages under contrasted investigation. The main purpose of Contrastive typological phonology is respectively the identification and investigation of isomorphic and allomorphic features in the systems of phonological units in English and Ukrainian.
In conformity with the goals pursued are also the objects of investigation in each of these branches. Thus, the subject-matter of phonetic typology in the first place is the system of speech sounds and their quantitative and qualitative characteristics in the contrasted languages, while the subject-matter of phonological typology is the system of phonemes and their quantitative and qualitative characteristics in speech of the contrasted languages.
It must be added that apart from speech sounds and phonemes which are contrasted by typological phonetics and typological phonology respectively, each of these branches has also another common subject-
matter. And this is combinability and functioning of speech sounds/ phonemes in words and syllables as well as prosodic phenomena, which include speech melody, utterance stress, tempo, pausation and voice timbre/voice setting. Hence, Contrastive typology of phonetic and phonological systems of all languages investigates discrete and non-discrete units on both-segmental and supersegmental levels and their features of universal nature i. e. those pertaining to all languages. Consequently, these units and phenomena are characterised by some common features: thus, for example, speech sounds in all languages are of two major types — vowels and consonants. Besides, the functions of phonemes in all languages, including English and Ukrainian, are common. The main of these functions are:
1) The constitutive function i. e. the ability of phonemes to constitute separate morphemes and simple, derived or compound words. For example, the English phonemes /t/, /p/, /о/ may constitute /top/ top or /pot/pot; the speech sounds /i:/, /d/, /1/ may constitute 1) /di:l/ deal or 2) /li:d/ lead respectively. Similarly in Ukrainian: the speech sounds /а/, /к/, /т/ may constitute the words так, кат or акт.
2) The distinctive/Contrastive function of phonemes can be illustrated through the commutation test or substitution of speech sounds in words in their initial, medial or final position. For example:
Position English Ukrainian
Initial bAt-kAt-iut-jAt бити-лити-пити-рити-шити
Medial maed-meid-mid-mAd сало-село-сіло-соло
Final big-bil-bm-bit сів-сік-сіл-сім
Typologically contrasted may also be vowels and consonants (or both) as well as their allophones / variants. Thus, the English phonemes /a/, /A/ and la:l can be contrasted with the Ukrainian phoneme /a/, similarly the English forelingual consonants /t/, /d/, /n/ can be counteropposed to their Ukrainian counterparts /д-д'/, /т-т'/, /н-н'/, etc.
Another equally important discreet unit which can be treated at the phonetic or phonological level is syllable. Apart from sounds and syllables, some non-segmental or supersegmental units or phenomena like word stress, utterance stress and all types of pitch patterns can become an
configuration of each English and Ukrainian intonation pattern.
1. "May I speak now?" said Doris. 2. "Were they obliged to be so rough?" 3. "Didn't she know that he was married? " 4. "She has three children then? " 5. "Why didn't you tell me?" 6. "And the children?" 7. "Why, what on earth's the matter? "Nothing. Why?" 8. "Why didn't you tell me?" 9. "What are you doing?" cried Doris. 10. "What we were doing with that woman?" she asked abruptly. 11. "How d'you know? 12. "You understand, Doris, don't you?" 13. "Oh, you know a hell of a lot, don't you?" (Pritchett) 14. And his voice-he never heard it live before - seemed to be unnatural. 15. "Could you - would you - wait just a moment for me?" 16. Usually easy-going and kindly, Mary was now venomous. (F. King) 17. "There was more in a look I bought once -A trangle of fight. An analysis of mysticism, by I.J. Partriadge, D. Litt." (A. Wilson)18. "She's get heaps of drink there-whishy, cherry-brandy, creme de menthe." 19. Then one of the girls, forgetting Huggett's admonition to Susan, said... (Ibid.).
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