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Ways of Expressing Morphological Categories of the English and Ukrainian Verb



The finite verb in the contrasted languages has six common morphological categories which are realised partly with the help of synthetic means (inflexions) and partly through different analytical means. Thus, the categories of person and number are realised in both contrasted languages synthetically, whereas the category of tense is realised both synthetically and analytically; the category of aspect is realised in English synthetically or analytically (continuous) but only synthetically in Ukrainian; the category of voice is realised only analytically in English but it may be realised synthetically and analytically in Ukrainian. Similarly with the category of mood, which is realised in both languages synthetically and analytically.


An illustrative presentation of these ways of realisation of all above-named morphological categories is given in Table 19 below.

Table 19

 

 

Morphological category Means of Realisation in the Contrasted Languages
In English In Ukrainian
Person I know. He knows. She is. We are. Я знаю. Він/вона знає. Воно знає. Ми знаємо. Ви знаєте. Вони знають.
Number He reads. They read good books. Він читає. Вони читають книжки.
Tenses (present, past, future) 1. Absolute use of tenses I work. He works. I worked. He will work. He said she had been seen in London. They asked if 1 could translate that passage into Japanese. Я працюю. Я працював. Він читає. Він читав. Він читатиме. Він буде читати весь свій вік. Він прокинувся був, а потім знову заснув.
2. Relative use of tenses [47, 144 — 146 / when he comes she will ask — when he came/had come \ when he will come / Де він мешкає тепер я запитаю — Де він мешкав \ Де він мешкатиме потім
Aspect (common, continuous, perfect) He works. He is working (common/ continuous). He will work. He will be working (future). He has worked (perfect). Він читав. Він прочитав це. Вона зараз тренується. Дощ пройшов. (недоконаний — доконаний вид)
Voice (active -passive) He reads much. The house is/was built. The house is being built. It will be/will have been built. Хату ставлять. Хата збудована/ була, буде збудована. Хід зроблено. Школу відкрито/ буде відкрито.
Mood Indicative: We love our parents. Will he come? He has taken the exam. Imperative: Don't speak so loud! Let me sing you. Let us sing you smth. Subjunctive: Come what may! If she had come, he would have met her. Had 1 been there, I would have helped him. Ми любимо своїх батьків. Чи прийдете ви взавтра? Він склав іспит. Не розмовляйте так голосно! Сядьте. Нум я вам заспіваю! Будь, що буде! Було б краще мабуть піти. Якби він був прийшов, він був би зустрівся з нею.

The tabulated examples above testify to the existence of both isomorphic and allomorphic features in the nomenclature and means of expressing some morphological categories of the verb in the contrasted languages.

Generally common, with the exception of the continuous aspect, which is not available in Ukrainian, is the nomenclature and nature of the exist-


ing morphological categories of the verb. Absolute isomorphism is also observed in the means of realisation of the following morphological categories in the contrasted languages:

1. Person and number (with the help of synthetic means, i. e. forms of words and their inflexions. Cf. He is - they are, I was - they were. She works - the works. Я пишу - ви пишете. Я писав — ми писали.

2. The imperative mood forms with no reference to a definite person, as in the following sentences: Stop talking! Sit still! Let us sing. He розмовляти! Сидіти тихо! Нумо заспіваємо. Нум я вам розповім.

3. The affirmative and some interrogative forms of the Indefinite group of tenses and of the pluperfect (давноминулий) tense: I work. I worked. I shall work. He had left before I arrived. Я працюю. Я працював. Я буду працювати. Він якось заходив був, але мене тоді не застав на роботі.

4. Isomorphism also exists a) in the correlation of the time of action in the matrix close with the time of the expressed action in the subordi nate clause: He says she lives in Kyiv. He said she lived in Kyiv. He will sayshe will live in Kyiv. Or: she will say that she lived in Kyiv or she thought that she came/would come. Or: 1 thought she had come.Similarly in Ukrainian: Він каже, що вона прийшла;він скаже, що вона прийде/що вона вже приходила; він казав, що вона приходила/ приходила була;b) Isomorphism is also observed in the existence of tenses not correlating with the time of actions expressed in the matrix/ main clause, eg: He -will say that he knows/ knew, had knownit. Він скаже, що вона пришила (приходила) приходила була; с) Iso morphism is likewise observed in the existence of some identical forms expressing those same subjunctive mood meanings referring to present or future or to some past action/event. For example:


In English

If I knew that before, I would

come.

If I had known that before, I

would have come.

Were she at home then, she

would come.

Had I known that before, I would

have come.


In UkrainianЯкби я знав це раніше, я б прийшов.

Якби я був знав це раніше, я був би

прийшов.

Була б вона в той час удома, вона

прийшла б.

Знав би я був це раніше, я був би

прийшов._____________________



d) Isomorphism is also observed in both languages in the existence of analytical passive voice forms in the past and Future Indefinite tense: He was invited. She will/will not be invited. Він був запрошений. Вона буде/не буде запрошена.

Besides, allomorphic features find their expression in the ways of realisation of some morphological categories in English and Ukrainian. These allomorphic ways are observed in the following:

1. In the use of analytical paradigms in English to express tense, aspect and voice forms, as well as in negative/interrogative forms like: He is read ing now. Is he reading now? Does/did he speak English? The passage is being translated The article will have been translated by then, etc.

2. In the absence in Ukrainian of the continuous aspect, whose durative meaning can be expressed by the transitive verb stems with the suffixes - сь, -сяand a corresponding adverb/adverbial phrase identifying the mo ment/period of action. Cf. Петренко зараз/ще, вже, давно/будується. Школа ще (тоді) будувалась/будуватиметься.

3. Allomorphism exists in the expression of the category of person in Ukrainian imperative mood forms which is alien to English. For example: Пиши! (Ти пиши!) Пишіть! (Ви пишіть!) Іди! Будьмо/ будьте здорові! Встань! Встаньте! Не вір! Не вірте!

Analytical imperative mood forms may have corresponding personal pronouns in English with the verb let (Let me say. Let him/us say. Let them come/sayit). The corresponding Ukrainian forms have the particles нум or нумо (for singular or plural forms respectively) and also person and number inflexions of the notional verb. Cf. Нум я запитаю. Нумо заспівайте! Нумо до праці, брати! (Б. Грінченко)

4. Isomorphism and allomorphism is observed in the expression of the passive voice in English and Ukrainian. 1) Isomorphic is the analytical way of expression of this morphological category, i.e. with the help of the aux iliary verb to be + past participle: Лист був написаний. Лист буде написаний. Alongside of this participial predicative forms in -но, -тоare used: Лист буде написано. Все, зрештою, було забуто. Питання про ліквідацію боргів заводом з порядку денного не було знято. 2) Allomorphic are forms of expressing the passive voice synthetically that are observed in Ukrainian. These forms are realised a) by means of inflex ions of the past participle: Стаття написана. Текст перекладений. Жито


скошене. Фрески відновлені. b) With the help of the postfixes -сь, -сяadded to the non-perfective verbs in the indicative mood: Хата будується/ будувалась. Місток зводиться. Проект тільки готувавсь, с) With the help of the mentioned predicative participles in -но, -то:Музей зачинено. Питання розв'язано. Ворога розбито. Нічого не забуто. A peculiar feature of passive constructions in English is their much more frequent use than in Ukrainian. This is accounted for a) the use of some English irregular verbs as regular: The office is run by Mr. Brown. The dog was walked by Ann; b) the use of any of the two direct objects as subjects of the sentence in the passive voice: Mother forgave Dora her drawbacks; Dora was forgiven her drawbacks... Dora's drawbacks were forgiven by her mother; c) the use of prepositional objects as subjects in the passive voice: He was taken care of, d) the use of the past participle as a nominal part of the predicate: He was seated, pen in hand, at the table... (Cronin). "Is he generally liked?" (Bronte).





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