ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Combined Prefixal and Suffixal Formation of Words



Many words in English and Ukrainian are formed by way of adding both prefixal and suffixal morphemes to the root or stem of the same word. It should be emphasised that the formation of new words with the help of prefixes and suffixes is performed in English and Ukrainian according to some common morphological/structural models. The number of these models is fourand they are as follows:

1) one prefix+theroot morpheme/stem+one suffix,forming nouns: dis-arma-ment, en-rich-ment, for-cast-er, un-suspect-ness, vice-roy- ship; b) forming adjectives: anti-cyclon-ic, anti-christ-ian, be-jewel- ling, in-ponder-able, para-phras-tic, pre-script-ive; c) forming verbs: de-colour-ise, dis-satis-fy, ex-cav-ate, over-estim-ate, re-vivi-fy, un- satis-fy and d) forming adverbs: dis-creet-ly, un-tru-ly, un-war-like;

2) two or more prefixes+ the root morpheme/stem + one suffixas in the nouns over-sub-scrip-tion, re-im-prison-ment, re-in-carn-ation;

3) one prefix+ the root morpheme/stem + two or more suffixes,


as in adverbs that are formed from adjectives and participles. For example: dis-stress-ing-ly, dis-trust-ful-ly, en-harmon-ical-ly, pro-portion - ate-ly, under-hand-ed-ly.

The number of words formed according to the third combined structural model by far exceeds those given above and comprises adjectives and nouns. The most typical adjectives are as follows: counter-revolu-tion-(a)ry, de-/contemin-at(e)-ing, de-central-iz(e)-ing, pre-histor-ic-al. Examples of nouns thus formed are as follows: dis-trust- fulness, in-comprehens-ible-ness, ir-respons-ibil-ity, de-moral-iz-ation and other.

4) Fewer nouns are formed, naturally, according to the fourth and the most complicated structural model, combining two or more prefixes + root morpheme/stem + two or more suffixes as in the words in-ac-count-abil-ity, in-dis-pens-abil-ity, non-re-activ(e)-ation, non-re-presentation-al-ism. Words of this combined type are well exemplified in Ukrainian, though their quantitative distribution coincides mainly in their simplest type only. This (latter) type of word-formation model has the largest representation in both contrasted languages. Thus, the following prefixes and suffixes are both productive and non-productive in forming some types of nouns in Ukrainian: без-/-к-: безтарка, безштанько, безбатченко; від-/-ок:відрізок, відбиток, відтинок; на-/-ник:навушник, навчальник; за-/-ок: затінок, загривок, задвірок, затишок and others.

A large number of productive noun stems in Ukrainian originate from prepositional noun phrases which in the course of historical development have become prefixes and now together with the phonetically identified suffix -j- form a large number of -я/-а root nouns:без-: безладдя, безділля; за-: загір'я, заріччя; між-:міжгір'я, міжріччя; над-:надбрів'я, надпліччя; перед-:переджнив'я, передсердя: по-: подвір'я, пониззя (Побужжя, Покуття, Полісся, Подніпров'я), etc.

Relative adjectives in Ukrainian are more often formed according to the first combined morphological model than nouns. The most often used prepositional prefixes are без-, від-, до-, за-, на-,and others. The suffixes used with these prefixes are: -н-, -ов-/-ев-, -єв, -ськ-/-зьк-, -цьк-/-овськ-and others. Cf. без-/-н-: безвірний, безпарний; без-


/-ов--: бездоказовий, безготівковий; -від-/-н-: віддієслівний, між-/-ов-: міжвидовий, на-/-ян-: навітряний, над-/-янськ-:

наддніпрянський, без-/-ев-/-єв-: безстатевий, безчуттєвий and others.

Adjectives with verbal stems have in Ukrainian the characteristic prefix не-, originating from the negative particle не.The suffixes that are used with this prefix in combined adjectives are of two kinds: 1) -н-, --анн-/-янн-/, -енн-:невтомний, незбагненний, невпізнанний, невгамовний, несказанний, незрівнянний, нескінченний; 2) -м-, -уч-/-юч-, -уш-/-ющ-/, -лив-: невловимий, невгасимий, невимовний, непосидючий, непитущий, невидющий, неквапливий.

Unlike nouns and adjectives, combined verbs are formed in Ukrainian according to the third structural model. They are formed from over 400 nominal stems, the most occurent of which are adjectival and substantival. The prefixes may be different, whereas the suffixes are for both parts of speech usually common. They are -и-/-і- and -ти-/-а-/, в-/ -у-: Cf. вдосконалити, унепокоювати, уможливити; з-/-с-/:збільшити, зменшити, спростити; о-: обіднити, оминати, очуміти; об-: облегшити, обникати, обшукати; пере-:перебільшити, перевищити; ви-: вилюдніти, видужати, з-: звузити, здужати, зсунути, etc.

Verbs from substantival stems are formed with the help of the -и-and -ти-, -атиsuffixes too, i. e. according to the third structural model. For example: викоренити, закапканити, знеболити, знімечити, пересе'лити, пере'силити.

In combined derivative verbs formed from verbal stems, the main suffixes are -ува-and -ти-: вицьвохкувати, перечитувати, підкахикувати, пришкандибувати, погейкувати, покліпувати, розбалакувати, переважувати, пересилювати, etc.

English prefixal and post-fixal verbs have no parallel/equivalent to the complicated structure of the Ukrainian verbs with the post-fix -ся/-сь:не-до-роз-вин-ут-и-ся, не-до-ви-плач-уват-и-ся, пере-роз-по-діл-ит-и-ся, пере-о-снащ-уват-и-ся/-сь.

There are fewer adverbs, adjectives and nouns in Ukrainian that are formed according to the third and fourth combined structural models. Cf.


adverbs:до-не-с-хоч-у, с-про-квол-а, що-най-кращ-е; adjectivesand participles: за-в-час-н-ий, не-в-благ-анн-ий, не-су-під-ряд-н-ий, не-пере-о-снащ-ен-ий, не-до-виторг-ув-ан-ий; nouns:не-в-благ-анн-ість, пере-роз-по-діл-енн-я, не-до-ви-до-бут-ок, etc.

Consequently, combined prefixal plus suffixal, i.e. predominantly derivational word-formation belongs in both languages to productive means of building new words of new meanings. Especially active, as was testified by the examples above, is this kind of word-formation in Ukrainian.

Compounding.The formation of compound words in English and Ukrainian is characterised both by isomorphic and allomorphic features as well. Common are, first at all, two main ways of forming compounds in English and Ukrainian: 1) by the juxtaposition (placement) of the determining and the determined parts and 2) with the help of the linking/ interfixal o, e, s in English and о, е / є, у in Ukrainian.

The largest group of compounds formed through the juxtaposition of free root/stem words in English constitute nouns. For example: aircraft, bath-house, fountain-pen, godmother, inkpot, lockout, mankind, motherland, note-book; adjectives: sky-blue, pitch-dark, social-economic, far-reaching, peace-loving and verbs: blackwash, ill-treat, take-off. Less numerous are adverbs. Cf. anywhere, nowadays, outside, somehow, sideways; pronouns: everybody, everything, herself, none, and numerals: one-fifths, twenty-one, two-thirds and others.

Pertaining mostly to English are compounds (nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and some numerals) with prepositions and conjunctions used as connectors of different roots/stems often referred to as wholophrases.For example, nouns: commander-in-chief, cat-o'-nine-tails, bread-and-butter breakfast; adjectives: out-of-date, rough-and-ready; adverbs: rough-and-tumble; numerals: two and twenty, one hundred and ten.

Ukrainian has only a few compound adverbs of its own and some nouns of foreign origin of this type: де-не-де, пліч-о-пліч, хоч-не-хоч, як-не-як, Ростов-на-Дону, Франкфурт-на-Майні, Франкфурт-на-Oдepi, etc.

Compounding by juxtaposition of free words (root words or stems) is considerably less productive in Ukrainian. And yet, there are several nouns, adverbs, pronouns, a few verbs and conjunctions, as well as particles formed in this way. For example, nouns: бурят-монгол, генерал156


майор, вагон-ресторан, зернотрест, медик-хірург and pronouns: дещо, дехто, хтозна-що- казна-що, казна-хто, хто-небудь, що-небудь; adverbs: казна-де, казна-звідки, казна-як, etc.

Close to the above-mentioned compounds in Ukrainian are also some compound nouns and compound verbs of co-ordinate nature: батько-мати (i.e. батько і мати), інженер-технік (інженер і технік), хліб-сіль (хліб і сіль); verbs: думати-гадати, говорити-балакати; conjunctions and particles (немов, немовбито, нібито) and others.

Compounding with the help of the linking interfixal elements is far less productive in English than in Ukrainian, and it is generally restricted to nouns and adjectives as a rule. Cf. the nouns Anglo-Saxondom, Anglo-Saxons, electro-kinetics, electro-therapy, gasometer, tradesfolk, tradespeople, violoncellist and the abjectives like Sino-American, Afro-Asian, Israeli-American, Iraqi-Iranian (Cf. the Ukrainian compounds respectively/ китайсько-американський, афро-азійський, ізраїльсько-американський, електротерапевтичний, etc). Hence, the principal way of forming composites in Ukrainian is that by means of linking interfixes, which connect abbreviated and full words. The latter usually follow the initial abbreviated forms, as in the following nouns: боєздатність, землечерпалка, броненосець, кулеливарник, сновидець, театрознавець, білоголівка, самозбереження, полумисок; in numerals and in adjectives: кількасот, півтораста, вогнегасний, доморощений, нафтоносний, електрозварювальний; and in adverbs: карколомно, передовсім, позавуш, самочинно, etc.

Consequently, the typological difference between the composite words of the two languages lies in their much larger variety of types in Ukrainian than in English. Though there is a way of compounding in English that is practically alien to Ukrainian. This is the already mentioned way which is usually termed as wholophrasing.It represents an occasional incorporation of word-groups or sentences into non-constant compounds, such as a never-to-be-forgotten event (from: an event never to be forgotten) or a to-be-or-not-to-be question, (his) come-what-will attitude, a'do-come-please-tomorrow expression on his face, beat-me-or-pardon-me reaction, etc. Of this same wholophrasalnature are also many English and Ukrainian composite words (mostly nouns, adjectives and some adverbs) formed from word-combinations or sentences, for example: for-


get-me-not, merry-go-round, East-end, kiss-in-the-ring (game), kiss-me-quick (beret), love-lies-bleeding (plant), loop-change-loop (in figure skating), pen-and-ink (adj.), sleeping-bag(suit), snick-a-snee, stick-in-the-mud (n, a), Sunday-go-to-meeting (a), theatre-in-the-round, three-year-old (a), toad-in-a-hole (n) the one-size-fits-all (program), run-to-the middle (strategy), can't-we-all-get-along (politics)as well as many family names and nicknames of people, geographical names. For example: Mr. Backbite (false person), Youngman, Copper/nose (drankard), Copperfield (talented person); Mr. Knowall (ironic); geographical names as Salt-Lake City, Iceland, Georgetown, Greenfield, Londesborough, Newfoundland, West brook, etc.

Ukrainian has many composite words of this kind too, though sometimes they are formed with the help of the linking elements (usually -и-, -й-), for example: горихвістка, варивода, держидерево, крутиголовка (bird), негній-дерево, люби-мене, мати-й-мачуха, крутивус, перекотиполе.

Several Ukrainian family names and geographical names have been formed from word-groups or sentences as well. Cf. Вернигора, Гниверба, Добривечір, Затуливітер, Небаба, Незовибатько, Неїжмак, Непийпиво, Нетудихата, Панібудьласка, Печиборщ, Підкушіуха, Вшигород (вищий город), Крутоярії, Рідкодуб (рідкий дуб), Погиблях (погиб лях), etc.

Apart from nouns there are some other parts of speech that are formed in Ukrainian from prepositional phrases and word-groups or sentences, as for example, adverbs: абияк, анітрохи, віднині, відтепер, досхочу, задовго, запанібрата, віч-на-віч, дотепер, відразу, пліч-о-пліч; adjectives: бавовнопрядильний, водомірний, водоплавний, переробний; and verbs: благодіяти, боготворити, зубоскалити, хліборобству вати.

Similar compounds can be observed in English as well. Cf. the nouns whole-heartedness, schoolboyishiness, warming-pan, and also adjectives/participles: absent-minded, heart-shaped, three-coloured, and several others.

Abbreviation.As a word-forming means it represents a generally common type of word-formation in the contrasted languages, though it is


not devoid of some national divergences either. Common and equally productive in both contrasted languages are the following types:

1. The so-called initial abbreviation, wich presents cases like USA, UNO, BBC, TGWU, AFL-CIO, CNN, TV, SOS, IMF, EC, EEC, UK, UNESCO, OPEC (oil producing and exporting countries), MP (member of parliament or military police), AIDS, SALT (Strategic Anns Limitation Talks), VAT and other acronyms. Similarly in Ukrainian: США, OOH, ЮНЕСКО, АФП-КПП, СОЇ, СНІД, МВФ, etc. Specifically English is the combined abbreviation of acronyms and complete words as A-life (artificial life in computers), H-bag (handbag), N-bomb, U-language (up per class English), V-Day (victory Day), VE-Day (victory in Europe Day), VJ-Day (victory over Japan Day), etc. Rather productive in En glish and Ukrainian is also shortening like a. for acre, end. for command er, govt. for government, dz. for dozen, ft. for foot, in.for inch, gal. for gallon, m. for mile, t. for ton, oz.for ounce, Ib. for pound, a. m. for ante meridian, and i.e. (Lat.) for id est, etc. Respectively in Ukrainian: ra, c/ r, CM, T, KM, KB, M, CM, c. (сторінка), т (тонна), etc.

Many English shortenings originate from colloquialisms and jargon-isms, as it is the case with such nouns as bike (bicycle), dub (double), bod (body, fellow), demo (demonstration), doc (doctor), envo (envoy), info (information data), op (opportunity), to up (increase), to ink (authorise, sign) fridge (refrigerator), mike (microphone), pop (popular as in pop-music), profie (a professional), prof (professor), telly (TV), trunk (tranquilizer), vac (vacuum cleaner), van (railway carriage), vet (veteran), lab (laboratory), coop (co-operation), exam, prep (preparation), ec/ ecco (economics), pro (professional), math (mathematics), trig (trigonometry) and others.

The number of thus shortened words of this kind in Ukrainian is restricted to some nursery shortenings as ма (мамо), та (тату), ба (бабо) and to colloquialisms like тра (треба), хо (хочу), зав, зам, спец.

2. Partial abbreviation of words is generally rare in English. It is observed in English in such examples as Colo (Colorado), Indi (Indi ana), Okla (Oklahoma), Canwood (Canadian Woods), Irricanal (Irri gation Canal), and some other geographical names like these. Partial abbreviation in Ukrainian, however, is rather productive, being used to


designate a variety of notions like держстрах, Донбас, Кривбас, головбух, завгосп, ботсад, кербуд, сільбуд, комунгосп, начмед, начпостач, and several others of the kind.

3. Combined abbreviation is also less productive and less wide-spread in English than in Ukrainian. Cf. CONUS (Continental US), COSPAR (Committee on Space Research), INTERPOL (International Criminal Police Organisation), COMECON (Council of Mutual Economic Assitance/Aid). This way of partial plus/and initial abbreviation is very productive in Ukrainian, for example: міськвно (міський відділ народної освіти), облвно, райвно, облсу (обласне статистичне управління), etc.

Apart from the aforementioned, there exist some other ways (both productive and non-productive) of word-formation in English and Ukrainian. They are as follows:

1. Blending,which is a rather productive type of compounding in English. It has in recent decades become familiar in Ukrainian as well. Blends or "telescoped" words are formed by confrontation (поєднання) of two (in Ukrainian) or even more truncated (усічених) words or roots of words, for example: avia(tion) + (electr)onics > avionics, fan(tasy) + (maga)zine > fanzine, mo(torist) + (ho)tel > motel, sm(ock) + (f)og > smog, meri(t) + (aristocracy > meritocracy, fl(y) + (h)urry > flurry, etc. In recent years some more blends have appeared in English as, for instance, baggravation (from bag + aggravation) a feeling of annoyance and anger of air travellers awaiting their baggage at the baggage carousel; ginormous (from gigantic + enormous), meanderthal (meander + underthal), an annoying person moving slowly and aimlessly in front of other individuals who are in a hurry; netizen (internet + citizen), popaganda (popular/pop + propaganda), i.e. propaganda of popular music or songs, sarcastrophy (sarcasm + catastrophy), i.e. an attemptor's failure to use humorous sarcasm, wardrobe (word + wardrobe), i.e. a person's vocabulary (a web page on the internet), Modem (moderate Democrat), Clinlarry (Clinton+Hillary), brunch (breakfast+lunch), etc.

There exist some ways of making blends or types of blanding in English. The main of them are as follows:

1. Blends which are made up from the initial part of the first word or word-group and the complete second word consisting of a root morpheme or a stem only: cinem(a) + actress = cinematress, para(litic gas)


+ bomb = parabomb, super(sonic) + jet = superjet, para (chute) + glider = paraglider, bas(ket) + cart = bascart, etc.

2. By combining the root morpheme/stem of the first word and the stem of the trancated initial part of the second word: hay + (si)lage - haylage (силосна яма), pay + (pa)triotism = paytriotism, sea+(heli)copter = seacopter, motor + (caval)cade = motorcade, etc.

3. By combining blends of the initial stem and the final part of the second word:

man + (En)glish = Manglish, radio + (elec)trician = rediotrician, cinema + (m)agnate = cinemagnate, book + (ad)vertising = bookvert-izing, etc.

All Ukrainian (like Russian) blends are generally restricted to similar contaminations in which truncated are final elements of the initial words/ word-groups and the initial/final elements of the succeeding words as in пірам(ідон) + (кофе)їнпірамеїн, ас(пірін) + кофе(ї)н-аскофен (ходити на) витріщатик (jocular) ходити по Хрещатику, витріщивши очі, i.e. loiter aimlessly, etc.

2. Back-formation (reversion) is a rather productive type of word-formation in English, where many short words are inferred from longer words. It is in this way that verbs are derived from nouns: own < owning, beg < beggar, brag < bragging, broke < broker, edit < editor, hawk < hawker, kittle < kittling, infract < infraction, catalise < catalysis, emplace < emplacement, reminisce < reminiscence, etc.

English compound verbs are often formed by back-formation from compound nouns: to aircondition < air conditioning, to baby-sit < baby sitter, to house-clean < house-cleaner, to house-keep < housekeeping, etc.

Similarly formed are also English verbs from adjectives: luminisce < luminiscent, reminisce < reminiscent, frivol < frivolous, etc.

Also nouns are formed quite in the same way from adjectives: greed < greedy, nast < nasty, cantankar < cantankerous (уїдливий, сварливий), etc.

Back-formation in Ukrainian is restricted only to nouns which are formed from verbal (or rather from their infinitival) stems. For example: біг < бігати, брід < бродити, піт < пітніти, крик < кричати, галас < галасувати, шамкіт < шамкотіти, говір < говорити, etc.


3. Reduplicationis a common means of compounding in the con trasted languages, but it is more productive in English than in Ukrainian. Cf. .fifty-fifty, goody-goody, hush-hush (secret), pooh-pooh, so-so. Similarly in Ukrainian: де-де, ні-ні, ледве-ледве, так-так, ось-ось, от-от, тільки-тільки, тихо-тихо.

It is interesting to note, that English reduplications are often only somewhat different ablaut combinations. Cf.: bibble-babble, chit-chat, clitter-clatter (all denoting idle talk), dilly-dally (loiter), knick-knacks (small article of ornament), riff-raff (the mob), shilly-shally (hesitate), ding-dong (equivalent to the Ukrainian дзінь-дзелень), tip-top (first-rate), zigzag (зиґзаґ), etc.

Unlike Ukrainian the English language is especially rich in rhymed reduplications which are rare in our colloquial speech. Cf. boogy-woogie, fliggerty-glibberty (frivolous), helter-skelter (in disordered haste), higgledy-piggledy (disorder), hurry-scurry (great hurry), lovey-dovey (darling), willy-nilly (compulsory), pow-wow (a noisy assembly), Humpty-Dumpty (вайло), walkie-hearie (device for the reproduction of recorded speech), walky-lookie (a portable TV set), walkie-pushie (movable TV station for transmitting sports events), walkie-talkie portable two-way radio set, etc.

Note.Pertaining to English only are also compounds with post-positives like camp-out (sleep in open air, not in tent), look-in (n) a quick look, look-out (n) vigilance, observation; sit-in/sit-ins (demonstration, strike without leaving the premises); walk-on (mute, dumb performer), walkout (general strike), walk-in (a) having a separate entrance (apartment), walk-over (easy task, easy victory), walk-up (apartment without a lift).

4. Accentual word-formation.This way of word-formation is iso morphic in the morphological systems of both languages. Nevertheless, words thus formed in English generally change both their lexico-gram matical (morphological) nature and meaning. Cf. 'accent (n) — ac'cent (v),'conduct (n) con'duct (v),'export (n) — ex'port (v),'permit (n) — per'mit (v), though 'mankind (n) (чоловіча половина людства) — man'kind (n) людство, but: 'comment (v) - 'comment (n), ex'cuse (v), ex'cuse (n), re'port (v), re'port (n), etc.

The change of accent in Ukrainian, however, usually does not effect


the lexico-grammatical nature of the word but only its semantics. Cf. 'замок - за'мок, 'жила - жил'а, 'мука - му'ка, 'приклад -прик'лад. Though not without exceptions. Cf.: 'бігом (n),— бігом (adv), вго'рі (adv) - в'горі (n), 'слідом (п),-слід'ом (adv). Sometimes, however, there may be no differentiation of the lexico-grammatical nature of homonymous sense units through accent in Ukrainian. This can be seen from the following examples: до'низу (adv) -до 'низу (prepos, noun), до'віку (adv) - до (такого-то) 'віку (n), тим 'часом (adv) - він скористався тим 'часом (n), etc.





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