One-Member Sentences in English and Ukrainian

Unlike two-member sentences, which have a larger quantitative representation of paradigmatic/structural types in English, one-member sentences, on the contrary, have a larger number of paradigmatic classes in Ukrainian. This is due to the morphological nature of Ukrainian as a mainly synthetic structure language. Nevertheless, there exist common types of one-member sentences in both contrasted languages. The latter, naturally, are not devoid of some divergent features in English or Ukrainian either. Common in English and Ukrainian are the following paradigmatic types of one-member sentences:

Nominal sentences.Being typologically isomorphic, this paradigmatic type of sentences, however, is characterised in English and Ukrai-

nian both by some common or isomorphic or by some allomorphic/divergent features. Isomorphic common is the structural form of nominal sentences which can be either extended or expanded. The former consist of one or two nominal components which may be nouns or other parts of speech. Expanded nominal sentences consist of two or more nominal components connected by means of co-ordinate conjunctions. The components in extended English nominal sentences may be connected both syndetically (usually with the help of prepositions) or asyndetically, whereas in Ukrainian the synthetic and analytic-synthetic connection prevails. The surface structures of nominal sentences in English and Ukrainian are common, however. They have the following models:

A. The N model sentences which may consist in English of a single noun, a noun with a preceding determining article, a proper name with or without the family name, a pronoun or a numeral. Eg: Sensation. Сенсація. Seventeen. Сімнадцять. (В. Shaw) A wood. The same. (Shakespeare) Ліс. Той самий ліс.

B. The NN/NNN model sentences: Mr. Surface. (B. S.) Sir Ralph Bloomfield Bonington. (Sheridan) Містер Серфіс. Сер Ральф Блумфілд Бонінґтон. Nominal sentences in English may include nouns in the genitive case like Lady Sneerwell's bedroom. (Ibid.) The French King's tent. (Shakespeare) Спальня леді Снірвел. Намет короля Франції. The AN model nominal sentences are no less frequent. Eg: Universal laughter. (B. Shaw) A personal explanation. (Ibid.) The welcome rain. (Longfellow) Загальний сміх. Особисте зауваження. Давно очікуваний дощ.

C. Nominal sentences of the AN model (like of the N/dN model) may often convey injunctive, requestive and other pragmatic meanings. Cf. Silence! The handcuffs! (B.Shaw) Тиша! (Замовкніть!). Наручники!/ Дайте наручники! Glorious night! Exquisite scenery! Capital din ner! (B. Shaw) Славетна ніч! Вишуканий пейзаж! Прекрасний обід!

D. The N/AN co-cjN/AN model sentences: Freedom and power! (B. Shaw) Nice manners and everything. (Parker) Dankness and dead silence. General laughter and good humour. (B. Shaw) Свобо да і влада! Гарні манери і взагалі. Темінь і мертва тиша. Загаль ний регіт і гарний настрій!

E. Nominal sentences with the prepositional connection of componental parts are presented in English and Ukrainian by both the isomorphic and allomorphic structural models. The deep structures of allomorphic nominal sentences reflect the non-existence of the equivalent grammaticalised prepositions of, to, by and with in Ukrainian and lack of inflexions in English nouns. Isomorphic models of nominal sentences with prepositional connection may be simple and complete by their structure, the simplest in the contrasted languages being the N/IprepN/Q, etc. models like Half past eleven. (B. Shaw) Confidence for confidence. (Ibid.) Пів на дванадцяту. Довір'я за довір'я.

Many nominal sentences have structurally complicated prepositional models in both contrasted languages, eg: dNprepdNprepN: The garden of a villa in Granada. INprepIN: Another room in the same home. dQANQcjQprepdNN: The two adjoining rooms 109 and 110 in the Hotel Florida. ANprepdNVinf prepN: Nice time for a rector to come down for breakfast. (B. Shaw)

These and other sentences of the type have their structural equivalents in Ukrainian: Сад коло вілли в Гранаді. Інша кімната в тому самому домі. Два суміжних номери 109 і 110 у готелі "Флорида". Слушний час для священика зійти на сніданок.

Since English and Ukrainian are structurally different language types, there is generally no identity in the grammatical means of connection of the same component parts in the same nominal sentences. It can be observed in the deep structure of several common nominal sentences of the contrasted languages. Thus, in English the component parts are mostly connected with the help of analytical means, whereas in the same Ukrainian nominal sentences synthetic or analytic-synthetic means are used. For example, analytical asyndetic connection: The Undershaft torpedo! The Undershaft submarine! (B. Shaw). In sentences like The garden of villa in Granada or Another burst of applause. (B. Shaw) the analytical syndetic connection is employed in English. These same components in their Ukrainian equivalent sentences are connected in the synthetic way, i. e. with the help of the inflexion. Cf. Торпеди Андершафта! Субмарини Андершафта! Ще один вибух аплодисментів.

Other types of one-member sentencesin English and Ukrainian

may have both common and divergent features. The latter usually pertain to the structural form of sentences as well as to the means of grammatical connection of their component parts. These one-member sentences are as follows:

A. Imperative (or inducive) sentencescontaining a verb and having a V or VP pattern structures: Keep aside, keep aside! Pass on, pass on! (M. R. Anand) Open the door! (Ibid.) He підходь, не підходь! Проходьте, проходьте! Відчиніть двері!

Note.Imperative sentences in English and Ukrainian may sometimes be two-membered, eg: Don't you do that again! Don't anybody switch the light! Mary and Pete, open the windows! He робіть ви більше цього! Ніхто не вмикайте світла! Маріє і Петре, відчиніть вікна!

B. Exclamatory sentencesmay structurally often coincide in En glish and Ukrainian with nominal and infinitival sentences, eg: Thieves! Fire! How funny! To think of it! Damn your money! (Maugham) Злодії! Вогонь! Як гарно! Подумати тільки! К бісу твої гроші!

C. Infinitival sentencesin both contrasted languages have practical ly identical structural forms. They may be unextended or extended. Eg: To be or not to be? (Shakespeare) To be alive! To have youth and the world before one! (Dreiser) Бути чи не бути? Бути живим! Бути молодим і мати весь світ попереду. Матір ні купити, ні заслу жити. (Saying).

Other allomorphic features observed in the types of one-member sentences have a larger representation in Ukrainian than in English. Thus, among these Ukrainian types are the following not pertained to the English syntactic system:

A. The definite personal sentences,which are widely used in literary and colloquial Ukrainian speech. The doer of the action in these sentences is indicated by the finite verb and its personal ending correlating with the main part of the sentence. Eg: Люблю (я) пісні мойого краю. (Рильський) Пам'ятаєш (ти) перший клас? (Павличко) Любіть (ви/всі) Україну всім серцем своїм... (Сосюра)

Note. One-member sentences of similar nature can be observed among English elliptical sentences, eg: Much obliged to you (і. е. І am much obliged to you). Going home? i. e. Are yougoing home? Understand? i. e. Do you understand? etc. In these elliptical sentences, like in

some types of Ukrainian sentences, the finite verb is equally associated with a more or less definite performer of the action as well. The same sentences are also observed in other European languages as Italian, Russian, Byelorussian. Cf. Abbiamo molti compiti (We have many assignments). Подумаем об этом. (We shall think it over), etc.

B. The indefinite personal sentencesmay also be structurally identical to the above-given Ukrainian definite personal one-member sen tences. They have their actor, i. e. the logico-grammatical doer which is not definitely indicated. Their main part, the verbal component, also cor relates with the finite verb in the third person plural. Its action may refer to present, past or future in the indicative, imperative or in the subjunc tive mood. Eg: Сіяли всю ніч. Дзвонять в усі дзвони. (Шиян) Давніх друзів не забувають. (Ukr. saying) Нам дають чаю, гарячого, міцного. (Коцюбинський)

Sometimes the Ukrainian principal or subordinate clause may have the structural form of an indefinite personal sentence as well. Cf. He за me вовка б'ють, що сірий, а за те, що овечку вкрав. (Saying) Він розпорядився, щоб подали вечерю. Коли б Мирославі не говорили це, вона б заспокоїлась. (А. Головко)

C. Similar to the definite personal sentences are Ukrainian gener alised personal sentences. The action of their main part in such sen tences refers to any (generalised) person correlating with the second (rarer — other) person in singular or plural in the indicative or imperative mood. For example: Заправду й за народ ставай життям! (Павличко) Дивиться лисицею, а думає вовком! Вибирай дівку, коли в глині, а не коли в калині. Поживемо побачимо! Дурнів не орють, не сіють, а вони самі родяться. Подарунок назад не беруть. (Sayings)

D. One more group of one-member sentences in Ukrainian is pre sented by impersonal sentences which are represented in some sub types, the most common of which are the following:

a) Impersonal proper (власне безособові) one-member sentenceswith the principal part expressed by the finite (predicate) verb, eg: Світає. Край неба палає. (Шевченко) І світає й не світає. (Тичина) Весніє вже. (Гончар) Тепер тобі одразу полегшає. (Ibid.) The principal part in impersonal one-member sentences may sometimes be expressed by a personal verb form. Eg: Мело, крутило, скаженіло,

огортаючи присмерковий край. (Гончар) По правді роби, по правді й буде. Вік живи, вік учись. (Нар. творчість)

b) Impersonal sentenceswith the main part/finite verb expressing the state of the agent used in the dative case form, eg: Раз якось Остапові не спалось. (Коцюбинський) Забажалось королеві завоювати чуже царство. (Л. Українка)

c) Impersonal sentenceswith the principal part expressed by verbs in -HO, -то: Роботу покинуто. (Коцюбинський) Зал залито яскравим, сліпучим світлом. (Яновський) Убито, Яноша вбито! (Гончар) ...Його оддавано в рекрути, засилано на Сибір, катовано канчуками, тавровано, мов худобу. (Коцюбинський)

d) Impersonal sentenceswith the finite verb referring to a person but expressing impersonal meaning as in Венеру за душу щипало (Котляревський) Йому кололо в боки. Impersonal sentences with stat ives: Дітям спочатку було дуже нудно (Н. Лев.)

e) Impersonal sentences with modal predicativephrases func tioning as part of the modal verbal predicate, eg: Йому не слід було дивитись. (Коцюбинський) "Дядька, Іване, треба розуміти"... (Стельмах) ...Неможливо знищити того, кому симпатизує народ. (Гончар)

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