One-Word Sentences/Quasi-Sentences in English and Ukrainian

Among other features and phenomena testifying to the existence of isomorphism in the syntactic systems of the contrasted languages are the so-called one-word or quasi-sentences. [15, 174] They are speech units devoid of the binary S — P (or a single S or P) structure. They may consist of a single word or of a functionally equivalent phrase expressing affirmation, negation, an address or some emotive/incentive meanings. One-word sentences serve to establish or to disjoin the speech contact, they may sometimes perform a meta-communicative function. As to their communicative direction and meaning, one-word/quasi-sentences may be:

1. Affirmative,i. e. expressing affirmation. These are usually short answers to the preceding questions or to an interrogative inquiry/one's consent to an inquiry, eg: "Think it?" — "All right". (Collier) "A real

beauty?" — "Indeed". (Bates) "Do you love me?" — "Uh huh ". (Hemingway) "Excellent!" said Stickly-Pickly. (Kipling) "House?" — "Of course". (Bates.) "Yes", said her host. "Yes, indeed". (Parker) — Аякже... Гріх казати... — гуділи мужики. (Коцюбинський) І Ольга усміхнулась. — Гаразд. — "Ото народу збереться". — "Еге". .. (Микитенко) Так! Я буду крізь сльози сміятись. (Л. Українка)

2.Negativequasi-sentences/one-word sentences express nega tion. Their most common components in English and Ukrainian are neg ative particles and phrases not, no, not yet, not at all, ні, зовсім ні, не так, та ні, ще ні, eg: Oh, по, по, по", said her host. 'No, no ". (Parker) „Got a cigarette, Root?" "No". (Steinbeck) "Hear anything?" — 'Wo. Not a thing". (Ibid.) "You can't help us at all?" - "Not at all". (G.Greene) "You don't mind if I do" — "Wo, no, of course, not". (Ibid.) Similarly in Ukrainian: "Hi. Сьогодні він не хоче спогадів". (Головко) "Не хочеш?" — Ні! Так ні!Ні!! (Шумило) Ні, ні! Що ти кажеш? Може, й випадково. Ні. (Кочерга)

3.Interrogativeone-word/quasi-sentences convey questions, inquiry, doubt and are expressed in the contrasted languages by separate com ponents or by phrases. For example: "...what on earth's the matter?" — Nothing. Why? (Maugham.) Her voice trembled a little. "Well?" (Ibid.) "Just a Lucy?" "Yes? " (Trevor) "I congratulate you" — "Eh?" (Christie). "От і добре". — "Добре?" "Здоровенькі були, діду!" — "Ля?" (Вишня) "В мене екзамен був". — Ну і як?.. (Гончар)

4.Emotional and exclamatoryone-word/quasi-sentences may be expressed by interjections and other functional words together with some notionals. Such sentences are mostly evaluative though they may be purely exclamatory as well, as in this sentence: Honk! Honk! The horn of a lorry barked... (M. R. Anand) Emotional and exclamatory meanings are expressed in the following sentences: Hypolito. Alas! Alas! See you are in love. O, God! My evil genius. (Longfellow). Goodness sakes! Would a runaway nigger run south?" (Twain). Not time yet! (Caldwell). Кайло враз спинилось. Бах! (Будько) Го-го! Як танцювати, то танцювати. (Коцюбинський) "Ах, он як! Розумію". (Довженко) "Господь з вами! Моя дочка удовиця..." "Хай йому цур!" (Коцюбинський)

5.Incentive and evaluativequasi-sentences present one more com mon sybtype of one-member sentences. They are also formed from in-

terjections or from their functional equivalents, which may be phrases or notional words by nature, eg: Bosh! Don't be moral. (B. Shaw) Pooh! In what way? (Ibid.) "Ssh!" said the Daddy, and frowned to himself... (Kipling) "Good Lord, ma'am! What is it... a baby?" (J. K. Jerome) "Stuff! stealing cattle and such things ain't robbery... (Twain) Той ще стояв, огинався. "Ну!" (Загребельний) "їй-богу ж ні!" (Кочерга) "Овва. То вже мені й погуляти не вольно..." "Хі-хі... І з географії п'ять." "Ф'ю-ю/Нема вже в барона маєтку." (Коцюбинський) Хома услід Віталієві: "Тьфу!" (К.-Карий) Свічка: "Геть!" (Кочерга) "Весела дівчина! — Вогонь!" (С. Чорнобривець) Софія (до Гната): "Прощай!" "Батьківщина гине, а вони..." (С. Скляренко)

6. Vocativequasi-sentences/one-word sentences in both contrasted languages express direct address. Their main component is usually a noun which may often be preceded or followed by an interjection or an attributive adjunct. Vocative quasi-sentences are more meta-communicative in the contrasted languages, than any other of the above-given one-member sentences. They mostly require a response. For example: "Tom! Tom!" — No answer. (Twain) "Hullo Pyle". (Greene) Trench (hotly). "Cokane!" (B. Shaw) "Eal Chrispa! Chrispa!" Padre. "Hypolito!". (Longfellow) "Good Lord, ma'am. What is it... a baby?" (J. K. Jerome) "Чіпко! Чіпко!" — Чіпка лежить на полу, мовчить. (Мирний) "Браво, Жан, браво!" "Кумонько, кумо... " (Коцюбинський) "Мамо! — Соромились би..." (Тулуб) "Тітко Клаво! Фашист!" (Донченко) Україно! Ти для мене диво! (Симоненко)

Equally meta-communicative in English and Ukrainian (like in many other languages) are also many quasi-sentences that express greeting, request, excuse, and order. Such meta-communicative quasi-sentenses usually require a response sentence or are followed by response sentences having in both contrasted languages an identical or similar meaning, eg: "How do you do!" — "Oh, how do you do, Mister Williams", she said. "Well, how do you do. " (Parker) Lickcheese. "Good morning, sir". Sartorius. "Good morning..." (B. Shaw) "Здорові були, сват!" — "Добривечір..." (Коцюбинський) "Чолом, панове!" — "Чолом, пане Максиме!" (Панч) "Здрастуйте, дідусю!" — закричало радісно дитя. (Мирний)

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