Compound Sentences with Asyndetically Adjoined Clauses

Compound sentences with asyndetically adjoined clauses are equally pertained to both contrasted languages. They are represented by two common subtypes:

a) compound sentences with an implicit though quite transparent copu-

lative interrelation between the constituent clauses and with close semantic and syntactic ties between the succeeding and preceding clauses. As a result, asyndetically adjoined clauses in sentences of this subtype can be substituted for syndetically connected clauses (with the help of the copulative conjunction "and"). Cf. She's worthy, she's dowdy; she's provincial. (Maugham) — She's worthy, (and she's dowdy, (and) she's provincial. Similarly in Ukrainian: Вона гонориста; (і) вона старомодна; (і) вона провінціалка.

b) compound sentences of the second subtype are characterised by a still looser connection between the adjoined clauses which are marked by a comma or a semicolon. The syntactic interrelation between the component clauses in sentences of this subtype may be of copulative or adversative nature. Cf. Young John has never studied a doctrine for himself; he has never examined a doctrine for any purpose. (Twain) — Young John has never studied a doctrine for himself, (and) he has never examined a doctrine for any purpose... The co-ordinate copulation is also preserved in Ukrainian: Молодий пастор Джон ніколи не вивчав якоїсь віри, (І) він ніколи не заглиблювався в неї з якоюсь певною метою.

No less frequent in both languages are also adversative interrelations between clauses in looser compound sentences of this subtype. Thus, in the sentence "It didn't warm me, it made me feel sick inside" (Maltz), the adversative interrelation between the constituent clauses can be made explicit by inserting the co-conjunction but between them: It didn't warm me (but), it made me feel sick inside.

An equivalent transformation of this sentence can be performed in Ukrainian. Cf. Вона (усмішка) не зігріла мене, (а) вона викликала в мене відразу.

The adversative meaning can be intensified by the introductory "but" as in the following sentence: But the teller of the comic story does not slur the nub; he shouts at you... (M. Twain). The sentence preserves the same meaning in Ukrainian: Але/проте автор комічного твору ніколи не завуальовує смішного; він обстрілює ним вас...

A still looser semantic and syntactic dependence can be observed in some polypredicative asyndetic compound sentences whose clauses often display a tendency to a semantic and logical autonomy. The latter is

predetermined by actions/events expressed by the predicate verbs, which do not depend on the predicate verbs of the preceding clauses.

Cf. The moon sank behind the hill; the doorway framed only a path of pale sky; the willy wagtail chirped behind the house; the mosquitoes buzzed against the net. (Cusack) The interdependence between the succeeding and the preceding pairs of neighbouring clauses is rather vague due to which the clauses may be singled out and even form independent sentences. Cf. The moon sank behind the hill. The doorway framed only a path of pale sky. The willy wagtail chirped behind the house...

Similar polypredicative sentences are pertained to Ukrainian as well: Сонце заходить, гори чорніють, Пташечка тихне, попе німіє. Радіють люди... (Шевченко) Despite their being marked by commas, all the clauses retain their interdependence due to the general content and due to the supersegmental means (intonation, logical stress), which make some of them loose enough as to form at least three separate sentences: Сонце заходить — гори чорніють. Пташечка тихне — поле німіє. Радіють люди...

Consequently, a looser connection between clauses in compound sentences of the second subtype is predetermined by the nature of actions expressed in the constituent clauses, as well as by the extralingual factors. These include the author's pragmatic intentions due to which some loosely connected clauses may become separate simple sentences or vice versa. Thus, the two simple sentences: The duchess went pale. The duchess went red. (Maugham) may be transformed into constituent clauses of a compound sentence: The duchess went pale; the duchess went red. And in Ukrainian: Графиня пополотніла; графиня побуряковіла.

A possibility of the kind of transformations in the system of compound sentences belonging to the second subtype testifies to their discrete status in both contrasted languages.

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