ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Typological Features of Object Clauses



The object clauses being of the same nominal nature as the subject and predicative clauses, are introduced in the contrasted languages by two common means: a) syndetically and b) asyndetically. The syndetic means are conjunctions (that, if, whether, lest), correlatives (either, or, whether... or), connective pronouns (who, whoever, what, whatever which), and connective adverbs (where, when, whenever, why, how). Their corresponding syndetic means in Ukrainian are respectively subordinating conjunctions and pronominal correlatives що, щоб, чи; чи...чи; хто, котрий, який; де, коли, звідки, куди, чого, чому, як. Common are also some other features of object clauses, namely: 1) they complement the objective verb predicate or refer to a verbal noun, some statives, adverbs or to adjectives expressing perception, desire, feeling, assurance (certain, sure, sorry, anxious, pleased). The only exception are statives which do not always correlate/coincide lexically and can not be transplanted from English to Ukrainian. Cf.

"I regret that there is no mistake..." "Я жалкую, що тут немає помилки".

(Greene) (Жаль, що тут немає помилки).

"I'm afraid I can't help you". Матросам робилося прикро,

(Christie) що вони стоять у морі без діла. (Кучер)

"But aren't you glad I came today?" "Хіба ти не радий, що я прийшов

(Gardner) сьогодні?"


2) object clauses in English and Ukrainian are of common syntactic nature and express an identical nominal derivation. They occupy a strong substantive position which is manifested by the introductory conjunctions, connective pronouns and in some cases by the use of introductory prepositions. For example:

"I know that his is a fantastic "Я знаю, що це його захоплююча

story." (Maugham) оповідь. "

"Go ahead and tell me what "Продовжуй і розкажи, що/було

happened." (Saroyan) трапилося потім."

І was supposed to see with what Я мав побачити, з якім апетитом

appetite she ate. (Maugham) вона їсть.

Allomorphism is also observed in the nature and structure of some Ukrainian connectors among which there is the particle чи corresponding to the English conjunctions whether and if. Besides, the correlating pronoun він is often a part of the matrix clause (as in other nominal clauses). Cf.

"I wonder whether he already knew "Мене цікавить, чи він уже знав

the contents of my telegram." (Greene) тоді зміст моєї телеграми."

"І don't want to pry into what "Я не хочу втручатись у те,

doesn't concern me." (Maugham) що мене не стосується."

The correlating pronoun me, as in the object clause above, may be used in Ukrainian complex sentences in different case forms. Cf. Твір більше виграє від того, що ви зачепили в ньому проблему хліба. (Гуцало) Після ретельних підрахунків помирилися на тому, щоб іти пішки. (Гончар).

Correlating prepositional pronouns can perform the same function in English object clauses as well. Cf. "You may rely on it that I shall give you a full account". (Doyle)

One more isomorphic feature of object clauses in the contrasted languages lies in their ability to have the implicit "background of adverbial events." [30] The latter are introduced in these clauses by the corresponding relative adverbs of time, place, manner, cause and by the conjunction if that expresses choice and has the meaning of the particle "чи" in Ukrainian. The implicit meanings may be of:


Time:"I'll tell you when we're "Я тобі скажу, коли ми будемо

alone. (Braine) самі."

Cause:I wondered why he had Я дивувався, чому він прийшов.

соте. (Maugham)

Manner:I asked him how he liked Я запитав його, як йому сподо-

Paris. (Ibid.) бався Париж.

Choice:The innkeeper asked the Власник постою запитав у кон-

guards if they had come from the воїрів, чи вони, бува, не при-

city. (Vonnegut) йшли з міста.

English object clauses, however, are more often introduced asyndetically. To mark this way of connection the semicolon, a comma, or a dash is used in Ukrainian instead of the conjunction "що", eg:

I realised he wanted to talk. Я зрозумів: йому хотілося поба-

(F. Hardy) лакати.

Lena said she would rest. (Maugham) Ліна казала - вона спочиватиме.

"І know it's bad for you." "Я знаю, це недобре/погано для

(Hemingway) тебе."

Not infrequently, however, a conjunction is to be used in Ukrainian structural equivalents of English asyndetically joined object clauses. Cf.

"But aren't you glad I came to- "Невже ти не радий, що я при-

day?" (Lardner) їхала нині?"

Не must have known I was coming. Він повинен був знати, що я

(Hemingway) приїжджаю.

І don't believe a word of Я не вірю, що в цьому є хоч

truth in it. (Maugham) крихта правди.

Isomorphic in the contrasted languages is the inverted order of object clauses which is seemingly more often occurring in English than in Ukrainian. Nevertheless, there often exists a direct equivalence in placement of object clauses in the corresponding English and Ukrainian complex sentences, though the structural form of these clauses may coincide, eg:

"There's something, I think". "Там щось не те, гадаю."

"She's pretty, you know". "Вона ж гарна, ти знаєш."

(Maugham) ("Ти ж знаєш, що вона гарна.")


How long he walked he didn't Як довго він ішов, — він не

know. (Anderson) пам'ятає.

Nevertheless, it is far from always possible to keep the same preposed or postposed placement of English object clauses in the corresponding Ukrainian sentences:

"They don't last, I'm told." (Wilde). "Я чув, вони не витримують."

"Мені сказали, що вони не витримають."

It came from the sea though, Я гадаю, однак, що воно з'явилося

І presume. (Dreiser) з моря.

As can be ascertained, postposition of object clauses following the matrix clause is more often observed in Ukrainian whereas in English complex sentences of both positions are equally common. But isomorphic remains one more feature such as the use of homogeneous object clauses to a matrix clause:

"You know I'm not a beautiful wo- "Знаєте, я зовсім не красуня,

man, I'm not even a very pretty мене навіть гарненькою не на-

one." (Maugham) звеш."

In rare cases an object clause in English and Ukrainian may depend on an infinitival matrix clause, eg:

"But to think Julia possibly gave "Але подумати тільки, щоб

him a thought." (Maugham) Джулія так напоумила його."

Pertaining to Ukrainian only is the structural form of matrix clauses identical with regular one-member definite personal sentences taking objective clauses for their complements, eg: Хочете, я з вами посиджу. (М. Вовчок) Сказано: "Хліб та вода — то козацька їда." (Куліш) Раділа, що йду, живу, п'ю цілюще степове повітря. (Гончар) Це ж, думаю, Палажка ходить до моєї криниці. (Н.-Левицький) Вважалося, що перенесення образів... річ зовсім неможлива. (Рильський)





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