ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Typological Features of Predicative Clauses



Predicative clauses are equally characterised in English and Ukrainian by some isomorphic as well as by some allomorphic features. Thus, predicative clauses may be: a) structurally extended or unextended; b) they may perform the function of the nominal part of the predicate in the matrix clause; c) they always follow in English their matrix clause whereas in Ukrainian they may sometimes occupy a front position and even a midposition in the complex sentence; d) they may be introduced mainly


by common semantically and structurally conjunctions, correlatives and connectives (relative pronouns, relative adverbs) which are as follows: that, whether, as, as if, as though, because, lest, either...or, whether...or; who, whose, whoever, what, which, where, whenever, when, how, why що/щоб, як, ніби/нібито, наче/ неначе, мов/немов, такий, кого, яким та ін.

A peculiar feature of English predicative clauses is that they are in the place of the nominal part of the predicate, i. e. they almost always follow the linking verb of the matrix clause: "That's what he did ". (Macken) My experience is that they're mostly pleasant. (J. K. Jerome) It was as if they had not been there at all. (O'Dell)

This same structural form of complex sentences is observed when there are some homogeneous predicative clauses following the linking verb. Cf. Our judgements were (1) that the lectures were of no importance; (2) that nobody took them; (3) that they don't matter; (4) that you can take them if you like; (5) that they do not harm. (Leacock).

Note. Sometimes English predicative clauses may be joined to be matrix clause asyndetically as in the sentence "The outcome was, the dogs never appeared again". (O'Dell) They may also be introduced in English by the anticipatory pronoun it: "It was that Mary was a lazy girl". (O'Hara)

The number of complex sentences whose predicative clauses substitute the nominal part of the predicate and follow the linking verb is restricted in Ukrainian. However, equivalents to some English predicative clauses of this type can be found in Ukrainian as well:

...my only fear was that you would... єдиним моїм побоюванням

be bored. (Maugham) було, що ти нудитимешся.

That was as far as he got. (Anderson) Це/то було настільки далеко він

забрався/зайшов.

The main group among present-day Ukrainian predicative clauses that identify or specify the nominal part of the matrix clause are the ones introduced by the demonstrative pronouns "такий, той" which may be preceded by the negative particle "не": Команду подали пошепки, а


враження було таке,що пролунала вона громом. (Гончар). Він був не з тих, що швидко погоджуються. (Руденко). Та часи тепер були зовсім не ті, щоб однією пихою жити. (Мирний).

Structurally similar, though of different nature, are complex sentences whose matrix clauses in Ukrainian contain a nominal part of the predicate expressed by an ordinal numeral or by an adjective specified by a demonstrative or relative pronoun хто/кого, такий, така, таке, такі: Ганна була першою, кого Крайнєв зустрів в інституті. (Собко) Моє життя зараз таке коротке, що я кроками можу зміряти його. (Коцюбинський) Чоловік це був такий високий, що в хаті зробилося раптом тісно й темно. (Тютюнник) Pertaining to only Ukrainian are complex sentences whose matrix clauses have a simple nominal predicate expressed by a demonstrative pronoun, which may be preceded by the negative particle не, or by an adjective often emphasised by a demonstrative pronoun. Cf. Я той, що греблі рвав. (Воронько) Та й люди у них не такі, щоб пустили докторів на свої виноградники. (Коцюбинський) Сьогодні я такий веселий,що молодіти хочу знов. (Сосюра) Повітря таке запашнеод гірських трав, що аж п'янить. (Коцюбинський).

Ukrainian predicative clauses have often an implicit attributive meaning specifying the antecedent of the matrix clause: Круто повернувся і вийшов з-за перегородки такий же поважний і урочистий, яким і зайшов сюди. (Шовкопляс) Тарас дивився на Остапа такий здивований, начебто це був і не Остап зовсім... (Довженко).

The most striking allomorphism in the system of predicative clauses in the contrasted languages, however, is their ability (in Ukrainian) to occupy sometimes the initial and seldom even the midposition of the complex sentence. This is observed when an identity of a corresponding feature in the predicative clause and in the matrix clause is to be emphasised or determined. Cf. Яке життя, таке й товариство. (Мирний) Який Сава, така й слава. Or in the interposition: Першим, кого він побачив, був Захар Побережний, знатний хлібороб. (Стельмах)

Common in the syntactic systems of both contrasted languages are complex sentences consisting of two subordinate clauses, the first of which is in the position of the subject clause and the second, following


the linking verb, is the predicative clause. Complex sentences of this type are almost identical in both languages by their structure with the exception of the demonstrative pronoun той/те, which can sometimes be omitted in English. Hence, the sentences are easily transplantable, eg:

...all she knew was that it was ...все, що вона знала, було те,

wonderful. (Saroyan) що це просто прекрасно.

What had troubled her was that she Що її турбувало, було те, що вона

had no thread to mend her children's не мала ниток, аби полатати

clothes. (Parker) своїм дітям одежини.





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2017-01-19; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 34.201.3.10 (0.008 с.)