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Non-Segmentable Sentences in English and Ukrainian



The system of simple sentences in the contrasted languages is formed by two common opposite poles. The first of them is represented by segmentable sentences and the second by simple non-segmentable sentences. The latter, consisting of a particle/a combination of particles, a modal word/modal phrase, an interjection/a group of interjections, can not be segmented into smaller syntactic units, i. e. parts of the sentence. Nonsegmentable sentences in English and Ukrainian may contain some rather vague ties with the antecedent sentence. They include affirmative, negative, declarative, interrogative and incentive non-segmentable sentences. Among them there are emotionally coloured (exclamatory) and emotionally neutral (non-exclamatory) non-segmentable simple sentences.

1. Affirmativenon-segmentable sentences in the contrasted languages serve to express the approval of the content in the antecedent sentence. Cf.


"Has she three children then?" — "Yes." (Maugham) "You can see even better from here." — "All right. "(Hemingway) "У неї, отже, троє дітей?" — "Так". "Звідси тобі навіть краще буде видно". — "Гаразд ".
Simple affirmative non-segmentable sentences may often be emphasised by interjections or through doubling of a particle. Cf.
"That is in the United States?" "Yes. Oh yes. "(Greene) "Do you love me?" "Uh, huh. " (Hemingway) "Тобто в Сполучених Штатах?" "Так. Саме так /о, так. " "Ти мене любиш?" — "У-гу. "
2. Negativenon-segmentable sentences serve to express disagreement with the statement/suggestion contained in the antecedent sentence. An ordinary /non-emphatic negation is usually expressed in English through the pronominal particle "no " and in Ukrainian — through the particle "ні":
"Scared of the dark, too, kid?" 'Wo. "(Steinbeck) "What'd he cop, malaria?" -'No. " (F. Hardy) "Боїшся теж темноти, хлопче?" - Ні. "У нього що - ревматизм?" Ні "Що він підхопив — малярію?" - Ні. ("Що в нього - малярія?") - Ні.
Emphatic negative meanings in this type of sentences are often expressed in English through doubling of the pronominal particle "no " and through the phrase negation not at all, whereas in Ukrainian apart from "ні" some other negative composite particles are used (та ні, зовсім ні, де там ні):
"I'm just terrible to him". "Oh, no, no, no... "(Parker) "Are you very angry with me?" "No. Not at all. " (Maugham) "Я просто жахлива з ним". "Та ні, ні, ні. " "Ти дуже сердишся на мене?" "Ні, анітрохи. "
Non-segmentable may be in English and Ukrainian infinite rows of negative particles preceding or following a noun, as in the humorous

English song about John: "Will you kiss me? Yes or no? " "Oh, no, John, no, John, no, John, no. "

3. Interrogativenon-segmentable sentences are formed by the particle "yes " (less often "no") and some interjections:

 

"I got a cable this morning from my wife." — "Yes?" (Greene) "I congratulate you." — "Eh?" (Christie) "Мені телефонувала сьогодні вранці дружина."-"Так?" "Поздоровляю вас." — "Га?"

"Monsieur would not let me replace the top." — "No?" (Hemingway) "А курей на буряки вивозили?" — "Ні." ? "Ні? " (Вишня)

4. Non-segmentable sentences are often used to express some modal meanings (certainty, one's will, consent, warning, etc.):

 

"You can have it tonight." "Right?" (Wilson) "Ole Anderson?" — "Sure. " (Hemingway) - "Можеш сьогодні це мати". "Справді? /Невже? " "Оле Андерсон?" — "Авжеж. "




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