Ways of Joining Different Adjuncts and Complements in English and Ukrainian Word-Groups and Sentences

From what had been shown above, the reader could see that different adjuncts and complements can be joined in subordinate word-groups depending on their nature and on the nature of their head components. Consequently, there have to be pointed out in English and Ukrainian the already mentioned three main ways of joining the adverbial and nominal adjuncts (and complements) with their subordinating nuclei:

1) Analytical (syndetic and asyndetic). 2) Analytic and synthetic. 3) Synthetic. The analytical way of joining is observed when the adverbial component is an adverb, a noun (rarely), or a prepositional phrase. Eg: The next morning cigarette smoke blew past my window. (V.S. Pritchett) She was silent a moment. (Cusack) "Come and ask me about it tomorrow". (Kipling) As becomes clear from the pointed out word-groups, in these sentences practically dominant (in all of them) is the analytical way of connection (next morning, cigarette smoke, blew past my window, ask me about it, ask me tomorrow). Only one word-group (come and ask) is co-ordinate by its structural form. In Ukrainian, however, predominant in all subordinate word-groups are synthetic as well as analytical and synthetic, i.e. combined ways of joining componental parts. Cf. наступного ранку (syntactic agreement), димок від сигарет (synthetic and analytical connections/joining, i.e. prepositional government), запитай мене (synthetic connection/government in both languages), запитай взавтра (asyndetic connection, adjoinment) in both contrasted languages, etc.

Note. The form of the adjoined component in Ukrainian may be synthetically marked. Cf. Самотою (як?) повзли поміж хатами (де?) брудні дороги. (Коцюбинський) Він з успіхом (як?) захистив диплом-

ний проект. Він проїхав якось (коли?) у трамваї (де?) зайцем (як?).

The lexico-grammatic (and semantic) nature of adverbial complements in both languages is mostly identical, however. Apart from the afore-mentioned parts of speech adverbial complements may also be expressed: a) by the infinitive/infinitival phrase: I smiled to her to show my sympathy. (Maugham) We came here to rest. Я посміхнувся, щоб своє висловити співчуття. Ми приїхали сюди відпочивати; b) by an adverbial phrase/word-group: ...she had once before seen it long ago. (Bronte). Ант ходив по хижі дуже тихо. (Скляренко); с) by an extended or expanded word-group: In fall and winter they moved to the hearth. Восени і взимку вони підсідали до каміна; d) by an adjectival, participial or phrasal adjunct (sometimes with no equivalents in Ukrainian). Cf. When dressed, I sat a long time at the window... (Bronte) I shall come if necessary. Одягнувшись, я довгенько сиділа коло вікна... Я прийду, якщо треба; е) by an adverbial clause: "I didn't think as high as you do." (Murdoch) Я так не переоцінював, як ти.

Of isomorphic nature in both languages are also homogeneous adjuncts (and complements), which may also be extended or expanded. For example: It (field) is under the small, dim summer sun. (Frost) He could see the soft blue-gray-baloon-shaped oaks. (Galsworthy) There was a little man with say-nothing-to-me, or-1'll-contradict-you sort of countenance. (Dickens) Поле спочивало під маленьким, тьмяним літнім сонцем. Він побачив ніжні синювато-сірі округлені крони дубів.

As was pointed out, Ukrainian attributive adjuncts mostly agree with the head noun in number, case and gender, though they may sometimes have a purely complementary function and meaning: Сонце сходить над маревом нив. (Сосюра) Голосом Любові і скорботи Нам кричать румовища німі. (Бажан) Марево нив in the first sentence may be treated, naturally, as an attributive word-group (яке марево! -марево нив), though its complementary force is stronger (марево чого?), i.e. an objective relation (synthetic government). Such and the like attributive relation of incomplete/partial agreement can also be found in word-groups created by some nominals and traditionally identified as appositive adjuncts. The latter may also have full and partial syntactic agree-

ment with the head component, for example: гетьман Іван Виговський, співачка Соломія Крушельницька (full agreement); інженер Ставнича, місто Київ/Суми (partial agreement), ми/ви всі (full agreement), ми/ви одні (full agreement).

Appositional adjuncts in English and Ukrainian specify/identify, explain or make more vivid and expressive the head component. They may be a) simple or b) extended/expanded, as can be observed from the corresponding English word-groups below:

1) Nurse Lloyd was openly and bitterly an enemy. (Cronin) Медсестра Ллойд була відвертим і непримиренним ворогом.

2) That and the other factor, the unexpected arrival of a widowed sister-in-law with her daughter from India. (Christie) Те, та ще інший фактор - непередбачений приїзд овдовілої невістки з дочкою з Індії.

Appositional adjuncts may be in English and Ukrainian a) non-detached (Mount Elbrus, Lord Henry — гора Ельбрус, лорд Генрі), and b) detached: She was dressed in grey, the colour of pigeon's feathers... (Galsworthy) Вона була в сизому кольору пір'я дикого голуба.

In each of the three English examples above the apposition adjuncts, whether non-detached or detached, are connected in a way which is practically close to adjoinment in English, though they agree in number with their head components (cf. nurse Lloyd, Mount Everst, Lord Henry). Their Ukrainian counterparts, however, agree in number, case and gender with the exception of two examples: у сизому - кольору... (neuter gender - versus masculine gender) and гора Ельбрус (feminine gender vs. Lord Henry masculine gender).

English appositional adjuncts may often be joined by means of prepositions: queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, the Isle of Wight (cf. in Ukrainian Юрій з Дрогобича, Петро з копи здачі). Ukrainian appositions of the latter type are joined by means of the analytical and synthetic means and their English counterparts are joined by a purely analytical (syndetic) means of connection. The apposed component in the contrasted languages may often be an expanded/co-ordinate or extended/subordinate word-group as well: the American writer and physician W.C. Williams, the Ukrainian philosopher and poet H.S. Skovoroda or: William III, Prince of Orange, king of England (1689-1702). Similarly in Ukrainian:

американський письменний і лікар Вільям С. Вільямс, український філософ і поет Сковорода, Вільгельм Третій - принц Оранський, король Англії (1689-1702). Or: the American film "Gone with the Wind" американський фільм "Знесені вітром", кінофільм "Пригоди барона Мюнхгаузена ", etc.

Different ways of syntactic connection are also observed in verbal word-groups with the participial heads as in the sentences: Having reached the door he turned the key and opened it. (Wilde) Підійшовши до дверей, він встромив ключа й відчинив їх. In English this way of connection is analytical asyndetic (i.e. syntactic adjoinment) and in Ukrainian - analytic-synthetic (prepositional government), as this verbal (diyepryslivnyk) requires the dependent nominal component in the indirect (dative) case form. The Ukrainian diyepryslivnyk can also govern some nominals synthetically. Cf. Зустрівши їх (чотирьох чоловіків), which is possible in English as well, but only when the complement is a personal pronoun in the objective case (cf. Meeting/having met him/her, us, etc.). Or in Ukrainian: Йдучи стежкою (synthetic government), but: йдучи повільно (швидко, навшпиньки) - syntactic adjoinment, i.e. analytical connection.

Consequently, typologically common by their nature adjuncts and complements in English and Ukrainian are often joined in the same paradigmatic classes of word-groups with the help of both common and different means of syntactic connection. Their qualitative correlation convincingly reflects the difference in the syntactic structure of each of the contrasted languages.

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