ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Adverbial Complements of Attendant Circumstances/ Обставини супроводжуючих способів дії



These adverbial complements may be expressed in the contrasted languages both by isomorphic and by allomorphic means, the latter being observed mainly in English. Isomorphic is the expression of attendant circumstances by means of adverbs of manner or prepositional word-groups with semantically corresponding adverbs, prepositional noun phrases or diyepryslivnyks in Ukrainian. Eg:

...she began to speak in a limping ...вона почала своє звертання пошепки

whisper. (W. Trevor) й запикуючись.

Jimmi... dived under and began to Джиммі.., пірнаючи, відпливав, а потім

swim with strong, easy strokes. легко навзамашки плавав.

(J. Wain)

Winter set in early and unexpec- Зима лягла рано і з непередбачено/

tedly with a heavy fall of snow. несподівано великими снігопадами.

(Cronin)

The adverbial co-ordinate word-group early and unexpectedly has a combined temporal meaning (early) and that of attendant circumstance (unexpectedly-how?). In Ukrainian the temporal meaning is equivalently conveyed with the help of the adverb (рано) and the adverb of manner/attendant circumstances непередбачено. It has an equivalent in Ukrainian несподівано which is also semantically connected with the prepositional noun phrase with heavy fall of snow. The latter has also a functional and semantic equivalent in Ukrainian з великими снігопадами (how? in what way?)

An allomorphic expression of attendant circumstances is also observed in English when it finds its realisation through gerundial and nominative absolute participial constructions: Now I can go to bed at last without dreading tomorrow. (B. Shaw) Тепер я можу лягати спати, не боячись уже куняти зранку. Similarly in the sentence She hesitated by the door-


way, her hand on the handle of the open door. (Maurier) Where the attendant circumstance is expressed with the help of the nominative absolute participial construction (complex) ...затрималась у прочинених дверях (how? in what way?), тримаючись рукою за клямку.

The Adverbial Complement of Comparison/Обставина порівняння

This adverbial complement is introduced in English by the conjunctions than, as, as if, as though or by the preposition like, all having direct semantic and functional equivalents in Ukrainian (ніж, як, за, ще). The adverbial modifier of comparison usually complements the noun or the adjective as a head component of the word-group. Cf.

"...my Tegumai, you're no better "...моя Теґумай, ти не краща, ніж/за

than my Taffy". (Kipling) мою Таффі."

"It (cave) isn't as high as the hills, "Вона (землянка) насправді не така

really..." (Ibid.) висока, як горби."

The preposition like, on the other hand, acquires a connective function joining the predicative part of the sentence and the adverbial complement of comparison, as it is also in Ukrainian. Cf.

The man spoke English like an Чоловік розмовляв по-англійськи, як

Oxford graduate. (Carnegie) Like оксфордський випускник. Яка пані, mistress, like maid. (Proverb) така й служниця/Який Сава, така й

слава.

There exist some ambiguous conjunctive constructions in which the complement of comparison overlaps the adverbial meaning of degree. Cf.

Be as clear and short as possible. Будь чітким і виразним, наскільки (Carnegie) можливо.

Transparent comparison is also expressed when objects and phenomena are compared by the conjunctions as and than in sentences of each of the contrasted languages. For example:


Her eyes are bright as diamonds and її очі яскраві, як діаманти, і блакит-

bluer than the skies above. (Kipling) ніші, ніж небеса над нами.

"If you even live to be as old as I am, "Якщо ти коли-небудь доживеш до

you will find many things strange." стількох років, як я, ти зрозумієш,

(Hemingway) що багато що є дивним."





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