Grammatically Independent Elements in the Sentence

The existence of grammatically independent elements in the sentence is one more proof of isomorphism in the systemic organisation of the main syntactic units in the contrasted languages. Independent elements in English and Ukrainian are represented by interjections, words/phrases of direct address, parenthetic words and inserted words or sentences. Each of the elements serves to express corresponding attitudes of the speaker towards the content of the utterance.

1. Elements of Direct Address/Прямі звертання.These are single words or word-groups denoting a person or non-person to whom the rest of the sentence is addressed. They may occupy the initial, the mid- or the closing position in the sentence/utterance:


"Tom!" — No answer. (Twain) "Well, Miss Phillips, fat coming off nicely?" (Maugham) "Go and eat, Dave ". (Caldwell) "Томе!" — Ані звука. "Ну як, міс Філіпс, жирок потрошку сходить?" "Піди і поїж сам, Дейве".

Elements of direct address in Ukrainian are mostly marked by a vocative case inflexion (cf. Томе, Дейве). Though some nouns expressing the vocative case relation do not have (like in English) a morphological expression of it (cf. міс Філіпс, небо, слово).

Words of direct address are often preceded in English and Ukrainian by emphatic particles or emotives. Cf.


"Well, Mr. Eustace", she said (E. M. Foster) "Oh, Christ, don't be magnanimous." (Maugham) "Ну, пане Юстасе", — сказала вона.О, Христосе, не будь таким великодушним!"

2. Parenthetic and Inserted Elements of the Sentence/Вставні та вставлені елементи речення.Parenthetic elements in sentences/clauses of the contrasted languages have identical structural forms (word, word-group, sentence) and are used to perform one of the following two main functions in the sentence: a) the modal function (when expressing the hypothetical or reported indirect modality); b) the subjective and evaluative function [32, 1972, 227]. Hypothetical modality is mostly expressed in English and Ukrainian with the help of modal words/ phrases and sentences. The most often used are like the following:


certainly, maybe, most likely, in all probability, it seems, perhaps, possibly, probably, no doubt, surely, undoubtedly, etc. безсумнівно, видно, мабуть, звичайно, можна сказати, здається, напевне, є надія, як здається, треба гадати.

Parenthetic elements in English and Ukrainian may refer to the sentence as a whole or to a secondary part of it. They may occupy the initial, the mid- or the closing position in the sentence utterance too:

"Perhaps, that's safest". (Kipling) "... they'll, probably, come through it all right". "Yes, certainly, they'll fly". (Hemingway)

Мабуть, так найпевніше. "...вони, може, якось переживуть (обстріл)." "Так, вони (голуби) обов'язково повилітають".

The parenthetic elements in the sentences above have no syntactic ties with any part of these sentences. Characteristic of both languages is also the employment of parenthetic words, phrases and sentences to express the general assessment of the action or fact on the part of the speaker. These words/phrases are the following:

definitely, in fact, surely, it is

natural, truth to tell, without doubt,

really, etc.

Surely, I can act anything. (Maugham)

He underestimated, no doubt,

the change in the spirit of the age.


безумовно, без сумніву, певна річ, зрозуміло, правду казати, природно, як відомо, як кажуть... Звичайно, я можу зіграти будь-яку роль. Він недооцінив, безсумнівно/ без сумніву, зміни в настроях нашої доби.

Parenthetic words/phrases and sentences are used in the contrasted languages to express subjective and evaluative modality. They help convey indirectly the speaker's attitude toward some fact, event or information. These parenthetic expressions are as follows:

in my/his opinion, they say, to my

judgement, I should say/should

think. Cf.

In my opinion, the scheme is

unsound. (Hornby)

To say the least, Mrs Sayther's

career in Dawson was meteoric.


на мою/його думку, кажуть/як

кажуть, я б сказав, смію


На мою думку, проект


Коротко кажучи, кар'єра місіс

Сейтер у Доусоні була яскрава

і недовговічна.

Isomorphic by their linguistic nature and especially by their structural form are also inserted elements in sentences of the contrasted languages.

They give some additional information about a part of the sentence/its general content. Insertions are marked by commas, dashes, or brackets (they are used only in the mid- or closing position of the sentence). Cf. Mr. Quest, once again interrupted, turned his darkly irritable eyes on him.

(D. Lessing) It was — still is — an admirable way of inducing counter-irritation. (Cronin)

Similarly in Ukrainian: А це вміння (розмовляти і слухати) дуже важливе для письменника. (Рильський). А Ярема — страшно глянути по три, по чотири так і кладе. (Т. Шевченко) Людині суджено не рухатись по колу. (Це, зрештою, й гаразд). (Рильський)

Equally common in both contrasted languages is the existence of inserted sentences. Cf. "You do not object, I hope, Elena?" (Christie) "I thought this" — he indicated the X-ray films — "would give some extra confirmation". (Hailey) Cat counted the Dog's teeth (and they looked very pointed) and he said... (Kipling) Or in Ukrainian: Там батько, плачучи з дітьми (а ми малі були і голі), не витерпів лихої долі... (Т. Шевченко) Ще в сіянку випали дощі, а це — що вже година стоїть — тихо, сонячно. (Головко) Нарешті брат Іван його переконав (Чимало ж зусиль ця справа коштувала!) (Рильський)

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