Syndetic connection Asyndetic connection

books/or home reading home-reading books

production of sugar cane sugar cane production

books at the institute library the institute library books

Syndetic and asyndetic connection, as will be shown further, is observed in verbal, adjectival, numerical, pronominal, adverbial and statival word-groups, eg: to read books, to see well, red from anger, he himself, we all, four of the workers, well enough, afraid to read, afraid of that, ashamed to speak, etc.

Hence, the word-groups, traditionally objective by their syntactic relation like to ask Pete/somebody, reading books, to receive four/five, to invite all, good for all, etc. have in English an analytical form of

connection, whereas these same word-groups in Ukrainian have a synthetic or analytico-synthetic connection: запитувати Петра/когось, читання книжок, одержати четвірку, добре для Петра/для мене, зайти першим, думати про старих і малих, просити до столу.

Synthetic government in English can be observed only in verbal word-groups having the following structural patterns: 1) the Vmf + Iobj or 2) Ving+ Iobj with the pronoun in the objective case form, eg: to see him (her, them, whom), seeing him (her, them, etc.). The analytical and synthetic connection is observed in all other kinds of English word-groups with these same objective case pronouns, eg: reference to him them, four of them, none of whom, much for me, depend on her, afraid of them/us.

As to synthetic agreement/concord, its use is restricted in present-day English, as was mentioned, to six patterns of substantival word-groups, in which adjuncts are the demonstrative pronouns this/that -these/those, such a/such + Nsing. — Nplur.: this/that book — these/those books, such a case/such cases; many a girl many girls (of this age).

Note.Cardinal numerals functioning as adjuncts in English substantival word-groups are only in lexical agreement (unlike Ukrainian) with their head nouns, eg: one book, twenty one books; one boy - one girl, one deer/ sheep two deer/sheep. It is not so in Ukrainian where cardinal numerals may have number, gender and case distinctions (synthetic agreement). Cf. один хлопець - одна дівчина, десятьох хлопців -десятьом хлопям/дівчатам, etc. The same syntactic connection have also ofher Ukrainian notional parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns and participles), which, when used as adjuncts, mostly agree with the head-word in number, case and gender (though not without exceptions), eg: рання весна ранньої весни ранній весні ранньою весною; ранні весни ранніх весен; один день одного дня; два дні дві ночі; працюючий апарат працююча зміна, працююче колесо.

No less striking is also the presentation of synthetic or analytic and synthetic government in the contrasted languages, these ways of connection are predominant in Ukrainian. This is because in English only some personal pronouns have the objective case form (cf. to see me, her, them, him, us), whereas in Ukrainian almost all nominal parts of

speech are declinable, i.e. can be governed. Eg: бачити Петра/Марію, знати першого/другу, перев'язувати пораненого, задоволений чорним/обома, двома, etc.

It goes without saying that amorphous components in any language can be connected with the help of analytical means only (both syndetically and asyndetically). Since in English the analytical way of connection prevails in all kinds of word-groups and in Ukrainian — the synthetic means of connection is predominant, their role and correlation can not be the same, as can be seen from the following table of comparison:


Type of syntactic connection 1 . Synthetic (agreement and government) In English much less common In Ukrainian absolutely dominant
2. Analytical connection (syndetic and asyndetic) absolutely dominant much less common

The Ukrainian language is far from devoid of analytical (syndetic and asyndetic) connection either. Cf. брати таксі, носити кімоно, бути в галіфе/у фойє для глядачів. Common in both languages are also the V + D pattern word-groups with syntactic juxtaposition (analytical connection) of components, eg:


In English In Ukrainian
to come soon, to learn well, going quickly, going home, take slowly/ go there, make sure, etc. скоро прийти, добре вчитися, йдучи швидко/йдучи додому, заходити туди/ зайшовши туди, вийти звідти.

Verbal and substantival word-groups with extended or expanded complements and adjuncts often have an analytical asyndetic connection in both languages as well, eg:


In English In Ukrainian
/not/ to distinguish A from Z, to feel lonely and desperate, to love Shevchenko the painter, the film "They chose freedom". не знати ні бе, ні ме; почуватися одиноко і розгублено, любити кіно, фільм "Живі й мертві", телепередача "Екран для малят".

Pertaining to English only are substantival word-groups of the NN,

NNN, etc. patterns having asyndetic connection of components. For example: cotton yarn, cotton yarn production, cotton yarn production figures; Kyiv street traffic, Kyiv street traffic violations, the university library books readers, etc. No such asyndetically connected noun word-groups are available in Ukrainian, of course.

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