ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Typological Characteristics of Interjections/Emotives



Unlike notionals, interjections in English and Ukrainian do not correlate with notions, they do not express any relations or point to any connection with words in an utterance. Interjections are unchangeable words or phrases expressing emotional and volitional reaction of the speaker on some event. Hence, there are to be distinguished communicative, emotive, and signalising interjections, which express respectively joy or pleasure, sadness, warning or repugnance, etc. Cf.:

"O-o, grand!" (Priestley) "O-o, пречудово!"

"Fine!" (F. Fowles) - Прекрасно!

"Oh, keeno!" (Murdoch) - Прекрасно! О, просто чудо!

"My, how you've changed!" (Brautigan) — Боже мій, як ти змінився!

"Oh,it hurts me. Oh!"(Maltz) - Ой, як болить. Ой!

As can be noticed, interjections in English and Ukrainian utterances mostly occupy a front position, rarely a midposition or a closing position. Cf.: А ми! хе! хе! а ми жонаті. (Шевченко) І одного часу, як гукне, так, ой-ой-ой! (Вишня)

Interjections may be primary (первинні) and derivative (похідні). According to their structure, interjections may be simple, compound and composite, or phrasal.

I. Simple interjections fall into some subgroups, namely: a) interjections consisting of one or two sounds: ah, a-ah, oh, oo, ooh, oof, coo, gee. Or in Ukrainian: а! е! о! е-е! ай! ах! ox! xa! xe!yx! am! em! etc. b) Interjections may consist of consonant sounds only: brr, mm, sh (sh-sh) гм! хм! цсс! шш! брр!; с) interjections often consist of more than two different sounds which form one syllable: gosh, tut, umph, whoop гай! гей! гов! гоп! пхе! пхи! etc; d) interjections can consist of two syllables: alas, ahem, boffo, hello/hullo, okey ага! агей! ату! агусь! ану! люлі! нумо! овва! ого! мугу!); е) reduplicating (повторні) interjections are pertained to both languages as well: ah-ah, ay-ay, ee-ee, goe-goe, how-how, ho-ho, hubba-hubba, chock-chock, ta-ta, tut-tut. Sim-


ilarly in Ukrainian: a-a, ану-ану, гай-гай, еге-ге, о-го-го, ну-ну, ха-ха.

Compound interjections are more characteristic of English than of Ukrainian, eg: heigh-ho, holla-ho, fiddlesticks, whoo-whoop, wo-ho, yo-ho, etc. Cf.: Господи-Боже! Добридень! Спасибі! Боже мій!

Derivative interjections constitute a common group in the contrasted languages too. They are mostly of common origin and sometimes even of identical lexical meaning. There are distinguished six types of emotional interjections in the contrasted languages: a) of substantivalorigin: beans! bully! fiddle! hell! Lord! nuts! raspberry! rabbit! rats! taps! Господи! матінко! пене! Боже! леле! жах! страх! ґвалт! слава! хвала! біда! горе!; b) of verbalorigin: come! look! see! cut! bother! shoot! диви! гляди! бач! рятуйте! пробачте! даруйте! прощайте! побачимо! цур! (from цуратися); с) of adjectivalorigin (mostly in English): fine! grand! right! dear! swell! divine! gracious!; d) of adverbialorigin: here! there! now! well! why? so! добре! зараз! тут! там! так! геть! прекрасно!; e) of pronominalorigin: "ay me! oh me!" (Shakespeare) отаке! стільки ж! отакої! "Куди ж писати?" "Отакої!Не знає куди!.." (О. Гончар); f) of phrasalorigin (contracted), which are rather numerous in English: howdy (from how do you do), alright (from all right), my! (from my God/my Lord), dammit (from damn it), attaboy (from that's a boy), добридень (from добрий день), спасибі (from спаси біг), тсь! цсс! (from тихіше), etc.

Derived are also numerous idiomatic interjections of various componental nature and expressing different emotions, eg: my eye! Holy Moses! the cat's pyjamas! gee whiskers! well I never! їй же бо! хай йому цур! кат їх бери! Боже ж мій! біда та й годі! де там! ой лелечко! де ж так! etc.

Emotive interjections express various feelings, one interjection being often used in English and Ukrainian to express different meanings. These classes of meanings are as follows:

1. Positive feelings (joy, satisfaction, sympathy), eg:

"Great!" Michael said". (I. Shaw) Чудово!» — вигукнув Майкл.

"Ooh! ooh!" the crowd was moa- «Гу-у! Г-уу» — стогнав, пере-

ning in a kind of amorous agony", повнений ніби якимось зами-

(Huxley) луванням, збуджений натовп.


2. Incentive orders (спонукальні накази), eg:
"Hey, now! Wait a minute". (Dahl) "Here, Buck", the Boss called. (Warren) "Quiet!" I yelled to them. (Hemmett) «Гей там! Зачекайте». «Сюди, Баку!» — гукнув Бос. «Вгамуйтесь/Замовкніть!» — гримнув я на них.

Here also belong interjectional orders given to domestic animals. For example: gee-up! or giddap! hait! hi-up! (to horses) но! гайда! вйо! whoa, hoa, whoa! mnpy!sookl sook! цоб-цабе! puss, puss, puss! киці, киці-киці; киць-киць-киць; dilly, dilly! тась, тась! chook-chook! chuck-chuck! ціп-ціп-ціп! etc.

3. Negative feelings (grief, sorrow, horror, alarm, disgust, etc.):

 

"Oops! It's after midnight" . (Sheldon) "Pshav! said the other twin". (Capote) "Nuts!" the Boss said. (Warren) "Ух-ти! Вже за північ". "Ух гарно! Ух гарно!" - тільки ухає Христя. (П. Мирний) "Тьху!" - сказав другий близнюк. "Дурниці!" — сказав Бос..

4. Orders to stop an action: hist! hush! shh! shush! In Ukrainian: тихо! тихо! тсс! тс! шш! cave! обережно! nuf! nuff! годі! scat! shoo! геть! eg:

 

"Hush ", my mother said, "hush, son". (Warren) "Ша, синку", — сказала мама. — Ша». "Ша! Мовчок, хлопці." (І. Микитюк)

5. Greetings and partings which may sometimes be rather emotional as well. Cf.:

 

"Oh, hello!" she called..." (Brash) "Howdy," saidIsabel..." (Capote) "Bye!" said Romona. (Salinger) «О, привіт!» — вигукнула вона... «Здоров!» — сказала Ізабел... «Бувай!» — відповіла Ромона.

Note.Imitations of sounds produced by birds and animals like dab-dab, mew, cock-a-dooble-doo, moo, how-wow, etc. and their Ukrainian equivalents кря-кря, няв, кукуріку, му-у, гав-гав, can not be treated as interjections or as emotives unless used on some occasions for the sake of stylisation. Cf. "Bow-wow!" Repeated the boy jokingly. "Гав-гав!" повторив, граючись, хлопчина.





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