Isomorphisms and Allomorphisms in the Morphemic Structure of English and Ukrainian Words

The morpheme is a minimal meaningful unit and it can be in the contrasted languages either free or bound. Free or root morphemes are

lexically and functionally not dependent on other morphemes. They may be regular words (cf. boy, day, he, four, день, кінь, річ, він, три) or they may constitute the lexical core of a word. Eg.: boyhood, daily, fourth, денна, нічний, тричі, etc. In other words, root morphemes in English, Ukrainian and other languages are not dependent on other morphemes in

a word. Bound morphemes,on the other hand, can not function independently: they are bound to the root or to the stem consisting of the root morpheme and of one or more affixal morphemes. Cf.: days, spoken, fourteen, overcome, government, дивно, розумом, дні, нашим), etc. Bound morphemes like -s, -en, - teen, over-, -ment, -о, -ом, -і, ~им in either of the two languages can not exist independently, i.e. they are not free but always dependent on roots or stems of their words.

Root morphemes.Due to its historical development, English has also a much larger number of morphologically unmarked words, i.e. regular root morphemes, than Ukrainian. Consequently, the number of inflexions expressing the morphological categories is much smaller in English than in Ukrainian. Moreover, a lot of notionals in English lack even the affixes which can identify their lexico-morphological nature. Free root-morphemed words, though fewer in Ukrainian, are still represented in all lexico-morphological classes as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. of both contrasted languages. Cf. arm, pen, boy, work, do, red, he, she, it, five, this, ten, here, far, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian: ніс, лоб, чуб, ти, варт, хто, три, тут, де, він, etc.

Free root morphemes in English and Ukrainian can also be functionals: but, till, on, not, through, just (a moment), мов, геть, так, певне, може, ох, дзень, гав, не, ні, від, на, під, etc.

Root morphemes in English can often form part of the stem, which is especially characteristic of present-day Ukrainian, for example: workers, friendliness, concerning, beautiful; робітництво, безмежність, переодягнутися, переробивши, тепленько,теплесенько, etc.

Affixal morphemesin the contrasted languages split into a) Derivational morphemes which are in English and Ukrainian mainly suffixes and sometimes also prefixes. The number of suffixes in the contrasted languages considerably exceeds the number of prefixes. So is, naturally, the significance of the former as word-forming means, the latter (prefixes) performing only in a few cases a word-building function in Ukrainian. The number of suffixes in English does not exceed 100, there being 60 noun-forming, 26 adjective-forming, 5 verb-forming and 3 adverb-forming suffixes [13, 159160]. Among the noun-indicating/form-ing suffixes in English are -асу, -ance, -ion, -dom, -er, -ess, -hood, -ics,

-ism, -ity, -ment, -ness, -ship, -tyand others. Cf. democracy, alliance, delegation, freedom,writer, falsehood,politics, feudalism, government, management, fitness, likeness, penmanship, friendship, loyalty, etc. The adjective-indicating suffixes are: -able, -al, -ial, -fold, -ful, -ic, -ile, -ish, -less, -ous, -some, -ward, -yand some others. Cf. capable, formal, presidential, manifold,grateful, laconic, futile, selfish, meaningless, dangerous, tiresome, eastward,happy, silly, etc. The verb-indicating suffixes are -ate, -en, -esce, -ify, -ise.Cf. negotiate, facilitate, blacken, shorten, acquiesce, beautify, purify, demobilise, organise. The adverb-indicating suffixes are -ly, -wards, -ward, -ways:quickly, slowly, southward/southwards, sideways, etc.

Ukrainian word-forming suffixes are more numerous and also more diverse by their nature, there being special suffixes to identify different genders of nouns that are practically missing in English. Thus, masculine gender suffixes of nouns in Ukrainian are: -ник, -івник, -їльник, -ч, -ік/-їк, -ець/-єць, -ар/-яр, -ир, -ист, -іст, -тель, -альand others. Eg.: медик, господарник, рахівник, керманич, кравець, хімік, прозаїк, боєць, шахтар, муляр, бригадир, збирач, діяч, окуліст, вихователь, скрипаль, etc.

Suffixes of feminine gender in Ukrainian usually follow the masculine gender suffix in the noun stem, the most frequent of the former being -к/а/, -иц/я/, -ес/а/, -ух/а/, -ш/а/, -івн/а/,etc. Cf. виховат-ель-к-а, рад-ист-к-а, спів-ан-к-а, уч-ен-иц-я, ткач-их-а, поет-ес-а, коваль-івн-а, морг-ух-а, директ-ор-ш-а, Семенів-на. The corresponding English suffixes (-or, -ess, -me, -rix, -ine,and -ette)identify the masculine and feminine sex and not the grammatical gender. Cf. actor, emperor, actress, poetess, directrix, emperatrix, heroine, suffragette. English nouns with the so-called gender suffixes do not differ functionally from other nouns which have no such suffixes. Eg: The actor/actress sangand The bird sang.Ukrainian gender nouns, however, always require corresponding gender forms in attributes and predicates. Eg.: молодий артист співав. Гарна артистка співала. Ранкове небо сіріло. Малі пташки співали, чорний ворон сидів, сива ворона сиділа, сіре котеня нявкало.

Ukrainian suffixes can form nouns of the feminine gender denoting

non-human beings as animals, birds, insects, as well as some class nouns, abstract and collective nouns, for example: сніг-ур-к-а, переп-іл-к-а, цвірк-ун-к-а, паруб-от-а, рід-н-я, бор-н-я, біган-ин-а, бороть-6-а, сприт-ність, свіж-ин-а, балака-ни-на.

Suffixes of the neuter gender are mostly used in Ukrainian to identify abstract and collective nouns and names of materials, babies, cubs, nurslings, as in the following nouns: жіно-цтв-о, учитель-ств-о, нероб-ств-о, бади-лл-я, заси-лл-я, збі-жж-я, кло-чч-я, смі-тт-я, горі-нн-я, велі-нн-я, терп-інн-я.

Apart from the afore-mentioned, there exist in Ukrainian large groups of evaluative diminutive and augmentative noun suffixes as in зір-оньк-а, сон-ечк-о, руч-ищ-е, голов-ешк-а, биц-юр-а, кабан-юр-а, etc. and patronimic suffixes like -енк-о, -ук, -чук, -ун, -щук, -ець, etc. (cf. Бондаренко, Головащук, Петрук, Поліщук, Чергинець, Литвинець, Лівшун, Мовчун).

The number of suffixes forming only diminutive nouns in Ukrainian is as many as 53, compared with 16 suffixes in English, only 4 of which are practically productive (cf. gooseling, girlie, booklet, daddy, granny). Neither is there identity in the formation of English and Ukrainian statives, the latter mostly having in Ukrainian the same form as adverbs or modal words (cf. прикро, душно, треба, краще, etc.). These groups of suffixes (as can be seen below) pertain to English as well, but they are much less represented. Nevertheless, despite the difference in the quantity and quality of suffixes, they perform in English and Ukrainian an isomorphic (either the word-forming or form-building) function. This can also be seen from the following few examples:

English Word-Forming Suffixes

a) noun-forming suffixes:

-er, -or, -hood, -ment, -ance: worker, sailor, falsehood, government, alliance, appearance;

b) adjective-forming suffixes: -y, -ful, -able (-ible), -less: rocky, joyful, reliable, useless;

Ukrainian Word-Forming Suffixes

a) іменникові:

-ель, -ець, -ник, -інь, -ість,-ність:

вчитель, борець, робітник, глибінь, чинник, давність, гордість;

b) дієслівні:

-ну, -ти, -ува, -юва:куснути, зимувати, днювати;

c) verb-forming suffixes:

-ise, -en: realise, shorten, blacken; -ate, -fy: elaborate, signify;

d) adverb-forming suffixes:

-fold, -ce, -ward, -ly: twofold, thrice, nicely, homeward, etc.

c) прикметникові:

-к,-ив, -лив: близький, правдивий, міський, примхливий;

d) прислівникові:

-но, -чі, -ки, -ма: пошепки, сидьма, двічі, горілиць, сонно, вічно.

Form-building suffixes in English and Ukrainian, when added to the root (or to the stem of a word), change the form of these words, adding some new shade to their lexical meaning. The suffixes may also change the lexical meaning of the stem, for example: Ann Anny, duck duckling, hill hillock, friend friendship. Kyiv Kyivans. London Londoner, four — fourteen — forty, etc. In Ukrainian: дитинадитинча, лошак лошачок. Харків - харків'янин, плітка -пліточка, хід - ходанина - походеньки, швидко - швиденько, хутко хутенько.

Prefixes in the contrasted languages modify the lexical meaning of the word. They may sometimes change even the lexico-grammatical nature of the derivative word. As for example:


In English In Ukrainian
Nouns: co-existence, enclosure, insight, prorector. Verbs: avert, adjoin, bewrap, subordinate. Adjectives: anomalous, eccentric, non-standard, unable. Statives: ablaze, asleep. Adverbs: together. Prepositions: below. Conjunctions: because, unless, until. безмір, віддаль, зав'язь, підвид, праліс; вбігати, накричати, обійти, обмити, підвести; антивоєнний, надмірний; вголос, заміж, по-нашому, по-німецьки, поміж, понад; оскільки, позаяк, прихід, походеньки, розбити, переміряти, якнайкраще, щонайшвидше, etc.

Word-forming prefixes pertain mostly to the English language where they can form different parts of speech. For example, verbs: bedew, bemadam, embed, encamp, enable, denude, disable, endear. Adjectives: anti-war, non-party, pre-war, post-war. Statives: aboard, alike, asleep. Adverbs: today, tomorrow, together. Prepositions: below,

behind. Conjunctions:because, unless, until.In Ukrainian only some conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs can be formed by means of prefixes, for example: вдень, вночі, по-нашому, no-новому, набік, вдруге, втретє, оскільки, внаслідок, вгору, знизу, щонайменше.

Isomorphic is also the use of two (in English) and more (in Ukrainian) prefixes before the root/stem: misrepresentation, re-embankment. In Ukrainian three prefixes may be used to modify the lexical meaning of nouns, adjectives, past participles, and verbs, for example: недовимолот, недовиторг, перерозподіляти,недовимолочений, не/перерозподілений,недовиторгувати, перерозподілити, etc.

Inflexional morphemesin the contrasted languages express different morphological categories. The number of genuine English inflexions today is only 14to 16.They are noun inflexions, for example: -s (-es), -en, -ren(boys, watches, oxen, children); inflexions of the comparative and the superlative degrees of qualitative adjectives: -er, -est(bigger, biggest); inflexions of degrees of qualitative adverbs: -er/-ier, -est/ -iest(oftener, oftenest; slowliei; slowliest); the verbal inflexions: -s/-es, -d/-ed, -t, -n/-en; he puts/he watches; she learned the rule (burnt the candle); a broken pencil. The inflexions of absolute possessive pronouns: -s, -e: (hers, ours, yours, mine, thine). There are also some genuinely English plural form inflexions of nouns with restricted use. These are the plural form inflexions of kine (poetic for cows), fane (archaic of foes), and shoen (archaic of shoes).

Apart from the genuine English inflexional morphemes there exist some foreign inflexions borrowed and used with nouns of Latin, Greek and French origin only. Among them are Latin inflexions -um - -a (datum data, erratum errata, etc.); -us — і (focus foci, terminus

termini); -a — ae (formula formulae); -us — a (generus genera); -is — es (axisaxes, thesistheses); -ix — es (appendix

appendices); -ies — ies (series series). The few pairs of Greek inflexional oppositions in singular and plural are the following: -is --es(analysisanalyses, basisbases); -on — a (phenomenon phe nomena); -ion — ia (criterion criteria).

In French borrowings only the plural forms are inflected, whereas in singular there are zero inflexions: 0 - s/x (beau beaus/beaux);

0 — x (bureau bureaux); 0 — s (monsieur messieurs); 0 — es (madam madams).

The number of inflexions in Ukrainian by far exceeds their number in English since every notional part of speech has a variety of endings. The latter express number, case and gender of nominal parts of speech and tense, aspect, person, number, voice and mood forms of verbs. For example: Петра, Петрові, йому, всіма; червоний - червоного - червоному - червоним, двоє - двох - двом - двома; сонний - сонного

- сонному - сонним; танцюючий - танцюючого - танцюючому

- танцюючим; даю — даєш — дає — даємо — даєте — дають — даватимемо; читав - читала - читали, читатиму - читати меш - читатимете, etc. Because of the difference in the structural nature of the contrasted languages, their paradigms of the same notion als naturally differ, the Ukrainian paradigms being much richer than the English ones. However in Old English the noun paradigm included 9 different inflexional forms, the weak verbs paradigm had 10 forms, and the paradigm of adjectives - 13 synthetic (inflected) forms. The variety of case inflexions of Ukrainian nouns is also predetermined by the exist ence of four declensions, the first and the second of which have differ ent case and number inflexions. This depends on the nouns belonging to the hard, palatalised or to the mixed stem consonant type (cf. вода води, учень учні, поле поля, лоша лошата, миша мишею, доня донею, etc.).

Some morphological relations and categories in English and Ukrainian (though much rarer) are expressed with the help of analytical means — prepositions, analytical word forms, and particles; for example: to give smth. to Peter, not far from the river, written (painted) with (in)pencil. Analytically expressed are also the degrees of comparison of some adjectives and adverbs (cf. more calm, most calm; more (most) interesting/important; more (most) quickly (slowly), etc. In Ukrainian the construction is less frequently used (cf. більш/менш важливий, найбільш/найменш важливий; більш/менш важливо, найбільш/ найменш важливо, більш/найбільш економна, etc.)

The future tense in Ukrainian can also be expressed analytically though it is closely connected with the modal meaning of certainty (cf. я буду на зборах, ми будемо боротися).

Only analytical in form is the expression of the passive voice in English, whereas in Ukrainian the present passive has generally a synthetic form, like the past and future passive which can also have a synthetic form of expression; cf. the plant is being built, the plant was being built, the plant will have been built. And in Ukrainian: завод будується (будувався), завод будуватиметься, завод буде будуватися, завод був/буде збудований, though the future form may also be збудується (коли цей завод збудується).

The totality of the synthetic and analytical paradigms of the notional parts of speech in a language reflects the structural peculiarity of the language as a whole. Hence, contrastive morphology also deals: a) with the specific traits of morphemes in languages under contrasted investigation; b) with classes of paradigms (both synthetic and analytical) pertaining to a notional part of speech and reflecting its paradigmatic variety; c) with the morphological categories and their manifestation in the contrasted languages, and d) with the parts of speech and their typological features.

It is worth emphasising that the general implicit and dependent grammatical meanings of notional parts of speech in both languages coincide which considerably facilitates their contrastive investigation. Besides, it should be emphasised that in the process of typological investigation only correlated language units and phenomena can be contrasted. That means that the units or phenomena have to be of the same status, i. e. they have to belong to a common class of units or phenomena in both the languages in question. They have to occupy the same place in both the languages' systems and consequently serve as constants for typological comparison. Common/isomorphic in the contrasted languages are also some other morphological phenomena of word-building nature. Among these are first of all to be mentioned such phenomena as agglutination and suppletivity.

Agglutinationat the morphological level represents a mechanical adding of one or more affixal morphemes in pre-position, post-position or in interposition to the root morpheme. Somewhat different, however, is the quantitative representation of the parts of speech that are formed in the contrasted languages by means of preposed agglutinating morphemes.

In present-day English, which has more zero-morphemed root words than Ukrainian, there exists a larger number of words belonging to different parts of speech and formed by agglutinating prefixes; for example, the verbs: adhere, assure, co-exist, bedim; adjectives: post-war, pre-war; statives: afraid, alike, aloof; adverbs and prepositions: be-side, inside, before, afterwards, unwell, etc.

Prepositive agglutinators apart from forming new parts of speech or creating some shades in the lexical meaning of many such words (cf. do undo overdo, lead mislead; Ukr.: схід захід вихід дохід прихід, etc.) can also perform some purely grammatical functions. Thus, they can sometimes turn the intransitive verbs into transitive, for example: live — outlive, moan — bemoan, weep — beweep, vote — outvote; Ukrainian: жити — дожити — прожити — пережити, спати — проспати (переспати), плакати — оплакати. In Ukrainian pre-posed affixes can change imperfective verbs into perfective (cf. бити - збити - забити - добити - розбити; вчити - вивчити -довчити - завчити - перевчити).

Post-positive agglutination is observed in both contrasted languages, being in Ukrainian even more frequent than in English. All Ukrainian infinitives without exception are formed by mechanical adding to the root the post-positive morphemes -ти/-ть, -ся, -ки, -оньки, -тусі/-туні(diminutive forms), eg: набити, пролити, змити, опрацювать, злитися, спатки, їстки, питоньки, купці, спатусі/спатуні, etc. In English most of the indefinite form infinitives are pure root-morphemed words (cf. come, live, love, fly, sit, read, swim, warm). There are only some five verbal morphemes that are agglutinated post-positively. These are -ate, -en, -esce, -ify, -ise, eg: create, blacken, acquiesce, purify, civilise, etc. A notable difference in Ukrainian exists, however, in the larger amount (up to four) of affixal preposed agglutinators added to the root morpheme, eg: вхід, вихід, схід, ухил, недосвіт, недовиторг, вздовж, навкруг, навздогін, недоперерозподілити.

Post-positive agglutination is often used to form nouns in both contrasted languages as well. For example, in English: attendance, diary, freedom, employee, hostess, boyhood, pumpkin, highness, friend-

ship, attitude, politics, mighty, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian: чужак, бідняк, дудaр, гуляр, багач, борець, дудик, дудник, нудота, колій, сонливість, холодок, ясність, etc.

Among other parts of speech formed by means of postpositive agglutinators are English relative adjectives (economic, Polish, political. etc.), adverbs of both languages (nicely, sideways, westwards: гарно, швидко, вище)', Ukrainian statives (треба, можна, жалко, прикро, краще); numerals (fifty, sixty, fifteen, eighteen), in Ukrainian: одинадцять, дванадцять, двадцять, сімдесят, etc. Single post-positive affixal morphemes are also agglutinated in the contrasted languages with compound stems of verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, as in the following words: backbiting, cockfighting, trustworthy, grasshopper, skyscraper, etc. Similarly in Ukrainian: народоволець, односелець. косоокість, однобічність, мимохідь, загальновизнано, малопереконливо, односторонньо, etc.

Isomorphic is also the post-posed agglutination of two affixal morphemes to a stem. The stems thus formed can be of different lexico-grammatical nature: nouns (capableness, equalizer, responsibility: adjectives (communicable, meaningful, motionless): numerals (thirteenth, twentieth); adverbs (foolishly, nationally, needlessly, powerfully, down-wards, Southwards.

Note.Pre-posed agglutinating affixes lose their grammatical relevance in Ukrainian when accent is employed to identify the imperfective aspect of verbs (cf. забити - забивати, набити - набивати, позичити - позичати, etc.). There are many words in Ukrainian with two post-posed affixal morphemes added to the root as in the reflexive and aspect verbs (with the suffixes знатися, вітатися, мазонути, рубонути. стуконути), and also in such nouns as болючість, будиночок, відповідальність, людськість; in adverbs: тихесенько, ранесенько; in dyjepryslivnyks: борючись, опинившись, тримаючись and others.

Root morphemes in the contrasted languages can be agglutinated pre-posed and post-posed simultaneously as in the English words disagreeableness. incorruptibility, indisputableness, irresponsibility. incommunicableness. unrealistically. Or in Ukrainian: безвідповідальність, заробітчанин, нереалістично, некомунікабельність, перешіптуватися, запобігливість, etc.

Agglutination is also a productive means of compounding (especially in English) where different parts of speech may be formed in this way — nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, eg: chimney-sweep, money-order, long-away, knee-deep, present-day, short-sighted, broad-minded, long-range, hi-jack, to April-fool, goose-step, cross-examine, plate-rack, sideways, etc. Or in Ukrainian: бурят-монгол, дизель-генератор, двійка-байдарка, шафа-холодильник, кахи-кахи, тиць-миць, човг-човг, сяк-так, хоч-не-хоч, etc. Highly productive in English is also the agglutination with the help of prepositions, eg: stick-ш-the-mud, commander-in-chief, matter-of-fact, up-to-date, etc.

Agglutination of predicative units is observed in both languages though more common it is still in the English language, eg: pick-me-up, forget-me-not, merry-go-round, push-me-pull-me, Gradgrind, Mr. Know-All, etc. (cf. Ukrainian family names as Куйбіда, Неїжмак, Незовибатько, Непийвода, Підкуймуха, Убийвовк, etc.). Only in English, however, there is observed agglutination of abbreviated parts with root nouns like A-bomb, H-bag (handbag), Xmas, X-ray, etc.

Inflexional morphemesin the contrasted languages are also mostly agglutinated to the root or to the stem like other affixal morphemes. Cf. in English nouns: arms, armies, children; in adjectives: longer, longest; in pronouns: hers, mine; in numerals: fifth, second, first; in verbs: does., puts, crept, working; in participles: reading, listening, known, taken. Similarly in Ukrainian: брати/косарі дерева, дівчата; зелений (зелена, зелене, зелені), батьків, батьковим; п'ята (п'ятий, п'яте, п'яті), п'ятого; ваша (вашій, ваше, ваші), вашого; маю, матиму, матимемо; шитий (шита, шите, шиті), шитого... Sometimes, as has already been shown, a word may consist of a regular chain of preposed and post-posed affixal (including inflexional) morphemes (cf. redistributions, недовимолочування).

Apart from outer morphemes that are agglutinated, i.e. mechanically added to the root or stem, both languages have internal interchanges or alterations. The latter are regular correlations which may involve, as has been shown above, vowel alterations, eg: bring - brought, know -knew, take - took, shake - shook; рости - ріс; нести - ношу -ніс; вести - відвів - водив; гребти - гріб.

Exclusively Ukrainian are the sound alterations which appear as a result of declension. Cf. ти-тебе-тобі-тобою; ви-вас-вам-вами, etc; Львів~у Львові, ніч-ночі, річ-речі, etc.

Suppletivity.As a means of grammatical expression suppletivity is observed in words, word-forms and morphemes of all Indo-European languages [20,170]. At the lexical level it helps express, both in English and Ukrainian, sex distinctions, eg: boy -- girl, bull - cow, man - woman, cock — hen, хлопець — дівчина, чоловік жінка, півень — курка, etc. Of suppletive nature are most of nouns forming the LSG denoting kinship. Cf. father - mother, brother - sister, son - daughter, aunt -uncle; батько - мати, брат - сестра, син - дочка, дядько -тітка, зять - невістка, дід - баба, etc.

In the system of lexico-grammatical classes of words suppletivity can express in English and Ukrainian different categorial meanings of notionals at the lexical level as in the pairs of verbs canybring, saytell, take - give; брати - взяти, ловити ~ піймати. Suppletive forms of a verb paradigm can be used in English and Ukrainian to express some morphological categories. The most striking in this respect is the verb "to be" which has more forms to express different categorial meanings in English than in Ukrainian. Thus, in English "am, is, are — was, were" which are respectively the corresponding forms for tense (the Present and Past Indefinite), for number (singular or plural) and for person am. was for the first person singular, is/was for the third person singular and are/were for plural forms respectively.

The Ukrainian verb "бути" possesses only one suppletive form in present tense — "є", which is used for all persons in singular and plural (cf. я є, ти є, ми є, всі є, кожен є). But: Я був, ти була, ви буди, etc.

As to the suppletive forms of other notionals, they are of form-building, i. e. of categorial nature expressing in the contrasted languages degrees of comparison in some qualitative adjectives and adverbs. Cf. goodbetterbest, badworseworst and littlelessleast. In Ukrainian: добрий кращий найкращий, добрий - ліпший -найліпший, поганий гірший найгірший. In Ukrainian two more adjectives have suppletive forms in the comparative and suppletive degrees: гарний кращий найкращий; великий більший найбільший.



Common in English and Ukrainian are also almost all qualitative adverbs with the suppletive forms in the comparative and superlative degrees: well better best; badly worse worst; little less least; добре краще найкраще; погано гірше найгірше; зле гірше найгірше; гарно краще найкраще.

Suppletivity of pronouns finds its expression and realisation in English and Ukrainian at different levels: a) at the level of the lexico-grammatical class of words as a whole (pronouns are regular signs of signs, i. e. representation nouns): Pete, lion, tiger-he, fox, ship-she; дім, лис, хліб-він; життя, поле-воно; люди-вони; b) at the level of paradigmatic word forms: I me, he him, she her, we us; я мене, воно його, він його, ми нас, вони їх, etc. c) at the level of different case forms of pronouns (cf. the objective and possessive case forms: me, him, her, us, them; his, hers, ours, yours). These forms are more numerous in Ukrainian where all pronouns are declinable: я — мене, мені, мною; він його, йому, ним, на ньому, вона — її -нею; ми — нам — нами; що — чого — чому — чим, ніщо — нічого — нічим, etc.

Some common systemic relations can be observed in the suppletive forms of the possessive pronouns in the contrasted languages as well. In Ukrainian the pronouns' paradigm is much richer, since there exist separate forms to express different numbers and genders. Cf. я, мене, мій, моя, моє, мої; вона, нею, її, воно, його, ним; ми, наш, наша, нашої, нашій; вони, їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхнього, etc. In English, however, there exist possessive absolute suppletive forms of pronouns, which are absolutely unknown in Ukrainian (mine, hers, yours, ours, theirs). Ukrainian, on the other hand, has fully and partly and suppletive forms of some interrogative and indefinite pronouns, which are not available in English хтокого, кому, килі; щочого, чому, чим; хтось когось, комусь, кимсь. They also retain their suppletive forms in compound pronouns used in different case forms: хто-небудь кого-небудь, кому-небудь, ким-небудь; що-небудь, чого-небудь, чому-небудь, чим-небудь. Least represented at the word form/morphological level in both languages are suppletive forms of numerals, there being only two ordinal numerals of the kind in English (one the first, twothe second) and only one in Ukrainian (одинперший), whereas all simple


numerals (digits) are suppletive in both languages. Cf. one two, three four, five six, seven eight, nine ten. Similarly in Ukrainian: один два, тричотири, п'ять шість, сім вісім, etc.

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