Typology of the Non-Finite Forms of the Verb (Verbals)

The nomenclature of verbals in the contrasted languages includes some common/isomorphic and some divergent/allomorphic forms. Common are the infinitive and the two participles; divergent are the gerund in English and the diyepryslivnyk in Ukrainian. Far from identical are the morphological categories pertaining to these non-finite forms of the verb. Thus, verbals from transitive verbs have the following categorial distinctions in these two contrasted languages (Table 20).

Table 20 English versus Ukrainian Verbals


Verbal English Ukrainian
Infinitive active: to ask; to understand passive: to be asked; to be understood активний: запитувати пасивний: бути запитаним
Non-progressive active: to ask somebody perfect: to have asked somebody passive: to have been asked by smb. недоконаного виду: лить, цвісти, їсти; доконаного виду: збити, зацвісти, відцвісти, поспати, попоїсти
Progressive infinitive active: to be asking somebody perfect: to have been asking somebody not available not available

Продовження табл. 19


Verbal English Ukrainian
Gerund active: asking passive: being asked active perfect: having asked passive perfect: having been asked Gerund - not available Дієприслівник активний теперішнього часу: йдучи, маючи, знаючи, очікуючи активніш минулого часу: йшовши, мавши, знавши, за/почекавши
Participle I Present active: asking passive: being asked Perfect active: having asked Perfect passive: having been asked Дієприкметник активний теперішнього часу: читаючий, читаюча, читаюче, мигаючий, мигаюча, мигаюче активний минулого часу: перемігший, здолавший, усміхнений
Participle II Passive (only past): asked, made, decided, seen, purchased, etc. пасивний минулого часу: запрошений, пройдений, здійснений

The tabulated forms of verbals in both languages above testify to the existence of allomorphisms both in their structural forms and in their categorical meanings. Thus, the English infinitive is always distinguished by its identifier "to" (to come, to be asked, to be doing), whereas the Ukrainian infinitive is characterised by the suffixes -ти, -ть, -тись, -тися.The suffix -тиis always added to the stem ending in a consonant (бігти, везти, сісти), and the suffix -ть, like the suffix -тися/ -тись,may be added to a stem ending either in a vowel or in a consonant (носити/ носить, носитися/носитись; їхати/їхать, сіяти/сіять).

Specifically Ukrainian, as was pointed out, is the diminutive infinitive formed by combined suffixes: спатки, спатоньки,спатусі, спатусеньки, купці, купоньки, сістоньки, їстоньки.

Allomorphism is observed in the categorical meanings of the infinitive and the participle. The infinitive in Ukrainian has no perfect(perfective) passive form, no continuousaspect form, no perfect active and perfect passiveforms of the Participle that are pertained to present-day English. Cf. to have slept, to be sleeping, to have been seen; having been asked/having asked, etc.

The gerund and the diyepryslivnyk present allomorphic verbals in English and Ukrainian respectively. As a result, they can not be contrasted in any way. The gerund has both verbal and noun characteristics, the former being those of tense and voice (askingbeing asked, having

asked having been asked) and the ability of taking an objective complement: I like reading books, as well as the ability of being modified by an adverb: Going quickly never tiers him. The noun characteristics of the gerund find their expression in its functions in the sentence as subject, object, the predicative part, the attribute, and as an adverbial modifier of manner. For example, as subject and predicative: Deciding is acting. (Saying). As object: He won't stand beating. As an attribute: She found an opportunity of taking him away. As adverbial modifiers: The Mouse shook its head impatiently without opening its eyes. (L. Carroll) The rain poured down without ceasing. (Maugham) On arriving at the garden entrance, he stopped to look at the view. (Galsworthy) The gerund can also be a complex subject, a complex object and other parts of the sentence (cf. His being ill is unknown to me. That was his being ill that spoiled everything. I know nothing of his being ill), etc.

The Ukrainian diyepryslivnyk, whether active or passive or non-perfective present and perfective past, remains an indeclinable verbal form. The diyepryslivnyk may be formed, respectively, from the present stem of the verb or from the infinitive of both the transitive and intransitive verbs. The imperfective (present) diyepryslivnyk is formed from the present stem of the verb belonging to the first verbal declension by adding the suffix -учи/-ючи.Cf. нес/уть + -учи: несучи; працю/ють + -ючи — працюючи. Cf. Слухаючи їх жартівливу розмову, уверне слівце й од себе. (Нечуй-Левицький)

Perfective (past) diyepryslivnyk is formed from the infinitival stems with the help of the suffix -ши,added to the stem that ends in a consonant, or the suffix -вшиthat is added to the stem of perfective and non-perfective verbs which end in a consonant: донес/ти + -ши — донісши; привез/ти/ + -ши — привізши and similarlу~знавши, пивши, ївши, etc. When the infinitival stem ends in a vowel, the suffix -вши is added: здола/ти/ + -вши — здолавши; побачи/ти/ + -вши — побачивши. Cf. Устромивши люльку в рот і закривши очі, він ще потроху пахкав. (Панас Мирний)

Perfective and imperfective diyepryslivnyks may also be formed from verbs having the postfix [Грищенко 2002:387] -ся/-сь: Хвилюючись,все ще не опам'ятавшись, солдат розповідав про себе. (Гончар) Similarly in турбуючись, милуючись, дивуючись,etc.

The semantic and functional equivalents to the imperfective (present) and perfective (past) diyepryslivnyks in English are indefinite or perfect participles (both active and passive) performing the functions of the adverbial modifiers of time: "...while working so hard he needed sea air" (Galsworthy); or attending circumstances: Clara sat in the cool parlour reading. (Lawrence); the adverbial modifiers of cause: "Being tired he thought of sleep." (J. K. Jerome); and that of result: ...having seen all that was to be seen he came out. (Galsworthy), etc.

The functions of the infinitive and the participles in the sentence generally coincide in both languages, though Ukrainian participles have gender, number and case distinctions, which are lost by their English corresponding equivalent verbals. Cf. gender and number categories: працюючий, працююча, працююче (колесо); number and case: працюючого, працюючому, працюючим; працююча, працюючої; працюючі, працюючих, працюючим, працюючими, etc.

Allomorphic for the Ukrainian language are some syntactic functions pertained to English participles and infinitives which may form with some classes of verbs (for example, those of the physical and mental perceptions) complex parts of the sentence. These parts of the sentence are completely alien to Ukrainian, cf: He was seen to go/going home. We heard him sing/singing. He wants me to be reading. The lesson (being) over, the students went to the reading-hall. Each of these secondary predication complexes, with the only exception of the for-to-infinitive construction, has a subordinate clause for its equivalent in Ukrainian: Бачили, як він ішов/коли він ішов додому. Ми чули, як він співає/ співав. Після того/оскільки заняття закінчилося, студенти пішли до читальної зали.

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