Typological Characteristics of the English and Ukrainian Verb

This part of speech in English and Ukrainian has the largest number of features in common. They include first of all the general implicit meaning (the lexico-grammatical nature) of the verb which serves to convey verbiality, i. e. different kinds of activity (go, read, skate), various processes (boil, grow, obtain), the inner state of a person (feel, bother, worry), possession (have, possess), etc. Due to these lexico-grammatical properties the verb generally functions in the sentence as predicate going into some combinations a) with the nominal parts of speech performing the functions of the subject (or the object) of the sentence, for example: The sun shines. Thetrees grow. The student passed his examinations. Сонце світить. Дерева ростуть. Студент склав іспити; b) The verb goes into combination with verbs (to want to know, to want to read; хотіти вчитися/знати) or with adverbs (to read well гарно читати); с) with prepositions (to depend on smb/smth. залежати від когось) and also with conjunctions (neither read nor write, to work and rest ні читали, ні писати, працювати і відпочивати).

Allomorphic is the combinability of English verbs with postpositional particles (cf. sit down, stand up, put off, read through) which need not be confused or in any way compared to their ability of being identified with the Ukrainian subjunctive mood particles б or би(as in піти б, хотів би, знав би).

As was already mentioned in the foregoing chapter, the verb in the contrasted languages has its characteristic stem building suffixes or postfixes. In English these suffixes are: -ate (antiquate, liquidate), -fy (beautify, defy, exemplify); -en (blacken, darken, deepen); -ise(antagon-

ise, colonise, emphasise): -esce(acquiesce, coalesce, phosphoresce). In Ukrainian these distinguishing suffixes are: -ти/-ть(брати, брать); -тися(братися, знатися); -ться(вчиться, молиться), -сь(вчитись, молитись, обмитись, etc.,).

Ukrainian verbs, unlike the English ones, may also be formed with the help of diminutive suffixes -ки, -оньк-и, -ці(спатки, їстки, їстоньки, спатоньки, питоньки, купці - люпці) and some others..

Among the many prefixes that form the verb stem in English, the following are the most often used: ex- (exclaim, excavate); in-/il-,ir-(introduce, illustrate, irrigate, irritate); contra-(contradict); con-(contribute); counter-(counteract); re- (restore, reduce); over-(overflow, overlap); under-(undertake, understand); out-(outfit, outflow); super-(superadd, supervise); sub-(subdue, submit); mis-(mislead, mistrust); un-(unbind, uncover). The most productive verbs forming prefixes in Ukrainian are: в-/у- (вбігти/убігти, внести/ унести); ви-(вибігти/вибігати, вискочити); від-/од-(відбити/ відбивати, оддати/оддавати); до- (довести/доводити); за-(завести/заводити, зайти); з-/с-, зі- (злетіти, з'їхати, сплести, зіпхнути); на-(набрати, нанести).

A number of English verbs are formed with the help of suffixes and prefixes at the same time: ex-, -ate: excommunicate, exculpate; ex-, -ise:exsursionise; hyper-, -ise:hypercriticise; in-, -ate:incapacitate; mis-, -ate:misappropriate, miscalculate; over-, -ise:overemphasise, overspecialise; over-, -ate:overestimate; over-, -fy:over-beautify; re-, -fyreputify; sub-, -fy:subclassify; in-, -ate:indeterminate; under-, -ate:underestimate, underpopulate.

In Ukrainian the suffixes are mostly -ти/-ть, -ТИСЯ/-ТИСБand prefixes are various: над-/наді-:надбити/надбитися, надібрати; о-(об-)-ати/-ути:оглядати/оглянути; оббити, обводити; пере-, -ти:перебігти, пере-, під-/піді-, підо-, -ти:підбігти, підібрати, підозрювати; по-/попо-, -ти:понабігати, попоходити; про-, -ти:пройти, пробити; роз-/розі-: -ти, -тися, -ати, -тися:розвести/розвестися, розігнати/розігнатися.

Many Ukrainian verbs are formed from other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, numerals) by adding suffixes to their stems. The suffixes are:

-а-: обід-а-ти, сідл/о/-а-ти, дужч-а-ти, кращ-а-ти, коса - кос-и-ти, барабан-и-ти, білий - біл--и-ти; -і-: розум-і-ти, звір-і-ти; білий - біл-і-ти, двоє — дво-ї-ти; -ува-: зима - зим-у-вати, агітація - агіт-ува-ти, пильний - пиль-н-ува-ти, четвертий - четверт-ува-ти, etc. The suffix - ну-/-ні- is added to adjectival roots: блідий - блід-ну-ти; густий - гус-ну-ти, міцний - міц-ні-ти.

Some suffixes in Ukrainian form aspective (durative, perfective) meanings of verbs. The suffixes are added to prefixal verbs, eg: ува-/-юва-: прочитати - прочит-ува-ти; загоїти - заго-юва-ти; -в-/-ува-: перевиховати - перевихов-ува-ти, etc.

То express a sudden action the suffix -ну- is used in Ukrainian: колоти - коль-ну-ти, штовхати - штовх-ну-ти, копати - коп-ну-ти, нявкати - нявк-ну-ти, мек-ну-ти, etc.

The number of Ukrainian verbs formed by means of suffixes and prefixes is less numerous than their number in English. When formed from verbs, the following prefixes and suffixes are used: під-+-ува-: підсвіч-ува-ти. підтак-ува-ти: по-+-ува-/-юва: посвист-ува-ти. почит-ува-ти. за-+-ти-ся/-сь- засидітись, забаритися', з-/с-, зі+-ся зійтись, змовитися; роз-+-ся: розлетітись, роз'їхатися: над-+-и-: надкусити, надломити, по-надломлюв-а-ти.

Similarly formed are also verbs from noun stems/roots: земля -заземлити: from adverbial stems: інакіие - переінакшити: from adjectival stems: швидкий - пришвидчити: from pronominal stems (never used in English to form verbs): свій - присвоювати: from the stems of numerals: троє - потроювати: двоє - подвоїти.

Classes of Verbs in English vs. Ukrainian

The main classes of verbs as to their functional significance are common in the contrasted languages. These are a) notional verbs (go, ask, write; іти, запитувати, писати) and b) auxiliary verbs. The latter split into primary (be, do, have; бути, мати), modal (can, may, must, could, should, need; могти, мусити, сміти, мати, etc.) and linking verbs (appear, look, become turn grow; ставати, здаватися).

English lexical/nominal verbs split into two subclasses which are not

available in Ukrainian. These are 1) regular verbs forming their past stem and the past participle with the help of the ending, -ed, -d or -t (dressed/worked, paid/said, learnt/sent); 2) irregular verbs having their past stems and the past participle formed by way of alteration of their base vowel (bind - bound - bound, take - took - taken, begin -began - begun). Some irregular verbs also have vowel mutation + the past indefinite/past participle -d or -t ending (tell - told - told, keep -kept - kept, think - thought - thought). There are also some mixed-type verbs in English (show — showed - shown, crow crew — crowed). A separate subclass of irregular verbs form the so-called invariables, which have the same form for the present and past stem/past participle, eg: cast - cast - cast, cost - cost - cost, let - let - let, put - put - put, etc. They are not available in Ukrainian, thought suppletive verbs are common, however, (cf. be - was - were, go - went; бути - є, іти -пішов, пішла, брати - взяв, узяли).

The subdivision of verbs into classes is based in Ukrainian on the correlation between the infinitival stem of the verb on the one hand and its present or simple future stem on the other. On this morphological basis thirteen classes of verbs are distinguished in Ukrainian (Table 18). In the first class of verbs the infinitival stem has the suffixes -ува-/-юва,and the present tense stem the suffix -yj-/-ioj, -j-: куп-ува-ти - куп-yj-ють; танц-юва-ти - танц-уj-уть; лупц-юва-ти - лупц-yj-ymb.

The verbs of the second class have the suffix -ва-in the infinitival stem and the suffix ва-in the present tense/simple future stem: бувати -/по/бу-ваj-уть. The verbs of the third class have the suffix -а-/-я- in the infinitival stem and the suffix -aj-in the present/simple future stem: баж-a-mu - баж-aj-ymь, стріл-я-ти - стріл-я/-уть. In the fourth class are verbs with the -i- suffix in the infinitival stem and the -i- suffix in the present/simple future stem: чорн-і-ти - чор-ну-уть; шал-і-ти - шал-ij-уть. In the fifth class the verbs have the -а-/-я- suffix in the infinitival stem, the zero suffix in the present/simple future tense stem and the -уть/-ютьending in the third person plural: бра-ти - бер-уть, сл-а-mu - шл-ють, смі-я-тися - сміj-уться. In the sixth class are verbs with the -i- suffix in the infinitival stem and the zero suffix in the present stem: рев-і-ти — рев-уть, хот-і-ти — хоч-уть (Table 18).

Table 18

Morphological Classes of Ukrainian Verbs


Class Suffixes Verbs Representing the Class Dec lens
  Infinitival Stem Present Stem Infinitive Present Tense  
I     -ува- /-ЮВЗ-/ -ва- -yj- -Юj- -j- буд-ува-ти прац-юва-ти да-ва-ти буд-yj-y /-еш, -уть/ прац-ку-у /-еш, -уть/ да-j-y /еш, -уть/ І    
II -ва- -вaj- бу-ва-ти бу-вaj-y /-еш, -уть/ І
III   -3-/-Я-/   -aj- /-аj-/ пуск-а-ти рівн-я-ти пуск-aj-y /-еш, -уть/ рівн-яj-у /-еш, -уть/ І  
IV   - і -   /-ij-/   сив-і-ти біл-і-ти сив-ij-y /-еш, -уть/ біл-ij-y /-еш, -уть/ І  
V   -а-/-я-/     каз-а-ти смі-я-тися каж-у /-еш,-уть/ сму-уся /-ешся, -уться/ І  
VI   -і-     рев-і-ти ХОТ-1-ТИ рев-у /-еш, -уть/ хоч-у /-еш, -уть/ І  
VII   -ну- -ону- -H- -он- крик-ну-ти трус-ону-ти крик-н-у /-еш, -уть/ трус-он-у /-еш, -уть/ І  
VIII       нес-ти, вес-ти мести, плив-ти нес-у /вед-у /-еш, -уть/ мет-у /плив-у /-еш, -уть/ І  
IX     -j-   ри-ти, кри-ти ви-ти, пи-ти ри-j-y /кри-j-y/ -еш, -уть/ ви-j-y /n-j-y/ -еш, -уть/ І  
X   -и- /-і-/     вод-и-ти поj-и-ти водж-у/вод-иш, вод-ять/ noj-y /-іш, -ать/ II  
XI   -а-     крич-а-ти, мовч-а-ти крич-у /-иш, -ать/ мовч-у /-иш, -ать/ II  
XII   -і-     гор-і-ти, лет-і-ти гор-ю/-иш, -ять леч-у лет-иш, лет-ять/ II  
XIII біг-ти біж-у /біж-иш, біж-ать/ II

Verbs of the seventh class have the -ну- (-ону-) suffix in the infinitival stem and the -н- (-ну-) suffix in the simple future tense stem: гукну-ти, гук-н-уть, крик-ну-ти, крик-н-уть. Verbs of the eighth class have a zero suffix in each of the two stems and the ending -уть- in the

third person plural: нес-ти - нес-уть, вез-ти - вез-уть. Verbs of the ninth class have a zero suffix in the infinitival stem, a -j- suffix in the present tense stem and the ending -уть-in the third person plural: pu-mu - pu-j-уть, кри-ти - кри-j-ymb. Verbs of the tenth class have the -и-(-І-) suffix in the infinitival stem, a zero suffix in the present tense stem and the -ать-ending in the third person plural: вод-ити - еодж-у, вод-j-a-ть, no-j-imu — no-j-y, no-j-ать.

Verbs of the eleventh class have an -a- suffix in the infinitival stem, a zero suffix in the present tense stem and the -ать-ending in the third person plural: крич-у - крич-ать, мовч-у - мовч-ать.

Verbs of the twelfth class have an -i- suffix in the infinitival stem and a zero suffix in the present stem: гор-і-ти - гор-ю, лет-і-ти -леч-у. Verbs of the thirteenth class have a 0 suffix in both the stems and the ending -ать-in the third person plural: біг-ти - біж-ать. According to their paradigmatic features, verbs of classes I — IX belong to the first declension group, and the rest (classes X — XIII) are of the second declension group. These structural classes of verbs differ from each other by their productivity. The most productive are the first, the third, the fourth, the fifth and the ninth classes. All remaining classes (the second, the sixth, the seventh, the eighth, the tenth, the eleventh, the twelfth, and the thirteenth) are either semantically closed or poorly represented as it is the case with the last two of them.

Note.The personal endings of verbs of the first and of the second declensions do not coincide in Ukrainian as can be seen from the examples below:

Declension I Declension II

я буваю ми буваємо я ходжу ми ходимо

ти буваєш ви буваєте ти ходиш ви ходите

він буває вони бувають він ходить вони ходять

As regards their role in expressing predicativity, verbs in the contrasted languages may be a) of complete predication or b) of incomplete predication. Verbs of complete predication split into some common groups singled out on the basis of their implicit dependent grammatical meanings. These groups are:

1. Subjective verbs (always intransitive) like to act, to go, to sleep, to glisten (діяти, йти, спати, блищати and others). 2. Objective verbs (only transitive): to give, to take, to envy (брати, давати, заздрити and others). 3. Terminative verbs, expressing action having final aims (to close, to open, to come, to find; зачиняти, приходити, заходити). 4. Durative verbs, expressing action with no final aim: to like, to love, to hate, to hope, to work (подобатись, любити, ненавидіти). 5. Mixed- type verbs, which can have both terminative and durative meaning: to sit, to stand, to know, to remember (сидіти, стояти, знати, пам'ятати, etc).

6. Reflexive verbs, which are formed in English with the help of reflexive pronouns: oneself, myself, himself, ourselves: to wash oneself, to shave himself; to see herself in the mirror, etc.

Reflexive verbs in Ukrainian have some peculiar allomorphic features. Regular equivalents to English verbs can be observed only in the group of the so-called reflexive verbs proper (to wash oneself, to dress oneself, to shave oneself, to powder oneself, etc.), which have also corresponding forms in Ukrainian (вмиватися, голитися, одягатися, пудритися, купатися, etc.).

Other groups of Ukrainian reflexive verbs have no equivalents in English" and form an allomorphic feature in the contrasted languages. These verbs are identified as follows:

1. Reciprocally reflexive/взаємно-зворотні: зустрічатися, змагатися, вітатися, листуватись, цілуватись. 2. Indirectly re-flexive/непрямо-зворотні: радитися, збиратися (в похід), лаштуватися (в дорогу). 3. Generally reflexive/загально-зворотні: милуватися, дивуватися, злитися, журитися, мучитися and others. 4. Active-objectless/reflexive verbs (активно-безоб'єктні) кусатися (собака кусається), хвицатися (корова хвицається), дряпатися (кішка дряпається), жалитися (кропива жалиться), колотися (стерня колеться). 5. Passively-qualitative/reflexive пасивно-якісні: гнутися, битися, ламатися, м'ятися, колотися (дерево гарно колеться), кривитися (залізо гнеться, скло б'ється, дитина кривиться). 6. Impersonal-reflexive verbs/безособово-зворотні: не спиться, не їсться, погано/гарно живеться, не лежиться (Cf. the Ukrainian folk-song: I не спиться й не лежиться, І сон мене не бере...).

Note.Closely connected with impersonal and reflexive verbs in Ukrainian are a number of impersonal verbs used to form impersonal sentences. These verbs constituting semantically different groups are as follows: вечоріє, дніє, сіріє, розвидняється, примерзає, нудить, хочеться, віриться; не було, не стало, таланить; бракує, вистачає and others.

Verbs of incomplete predication are of isomorphic nature. They are presented in English and Ukrainian in four common groups, which are as follows:

1. Auxiliary verbs(to be, to do, to have, shall/will), which are used in English in the corresponding person and tense form to express the following categorial meanings of the verb: a) the continuous aspect, i. e. the present, the past and future continuous/progressive tenses (/ am/ was,shall be reading); the interrogative and negative or future tense forms of the Indefinite group of tenses (Does he speak English? He did not know me. Will he come soon?); the imperative mood/imperative and incentive meanings: Do it now! Do come, please! The perfect aspect forms of the verb: I have done it. He had had his dinner by then already. We shall have translated the text by then. To express the so-called subjunctive form of the verb: He ordered that everybody be present. Whoever you be you have no right to offend him.

To express other subjunctive mood forms: His aunt would not give the photograph. (Hardy) I suggest we should meet here. (Snow) I wish / were fifteen. (Maugham) "If they could be answered, surely they'd have been answered by now." (Ibid). Auxiliary verbs in Ukrainian are restricted only to one verb бути, which is polyfunctional and is used to form some categorial meanings: a) the passive voice (текст був перекладений); b) the analytical future tense form (текст буде перекладений); с) some subjunctive mood forms (якби я був знав, я був биприйшов); d) the pluperfect tense form, which fully corresponds to the English past perfect. (Cf. Ніби й задрімав був зразу, але щось приверзлося, то й проснувся. (Головко) Я заходив був до вас якось улітку, але вас не застав тоді вдома).

2. Close to the auxiliary by their function (and often by their lexical meaning, too) are English and Ukrainian modal verbs. Their number and nomenclature is larger in English (allomorphism) than in Ukrainian. Cf.:

English:can, may, must, should, Ukrainian:вміти, могти, мусити, would, ought (to), have/be, shall, слід/треба, мати (маєш знати, він will, dare, daresay, need. має бути), сміти, потребувати.

Linking verbs (дієслова-зв'язки) in both contrasted languages form a verbal, nominal or mixed-type compound predicate. They fall into three main groups:

1. Linking verbs of being,which do not always have direct equiv alents in English and Ukrainian. Cf. to be, to feel, to look, to seem, to taste, to smell бути, виявлятися, зватися, вважатися, доводитися (Не looks young/tired) or in Ukrainian: Це зветься роботою. Це здається правдою).

2. Linking verbs of becoming (not all of which have equiva lents in Ukrainian):to become, to get, to grow, to turn ставати, робитися (They grew stronger/Вони стали міцнішими. Ліс зробився рудим.). Не became a teacher — Він став учителем. But: He turned gray/ Він посивів. Вона постаріла. She grew older.

3. Linking verbs of remaining (to remain, to keep, to stay, to continue):He remained silent/satisfied. Він зостався задоволений. The winter continued damp and wet. (Cronin) The weather kept obstinately hot and dry. (Wells) Погода вперто стояла жаркою і сухою.

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