Ex. 17. Translate the text “Chemist’s Shop” into Ukrainian.



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Ex. 17. Translate the text “Chemist’s Shop” into Ukrainian.



Ex. 18. Complete the following sentences with the given words:

1. Doctors write a _ for medicine which chemists or pharmacists make up. (a) certification; b) prescription; c) receipt; d) recipe). 2. A chemist always puts a _ on a bottle of medicine. (a) label; b) receipt; c) program; d) ticket). 3. All medicines should be _ out of reach of children. (a) stored; b) taken; c) kept; d) held). 4. It’s time to take another _ of medicine. (a) cup; b) dose; c) drink; d) spoon). 5. The medicine he takes can only _ the pain. (a) heal; b) remedy; c) relieve; d) solve). 6. The medicine was so _ that he could restore his health within a few days. (a) effective; b) efficient; c) influential; d) proficient).

Ex. 19. Divide the following forms of drugs into the three groups (1. taken by mouth; 2. injected into the body; 3. applied to the body surface):

Capsules; cream; lotion; lozenge; pill; powder; tablet; vaccines; ointment.

 

Ex. 20. Answer the following questions:

1. How many departments are there in the state chemist’s shop? What are they? 2. Why are medicines kept in drug cabinets? 3. What forms of medicine can you name? 4. What should you pay a special attention to if you use an over-the-counter (non-prescription) medicine? 5. Prove that the pharmacist is a rather responsible healthcare professional. 6. Are there any relations between the diet and the intake of a certain drug?

 

Ex. 21. Fill in blanks with the prepositions:

1. All medicines we need are ordered or bought _ a chemist's shop. 2. Certain medicines may cause birth defects or other problems _ the unborn child. 3. If you use an over-the-counter (non-prescription) medicine, follow the directions _ the label. 4. The pharmacist is primarily responsible _ accurately filling prescriptions. 5. The pharmacist also has to provide information _ how the drug works and side effects.

 

Ex. 22. Choose the English equivalents to the Ukrainian ones. Make up the dialogue using the terms and expressions given in the table:

1. pharmacy on duty 2. prescription 1.Передозування цих ліків викликає несприятливий ефект.
3. to write out the prescription 2. Зберігайте ці ліки в прохолодному місці .
4. Take this drug three times a day. 3. Чи ви добре переносите новокаїн?
5. This mixture is for the cough. 4. Необхідна доза вказана в рецепті.
6. These tablets are for the headache. 7. Don't take drugs without a doctor's advice. 5. Приймайте ці ліки по чайній (столовій) ложці до (після) їжі.
8. The overdosage of this drug is causing an 6. Рецепт
side effect. 7. Ця мікстура від кашлю.
9. Are you sensitive to novocain? 8. Ці пігулки від головного болю.
10. This drug reduces blood pressure (relieves toothache, clears the nose). 9. Чергова аптека 10. Запивайте ці ліки молоком.
11. The dose to be taken is indicated in the prescription. 11. Виписувати рецепт 12. Ці ліки знижують кров’яний тиск
12. Keep the drug in a cool place. (знімають зубний біль, зменшують нежить).
13. Take this drug a teaspoonful (tablespoonful) before (after) meals. 14. Take these tablets one every three hours. 13. Приймайте ці ліки тричі на день. 14. Не приймайте ліки без призначення лікаря. 15. Приймайте ці пігулки по одній кожні три
15. Take the drug with milk. години.

 

Ex. 23. Speak on the pharmaceutical provision and pharmaceutical products, the role of pharmacists.

Ex. 24. Read the following words and try to memorize them:

Confuse змішувати, переплутати; doubt сумнів, сумніватись; discard позбавлятися чогось, викидати; ipecac іпекакуана, блювотний корінь; adhesive липкий; bandage бинт; gauze марля; pad прокладка; подушечка, валик; rubbing натирання; antacid засіб для зниження кислотності; calamine каламін; sunscreen сонцезахисний крем; flush виливати, позбавлятися; outdated застарілий; deteriorate псувати(ся).

Ex. 25. Read the following text and comment upon it. Try to retell the text.

YOUR HOME MEDICINE CHEST

Keep medicines in their original containers, otherwise you or members of your family may get confused. Taking the wrong medicines or inappropriate combinations of medicines can be dangerous. If the label gets separated from a medicine container and there is any doubt to its contents, discard the medicine immediately.

A well-equipped medicine chest has the following:

- Pain relievers: aspirin or, for children aspirin substitutes such as acetaminophen;

- Syrup of ipecac: a liquid used to promote vomiting and used in certain kinds of poisoning emergencies;

- Bandages: adhesive strip bandages, adhesive tape and sterile gauze pads, elastic bandages, and surgical bandages;

- Tools, including scissors to cut bandages and tweezers to remove splinters;

- A thermometer including a rectal type thermometer if you have an infant;

- Absorbent cotton and rubbing alcohol;

- Over-the-counter pharmaceuticals, antacids, cough syrup, calamine or other mild lotion for itching, a sunscreen to prevent sunburn, and skin creams or lotions to treat sunburn.

All these things and many others you can buy at the chemist's shop. Remember: flush unused, outdated prescription drugs down the toilet. Medicine deteriorates over the time.

Ex. 26. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Перш ніж приймати ліки, вам слід було уважно прочитати інструкцію. 2. Ви зможете отримати ці ліки наступного дня у рецептурному відділі. 3. Ці ліки повинен виписати ваш дільничний лікар. 4. Лише деякі з цих медичних засобів можна буде взяти у закордонну туристичну подорож (for travelling abroad). 5. Вам слід порадитися з лікарем щодо вживання цих ліків та вашої дієти. 6. Для вашої аптечки вам доведеться купити бинт, вату, йод чи інший спиртовий розчин для дезінфекції, знеболююче та деякі інші ліки. 7. У Великобританії вагітні жінки отримують деякі ліки безкоштовно. 8. Передозування ліків може спричинити серйозні наслідки або навіть смерть. 9. Уважно прочитайте інформацію щодо протипоказань.

 

Ex. 27. Read the dialogue and try to act as a pharmacist and a customer:

Pharmacist:Can I help you?

Customer:Yes, please. My daughter was coughing quite a bit last night. Can you suggest anything?

Pharmacist:How old is your daughter?

Customer:She’s four.

Pharmacist:This is a good children’s cough syrup. Give her two teaspoons before she goes to bed. If her cough doesn’t clear up in a day or two, you should take her to the doctor.

Customer:I will. Thanks.

Pharmacist:And here’s your prescription.

Customer:Are there any special instructions?

Pharmacist:They’re on the bottle. You have to take it on an empty stomach.

Customer:OK. And thanks again.

 

Ex. 28. Choose the correct answers:

Questions Answers
What must I do if I don't understand the information on the label? Reading the label helps you take the medicine correctly.
Where can I find the information? You should always read the label before you take the medicine.
How long does it take to read the label? In the label of the medicine.
Why is it important to read the label? It only takes a few minutes.
When I should read the label? If you don't understand the information on the label, do not take the medicine. Ask the doctor or pharmacist to help you.

 

OVERVIEW

The chemist's shop is one of the medical institutions where the people order or buy medicines for their treatment. The state large chemist's shops as a rule have two departments. They are the hand department and prescription one. At the hand department you can buy some medicines immediately, while many drugs are ordered at the prescription department. At the chemist's shop we can buy tablets (lozenges), capsules, ointments, drops, syrups, suppositories, powders, topical solutions, creams, gels, and drugs for intramuscular and intravenous injections. All the drugs have the labels and instructions for using where the indications, contraindications, dosage, side effects, expiration date and others are indicated. The pharmacist is a healthcare professional who provides information about how the drug works and side effects.

LESSON 14

REVISION

TEST

I. Insert the missing words:

1. Our _ year _ in September and is over in June.

A. studying; began

B. academic; begins

C. academic; begin

2. Students _ different practical _ in medicine.

A. acquires; knowledge

B. get; skill

C. acquire; skills

3. Doctors _ the diagnosis and _ proper treatment to every patient.

A. does; prescribe

B. makes; write

C. make; prescribe

4. The main _ of medicine is to _ the people’s health.

A. topic; do

B. task; care of

C. reason; make

5. The therapeutist _ to the patient’s heart and lungs, palpates abdominal parts, and measures blood _.

A. works; analysis

B. listens; pressure

C. listens; cells

 

II. Finish the following sentences:

1. During the clinical training the students learn _.

2. WHO activities has many forms, some of them are _.

3. In Great Britain most doctors and hospitals are the part of the _.

4. In the pulmonological department there are patients with lung diseases. They suffer from _.

5. Your tongue is thickly coated and your tonsils _.

 

III. Choose the proper term given below to the following definitions:

1. This organization prepares more and better health workers.

2. It is a very important medical establishment where the people order or buy medicines for their treatment.

3. In this department the patients complain of their cough, high temperature, headache and others.

 

a) chemist’s shop; b) nucleaus; c) pulmonological department; d) cell membrane; e) cardiological department; f) skeletal system; g) gastroenterological department; h) World Health Organization; i) muscular tissue; j) endocrine system; k) polyclinic.

 

IV. Read and translate one of the following texts:

Text A

GALEN

(philosopher, physician, discoverer of blood and the cranial nerves)

This Greek's genius is more certain than his dates. He was born about 129 AD and lived until about 210 AD. During this considerable life span, Galen managed to perform studies that would long influence medicine. He is still known among other things for his discovery of blood in human arteries and for his dissection of the human cranial nerves, the nerves that supply key areas of the head, face, and upper chest. Galen was the son of Nicon, a well-to-do architect and builder in Pergamum (Asia Minor). He first studied philosophy, one of the traditional fields for a boy of his background. Nicon then had a dream in which Asclepius, the god of healing, told him to permit his son to study medicine. Galen began his medical studies in Pergamum at the age of 16-17. In search of medical knowledge, he then roamed about much of the eastern Mediterranean studying medicine in various cities including Smyrna (now Izmir, Turkey) and Corinth (Greece). He completed his studies at the famous medical school in Alexandria (Egypt). Galen returned to Pergamum and at age 28 was appointed physician to the school of gladiators, a post he occupied for four years and that some say made him the first sports medicine specialist. After that, a career in Rome was in the cards. There he went at age 32 and became a famous and influential physician, taking on cases that no one else could handle. He accompanied the Roman legions of Marcus Aurelius on their campaigns, and served as the personal physician to several emperors. Galen described what he saw (not always the practice of the day). He identified the majority (seven of the twelve) of the cranial nerves.

Galen did experiments such as severing a nerve and observing the effects. He is thus regarded as the founder of experimental physiology. Galen was the first to determine that arteries carried blood and not air! (For over 400 years the Alexandrian school of medicine had taught that arteries are full of air). Galen's theories about the blood circulation, however, were well off the mark and it was not until the 17th century that the great English physician William Harvey would challenge Galen's ideas in this regard. With Hippocrates who preceded him by some 500 years, Galen was preeminent among the most distinguished physicians of antiquity. He knew all of the medical knowledge of his day, gathered it together, and wrote voluminously (and well) about it. Galen summed up the medicine of antiquity.

The writings of Galen were a blessing to the ancient world. But they became a curse when, for more than a millennium, they were held to be the unassailable authority on medicine. This paralyzed the progress of medicine, something Galen would have deplored.

 

Text B

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

World Health Organization (WHO) was founded in April 7, 1948 when twenty-six United Nations member states, including Ukraine, ratified its Constitution. Now there are 192 member states, including all United Nations Member States except Liechtenstein.

WHO's objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO activities has many forms, they are: strengthening national health services; preparing more and better health workers; controlling or eradicating epidemic diseases; protecting mother and child health; improving sanitation and water supply; and making all other efforts to raise health level.

One of the main services carried by WHO is the service of epidemic warnings. The five main world epidemics of history as plague, cholera, smallpox, typhus, and yellow fever are still a great danger in our time. WHO also informs national health services about outbreaks of viral diseases as influenza and poliomyelitis.

Besides an epidemic information WHO provides services, which are needed by all the countries, such as an international quarantine measures, world health statistics, international standardization of medicines and vaccines, and development of medical research.

The daily work of WHO is carried out by a medical and administrative staff of about 2.400 international officers from different countries. These officers are stationed at headquarters in Geneva, in Regional Offices, or with special centers working on every continent.

WHO's work is focused on four interrelated strategic directions.Strategic Direction 1: reducing

excess mortality, morbidity, and disability. Strategic Direction 2: promoting healthy lifestyles and reducing risk factors to human health.Strategic Direction 3: developing health systems.Strategic Direction 4: framing an enabling policy and creating an institutional environment for the health sector.

 

V. Speak on the following topics:

  1. I am a Medical Student.
  2. Medical University.
  3. Public Health Service in Ukraine and Abroad.
  4. Hospital.
  5. Polyclinic.
  6. Medical Examination.
  7. My Future Profession.

UNIT 2

LESSON 15

HUMAN ANATOMY

(BODY REGIONS)

VOCABULARY

cranial ['kreInjql] черепний cheek [CI:k] щока cheekbone['CI:kbqun] вилиця eyebrow ['aIbrau] брова forehead ['fOrId] лоб temple[templ] скроня division[dI'vIZqn] поділ, розподіл girdle[gWdl] пояс pectoral['pektqrql] грудний pelvic['pelvIk] тазовий pelvis[pelvIs] таз refer[rI'fW] належати respective[rIs'pektIv] відповідний inferior[In'fIqrIq] нижчий superficial["sjupq'fISql] зовнішній quadrant['kwOdrqnt] квадрант, чверть кола approach[q'prquC] підхід stomach['stAmqk] шлунок spleen[splI:n] селезінка pancreas['pxNkrIqs] підшлункова залоза gallbladder ['gO:l"blxdq] жовчний міхур gullet ['gAlIt] стравохід intestine[In'testIn] кишка; кишківник kidney['kIdnI] нирка urinary bladder['jurInqrI 'blxdq] сечовий міхур liver['lIvq] печінка tumor['tjumq] неоплазма, новоутворення; пухлина limb[lim] кінцівка arm[Rm] плече (частина верхньої кінцівки); рука forearm['fLrRm] передпліччя wrist[rIst] зап'ясток hand[hxnd] кисть shoulder['Squldq] плечовий суглоб elbow['elbqu] лікоть thigh[TQI] стегно (частина нижньої кінцівки) leg[leg] гомілка; нога ankle[xNkl] надп’ятково-гомілковий суглоб; зона з’єднання надп’ятково-гомілкового суглоба hip[hIp] стегно trunk[trANk] тулуб chest (thorax)[Cest ('TLrxks)] грудна клітка neck[nek] шия

 

RULES OF READING

c + e, i, y [s] acid city
c (in other cases) [k] cup cycle
g + e, i, y [G] large but: get, give, begin [g]
g (in other cases) [g] big green

 

Ex. 1. Read the following words:

Connective; increase; care; medical; clinic; education; doctor; cancer; come; place; certain; medicine; go; get; give; drug; negative; dosage; gel.

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the following material:

Suffix of Noun:

-ure (denotes condition or phenomena)

pressure – тиск

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the following words:

Procedure; acupuncture; literature; structure; temperature; suture; mixture; signature.

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 4. Enter the Past Participle (V3) of the following verbs:

be begin bring choose come do find feel get give go have hold know lead let lose make tell put read speak spend take think write

 

Ex. 5. Distinguish carefully the correct pronunciation of the following regular verbs:

[d] [t] [Id]
called defined received organized observed developed discussed noticed produced depressed situated divided separated surrounded bounded

 

Ex. 6. Read the following grammar material:

SIMPLE TENSES

(Passive Voice, Affirmative Form)

In passive sentences, we are more interested in the object of the active sentence. This is because who did the thing isn’t important at the moment, or because we don’t know who did it.

“New method is used by this scientists”. ” is used” is passive. Compare Active and Passive Voices in the following sentences:

Voice Subject Predicate Object
Active Voice The scientist uses new method.
Passive Voice New method is used by the scientist.

 

Ex. 7. Memorize the data of following table:

PASSIVE VOICE:

to be + V3

TENSE SUBJECT PREDICATE
  Present I he, she, it they, you, we am is are V3
SIMPLE Past I, he, she, it they, you, we was were V3
  Future I, we he, she, it, you, they shall be will be V3

MODEL:

The human body is divided into several parts. (Present Simple Tense, Passive Voice)

The operation was performed on yesterday. (Past Simple Tense, Passive Voice)

The disease will be cured. (Future Simple Tense, Passive Voice)

 

Ex. 8. Read and translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The academic year is divided into two terms. 2. Many patients are examined by the physician every day. 3. The operation was performed on under general anesthesia. 4. The head is divided into the cranial and the facial parts. 5. Your lungs will be X-rayed. 6. The head and the trunk are connected by the neck. 7. The upper part of the trunk is called the chest. 8. The heart, lungs, and gullet are located in the chest. 9. These operations will be performed on by this surgeon. 10. The lectures in Anatomy is delivered on Monday. 11. Many experiments were carried out by our students. 12. The skeleton is composed of bones. 13. The upper limb is divided into some parts. 14. The major organs are located in the trunk, such as: the heart, the lungs, the stomach, the liver, the spleen, the large and small intestines, the kidneys, the gallbladder, and bladder. 15. Future doctors will be trained to be world-class experts.

 

Ex. 9. Turn the following sentences into the Past and Future Simple Tenses:

1. Doctor's prescriptions are fulfilled by this patient. 2. Different medical procedures are included into physical examination. 3. This patient is directed to make blood analysis. 4. They are treated free of charge. 5. These experiments are carried out by the members of our scientific society. 6. This hospital is equipped with new devices. 7. Some new methods of treatment are published in this journal. 8. This book is written by some well-known scientists.

 

Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Кров'яний тиск цього пацієнта був визначений лікарем. 2. Його здоров'я було відновлене після належного лікування. 3. Нові наукові дослідження в галузі будови тканин будуть проводитися у наступному місяці. 4. Необхідний захист мозку забеспечується лицьовими кістками. 5. Нижня частина тулуба має назву черевна порожнина. 6. Шлунок, печінка, селезінка, товстий та тонкий кишечники, нирки, жовчний міхур, сечовий міхур знаходяться у черевній порожнині. 7. Основна частина грудної клітки сформована ребрами. 8. Цей медичний інститут був заснований видатним вченим.

 

Ex. 11. Read and translate the following phrases. Compose your own sentences using these phrases:

 

New method is used …
  is experimented …
This treatment is proposed …
  is suggested …
This problem is investigated …
  is discussed …

 

Ex. 12. Find in the text "Body Regions" the sentences with predicates in Simple Tenses, Passive Voice and translate them into Ukrainian.

READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

 

Ex. 13. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

 

Ex. 14. Compose 3-4 sentences using the words of VOCABULARY.

 

Ex. 15. Insert the missing letters:

T_mor; tr_nk; _nkle; superf_cial; abdom_n; el_ow; gir_le; _rist; lim_; divi_ion; refe_; pelvi_; t_orax; he_rt; l_ver; st_mach; kidn_y; l_ng; _ntestine; sple_n.

 

Ex. 16. Read the following words:

Pelvic; thigh; forearm; shoulder; girdle; approach; limb; thorax; superficial; chest; trunk; wrist; division; elbow; abdomen; stomach; intestine; knee.

 

Ex. 17. Translate the following words into Ukrainian:

Pelvic; thorax; wrist; elbow; hip; shoulder; leg; knee; superficial; limb; forearm; girdle; quadrant; pectoral; ankle; lower; associated; clinician.

Ex. 18. Read the following text:

BODY REGIONS

The body is commonly divided into several regions. They are the head, trunk, and limbs.

The head is divided into the cranial and the facial parts. The facial bones form the structure of the face. The forehead, the temples, eyes,eyebrows, the cheeks, the cheekbones, nose, oral cavity and chin compose the face.

The upper limb (or extremity) is divided into the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The arm extends from the shoulder to the elbow, and the forearm extends from the elbow to the wrist. The upper limb is attached to the body by the shoulder, or pectoral girdle (the bony structure by which the limbs are attached to the body). The lower limb is divided into the thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot. The thigh extends from the hip to the knee, and the leg extends from the knee to the ankle. The lower limb is attached to the body by the hip, or pelvic girdle. Note that the terms arm and leg, contrary to popular usage, refer only to a portion of the respective limb.

The trunk can be divided into the thorax (chest), abdomen (region between the thorax and pelvis), and pelvis (the inferior end of the trunk, associated with the hips). The major organs are located in the trunk, such as: the heart, the lungs, the stomach, the liver, the spleen, the large and small intestines, the kidneys, the gallbladder, and bladder.

The abdomen is often subdivided superficially into four quadrants. They include the upper right, upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants. The four-quadrant approach is commonly used by clinicians to describe the location of some organs or of a clinical problem such as pain or a tumor.

 

Ex. 19. Translate the following words into English:

Поділ, розподіл; лицьова частина; тулуб; черевна порожнина; пояс; передпліччя; коліно; гомілка; належати; тазовий; зап'ясток; нижня кінцівка; плече; серце; печінка; селезінка; кишківник; сечовий міхур; легені; відповідний.

 

Ex. 20. Translate the text "Body Regions" into Ukrainian.

 

Ex. 21. Insert the missing words:

1. The _ is divided into several regions. 2. The upper limb is divided into the arm, _, and hand. 3. The upper limb is attached to the body by the _. 4. The lower limb is divided into the _, leg, and foot. 5. The lower limb is attached to the body by the _ . 6. The _ can be divided into the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. 7. The abdomen is often subdivided superficially into four _. 8. The four-quadrant _ is commonly used by clinicians to describe the location of underlying _ or of a clinical problem such as pain or a tumor.

 

Ex. 22. What is it:

Arm.

Forearm.

Thigh.

Leg.

Thorax.

Abdomen.

Pelvis.

 

Ex. 23. Organize the information of the text in table:

Upper limb:     Head:  
Lower limb:   Trunk:    

 

Ex. 24. Answer the questions:

1. What regions is human body divided into? 2. What parts is the upper limb divided into? 3. What parts does the lower limb consist of? 4. What girdle connects the upper limb with the trunk? 5. What girdle connects the lower limb with the trunk? 6. What parts is the trunk divided into? 7. What internal organs are located in the trunk?

 

Ex. 25. Retell the text "Body Regions".

 

Ex. 28. Read the following words with their translation and compose your own sentences:

sternal ['stWnql] грудинний, що належить до грудини brachial['breIkIql] плечовий femoral['femqrql] стегновий axillary ['xksIlqrI] пахвинний genital ['GenItql] статевий, що належить до статевих органів pubic ['pjHbIk] лобковый acrominal [q'kroumInql] акроміальний, належащий до латеральної кінцівкі лопатки cubital ['kjHbItl] ліктьовий antebrachial ["xntI'breIkIql] такий, що належить до передпліччя cephalic[sI'fxlIk] головний cervical['sWvIkql] шийний carpal ['kRpql] кистьовий, зап'ястний manual ['mxnjuql] ручний digital ['dIGItql] пальцевий geniculate [GI'nIkjulIt] колінний crural ['krurql] що належить до гомілки tarsal ['tRsql] заплесновий pedal ['pedl] ножний, що належить до стопи

 

Ex. 29. Say all known body regions and structures.



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