Particular, initial, deep, final, partial, complete, recent, extreme, wide, quick, local, common, chemical, mechanical, sufficient.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Particular, initial, deep, final, partial, complete, recent, extreme, wide, quick, local, common, chemical, mechanical, sufficient.



 

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 4. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:

CONTINUOUS TENSES

(Passive Voice, Interrogative Form)

TENSE QUESTION WORD AUXILIARY VERB SUBJECT VERB
Present Continuous Tense What Where When am is are I he, she, it we, you, they being + V3
Past Continuous Tense How Why How many was were he, she, it we, you, they being + V3
Future Continuous Tense How much Whom - - -

MODEL:

Where are the preventive measures being conducted?

Why was the work being done?

Ex. 5. Read and translate the following questions:

1. Why are all efforts being directed towards the early diagnosis of gastric disorders? 2. Where was the solution being injected? 3. Is the child being examined by the surgeon? 4. What part of digestive system is water being absorbed in?

 

Ex. 6. Turn the following sentences into interrogative:

1. The scientific works are being translated into foreign language. 2. Serious investigations were being done by various scientists to establish functions and anatomical structure of the stomach. 3. At present the ingested food is being mixed. 4. The food is being broken into smaller and smaller pieces by the mechanical activity of these muscles. 5. Now the stomach lining is being protected by the mucus. 6. Bile was being transported out of the liver. 7. The red bone marrow is being stimulated in this embryo. 8. These drugs are being removed by the liver. 9. The injured tissue is being replaced in this person. 10. The functions of the injured section are being performed by other cells.

READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

Ex. 7. Read the VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

Ex. 8. Insert the missing letters and translate the following words into Ukrainian:

Cardia_; h_drochloric; c_rvature; sol_d; f_ndus; cre_te; sp_incter; prot_in; py_oric; se_ment; pu_h; st_mach; lini_g; sto_e.

 

Ex. 9. Read the following words:

Stomach; digestive; superior; antrum; abdomen; esophagus; fundus; curvature; pyloric; receive; sphincter; mechanical; move; allow; sufficiently; powerful; piece; secrete; pepsin; enzyme; hydrochloric; liquid; primarily; partially.

 

Ex. 10. Translate the following words into English:

Сфінктер; шлунок; слизова оболонка; дно; ділянка, сектор; пілоричний; виробляти, створювати; вигин; проштовхувати, штовхати; слугувати; твердий; оброблений, перероблений; берегти, зберігати.

 

Ex. 11. Read the following text:

STOMACH

Serious investigations were being done by various scientists to establish functions and anatomical structure of the stomach. The stomach stores and mixes the ingested food. The major function of the stomach is to prepare the food chemically and mechanically so it can be received in the small intestine for further digestion and absorption into the blood. Only small amounts of such food as simple sugars, alcohol, and some medications are actually absorbed in the stomach.

The stomach is an enlarged segment of the digestive tract. It is located in the left superior portion of the abdomen. Its shape and size vary from person to person.

The opening from the esophagus into the stomach is cardiac sphincter. The region of the stomach around the cardiac sphincter is the cardiac region. The stomach consists of the fundus (upper part), the body (middle part), and the antrum (lower distal part). The largest portion of the stomach is the body, which turns to the right, thus creating a greater curvature and a lesser curvature. The body narrows to form the pyloric region, which joins the small intestine. The opening between the stomach and the small intestine is the pyloric opening, which is surrounded by a ring of smooth muscle called the pyloric sphincter. The cardiac sphincter relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach. The pyloric sphincter allows food to leave the stomach when it has been sufficiently digested.

The walls of the stomach consist of various layers of powerful muscles. The mechanical activity of these muscles breaks the food into smaller and smaller pieces. The glands of the stomach secrete gastric juice. This juice contains pepsins (digestive enzymes) and hydrochloric acid. Pepsin converts proteins into smaller substances. Hydrochloric acid is necessary for the correct action of pepsin.

Food leaves the stomach in two phases. The upper portion of the stomach contracts first, pushing the more liquid material into small intestine. The more solid food leaves later, primarily by the action of the muscles in the lower part of the stomach. The partially processed food then travels through the pyloric canal into the first portion of small intestine, the duodenum.

 

Ex. 12. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Enlarged segment; left superior portion; to vary from person to person; cardiac opening; antrum; ring of smooth muscles; body turns to the right; narrow; surround; the sphincter relaxes and contracts; the walls of the stomach; convert; food leaves the stomach in two phases.

 

Ex. 13. Translate the text "Stomach" into Ukrainian.

 

Structure of the Stomach 1. Body of the stomach; 2. Fundus; 3. Anterior wall; 4. Greater curvature; 5. Lesser curvature; 6. Cardia; 9. Pyloric sphincter. 10. Pyloric antrum; 11. Pyloric canal; 12. Angular notch; 13. Gastric canal; 14. Rugal folds.  

 

Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the stomach? 2. What is the cardiac sphincter? 3. What does the stomach consist of? 4. What is the largest portion of the stomach? 5. What is pyloric opening? 6. What is the pyloric sphincter? 7. What do the walls of the stomach consist of? 8. What secretes the gastric juice? 9. What substances does the gastric juice contain? 10. What substances are absorbed in the stomach? 11. What is the major function of the stomach?

 

Ex. 15. Insert the missing words:

1. The stomach _ and mixes the ingested food. 2. The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary _. 3. It consists of the _, the body, and the antrum. 4. The upper opening of the stomach is called the cardiac _ and the lower one is called the _ sphincter. 5. Different gastric _ are in the stomach. 6. The glands of the stomach secrete gastric _. 7. This juice contains pepsins and _ acids. 8. Pepsin converts proteins into _ substances. 9. Hydrochloric acid is necessary for the correct _ of pepsin.

Ex. 16. Choose the anatomical terms from the box for the following definitions:

1. The organ of chewing and tasting. 2. The upper part of the stomach. 3. The lower distal part of the stomach. 4. The upper opening of the stomach. 5. A hollow sac-like organ of the alimentary tract.



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