Ex. 9. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

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Ex. 9. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

Ex. 10. Insert the missing letters:

M_ocardium; pulm_nary; m_scle, blo_d; ch_mber; ve_tricle; tr_cuspid; separ_te; flo_; ox_gen; tis_ue.


Ex. 11. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations:

1. chamber['CeImbq]: to consist of two chambers; the right atrium and the right ventricle are in the right chamber; the left atrium and the left ventricle are in the left chamber; each of the chambers has two connected parts; within the heart chambers.

2. pump [pAmp]: the heart is a pump; the heart pumps the blood; to pump arterial blood into the aorta; to pump blood through vessels; to serve as the main pump.

3. ventricle['ventrIkl]:at the entrance to the left ventricle; walls of the left ventricle; the right ventricle has thick walls; the role of ventricles; between ventricles; the interventricular septum; this septum is between the left and the right ventricles.

4.atrium['xtrIqm]:the valves of the atrium; the upper chamber is called an atrium; the walls of the left atrium.

5.blood [blAd]: the circulation of blood; the flow of blood; to send the blood for analysis; to pump the blood.

Human Heart


Ex. 12. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and the blood vessels. 2. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. 3. The heart pumped oxygen very slowly. 4. Superior vena cava brings the blood back to the heart. 5. The atrioventricular valves separate the atria from ventricles. 6. The mitral valve separates the atrium from ventricle. 7. In this case the human heart will contract very fast (rapid). 8. The heart lies in the mediastinum. 9. The aorta carries blood from the left ventricle to the body. 10. The pulmonary trunk carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. 11. The right ventricle opens into the pulmonary trunk, and the left ventricle opens into the aorta. 12. The interventricular septum separates the two ventricles. 13. Atrioventricular valves allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles. 14. Atrioventricular valves prevent blood from flowing back into the atria. 15. Blood enters the right atrium from the systemic circulation.


Ex. 13. Read the following words:

Muscle, chamber, contraction, separate, atrium, tricuspid, mitral, thoracic, valve, ventricle, circulation, beat, bicuspid, lining, septum, interventricular, atrioventricular, superior, inferior, exterior, pulmonary, myocardium, oxygen, aorta, through, blood, fibrous.

Ex. 14. Read the following text:


The heart is a hollow muscle located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs. The heart is responsible for the circulation of the blood. It is known that the heart is a pump. But it is an extraordinary pump. It weighs only about a pound but the heart of a healthy 70-kg person pumps about 7200 L of blood each day at rate of 5 L per minute. If the heart loses its ability to pump blood for even a few minutes, the life of the individual is in danger.

The heart actually has two pumps. Each pump consists of a pair of chambers formed by muscles. The contraction of these muscles causes the blood to be pumped. The lower chamber is called a ventricle and the upper chamber is called an atrium. The four chambers of the heart are separated by valves. Between the right atrium and the right ventricle there is a one-way valve, called the tricuspid valve. The valve that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle is called the mitral (or bicuspid) valve. The left ventricle is separated from the right ventricle by the interventricular septum.

Venous blood from body flows through the superior vena cava and inferior one into the right atrium, then through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary valve, via the pulmonary arteries, into the lungs. From the lungs, blood enters the left atrium via the pulmonary veins and flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps oxygen-enriched blood through the aortic valve into the aorta for delivery to the body’s tissues.

The tissue of the heart consists of three lay­ers. The exterior layer is the thin epicardium. The middle layer is the myocardium, the heart muscle itself (from the Greek myo for "muscle" and kardia for "heart"). The inner lining of the heart is the endocardium, a thin, smooth structure. The pericardium is a fibrous sac that surrounds the heart. In the space between the pericardium and the epicardium there is a small amount of fluid.

The heart rate varies depending on activity at any given moment. The control mechanism for the heart rate involves electrical impulses. One of the four chambers of the heart, the right atrium, contains a group of cells called the sinus node. The sinus node produces electrical impulses that signal the muscle of the heart to contract in the pumping cycle. When a person is at rest, the heart pumps more slowly and at a regular rate, about 60 to 80 beats per minute. When a person runs, climbs stairs, or otherwise exert yourself, the sinus node issues electrical “instructions” to increase the pace of the heart in order to provide the muscles and other tissues with the necessary additional blood and its supply of oxygen. The heart rate may increase up to 200 beats per minute if you exert yourself strenuously.

The heart rate may be affected by various factors including tobacco use, caffeine-containing foods, alcohol, and a number of drugs. In addition, the cardiac disorders may produce heart rate problems.

Ex. 15. Find in the text and read the English equivalents for:

Міжшлуночковий; клапан; тристулковий; камера; кровообіг; двостулковий; м'яз; поштовх; внутрішня оболонка серця; кровоносна судина|посудина|; кисень; фіброзний; порожнистий м'яз; між легенями; серце – це насос; нагнітати кров по судинах|посудинах|; скорочення серцевого|сердечного| м'яза; усередині|всередині| серцевих|сердечних| камер; біля входу в лівий шлуночок; складатися з двох камер; клапани передсердя; відомо, що; серце здорової людини; серце втрачає|розгублює| свою здатність|здібність| нагнітати кров; сформований м'язами; лівий шлуночок нагнітає насичену киснем кров в аорту; фіброзна сумка, яка оточує серце.

Ex. 16. Translate the text "Heart".


Ex. 17. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the heart? 2. Where is the heart located? 3. What is the heart responsible for? 4. How many beats does the heart make per minute? 5. What is the weight of it? 6. How many chambers does the heart have? 7. What is the lower chamber called? 8. What is the upper chamber called? 9. What are the four chambers of the heart separated by? 10. What is there between the right atrium and the right ventricle? 11. What is there between the left atrium and the left ventricle? 12. What septum separates the left ventricle from the right ventricle? 13. Where does venous blood flow? 14. What does the right ventricle pump blood through? 15. Where does the blood enter from the lungs? 16. What valve does the left ventricle pump oxygen-enriched blood through? 17. What layers does the heart consist of?


Ex. 18. Insert the missing prepositions (from; per; of; in; to):

1. During physical exercises the amount _ blood pumped per minute increases several times. 2. The superior vena cava and inferior vena cava carry blood _ the body to the right atrium. 3. The pericardium consists _ fibrous connective tissue. 4. Seven large veins carry blood _ the heart. 5. The heart makes from 60 to 72 beats _ minute. 6. _ some months the rate of your heartbeat will average about 83 beats per minute.

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