Ex. 26. Read the following text and answer the question: Is the body-building useful for modern people?



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Ex. 26. Read the following text and answer the question: Is the body-building useful for modern people?



BODY-BUILDING

Body-building is a growing sport worldwide. Once considered only for men, it currently is enjoyed by thousands of women as well. Participants in this sport combine diet and specific weight training to develop maximum muscle mass and minimum body fat. Thus all skeletal muscles must be developed to their maximum. It is relatively simple for the uniformed, untrained muscle builder to build some muscles and ignore others; the result is a disproportioned body. Skill, training, and concentration are required to build all the muscles, to know which exercises build a large number of muscles and which are specialized to build certain parts of the body.

Body-building has its own language in which it is improper to refer to a muscle by its full name. Body-builders refer to the “lats”, “traps”, and “delts” rather than the lattissimus dorsi, trapezus, and deltoids.

Body-builders concentrate on increasing skeletal muscle mass. Endurance tests conducted several years ago demonstrated that the cardiovascular and respiratory abilities of body-builders were similar to those abilities in normal, healthy persons untrained in a sport. However, more recent studies of American scientists indicate that the cardio-respiratory fitness of body-builders is similar to that of other well-trained athletes. The difference between the new studies and the older studies is attributed to modern body-building techniques that include aerobic exercise.

Photographs of body-builders are very useful in the study of anatomy to identify easily the surface anatomy of muscles that cannot be seen easily in untrained people.

 

OVERVIEW

There are 650 muscles in the human body. The muscle consists of muscle cells, muscular fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. The muscles are divided into three major parts: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles move the trunk, the head, and the limbs; the cardiac muscles propel blood through vessels; and smooth muscles propel food through the digestive system. The skeletal muscles are controlled by our consciousness. Smooth and cardiac muscles contract spontaneously. As for the form of the muscles they can be long, short, and wide. The long muscles form the limbs, the short ones compose the facial part, and wide muscles are on the trunk and form the walls of the body cavities. Muscles are attached to bones, internal organs, and blood vessels. Most skeletal muscles extend from one bone to another. Some muscles of the face are attached to the skin. Muscles are named according to their location, size, number of heads, or function.

 

LESSON 24

(additional)

TRAUMAS OF SOFT TISSUES

VOCABULARY

tear[tFq] рвана рана cut [kAt] різана рана stab [stxb] колота рана contused wound [kqn'tjuzd 'wu:nd] забійна рана gunshot wound ['gAnSOt] вогнепальна рана pull [pul] рвати, розривати pointed ['pOIntid] загострений, гострий penetrate ['penItreIt] проникати всередину, проходити крізь, пронизувати, пробивати stick [stIk] триматися, притримуватися gape [geIp] розходитися blunt [blAnt] тупий underneath ["Andq'nIT] нижче union ['junjqn] зрощення, зрощування (тканин, кісток та т.п.) clot[klOt] згусток крові scab [skxb] струп (на рані)   seal[sI:l] скріплювати debris['debrI:] залишки granulation tissue ["grxnju'leIS(q)n] грануляційна тканина persist[pq'sIst] зберігатися scar [skR] рубець, шрам gap [gxp] розрив, розходження much more значно більше, набагато більше healing ['hI:lIN] загоювання (рани, виразки), гоєння reasonable ['rI:znqbl] доцільний suture['sju:Cq] накладати шов, зашивати; шов bind[baInd] зв’язувати, стягувати pus [pAs] гній ingest [In'Gest] ковтати, проковтнути; поглинати repair[rI'pFq] загоєння

READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

Ex. 1. Insert the missing letters:

W_und; sut_re; _lot; se_l; he_ling; sca_; persi_t; debri_; unde_neath; contu_ed wound; g_nshot wound; p_s; pen_trate; pu_l.

 

Ex. 2. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Tear; cut; stab; contused wound; gunshot wound; pull; sharp object; pointed object; penetrate; the edges don't gape; a blunt force acts on the soft parts; the soft parts are held between the force and the bone; primary union; the edges are not close together; the wound fills with blood; clot; bind; scab; seal; blood cells ingest bacteria; tissue debris; pus; granulation tissue; persist; scar; the wound edges are far apart; close the gap completely; to cover the wound; to speed healing; to suture; the degree of scarring.

 

Ex. 3. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Occur; edge; cause; essential; vertically; diagonally; blunt; underneath; heal; primary union; fibrin; bind; dry; seal; isolate; microorganism; foreign; phagocyte; neutrophil; ingest; thus; mixture; pus; epithelial cell; remove; dead; gap; completely; cover; reduce; lead; disfiguring; reasonable; suture; faster; lowered; severe; called.

 

Ex. 4. Read the following text:

WOUNDS

There are some types of wounds. They are tears, cuts, stabs, contused wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Tears occur when the skin is pulled beyond the limits of its elasticity. The edges of the wound are irregular. Tears are usually caused by sharp-edged objects such as broken glass. Deep tears can damage nerves and blood vessels. Cuts are caused by action of sharp object. Stabs are caused by pointed objects, which penetrate into the tissue. External bleeding is usually not severe, but there might be severe internal bleeding. The wound edges are generally stuck together and do not gape. Contused wounds occur when a blunt force acts on the soft parts, with bones a short distance underneath, so that the soft parts are held between the force and the bones.

If the edges of the wound are close together, the wound heals by a process called primary union. If the edges are not close together or if there has been extensive loss of tissue, the process is called secondary union.

In the primary union the wound fills with blood, and clots form. The clot contains a fibrin, which binds the edges of the wound together. The surface of the clot dries to form a scab, which seals the wound and helps prevent infection. Fibrin and blood cells move into the wounded tissues. The fibrin acts to isolate microorganisms and other foreign substances. Some of the white blood cells (phagocytic cells called neutrophils) ingest bacteria, thus helping to fight infection. They also ingest tissue debris, clearing the area for repair. Neutrophils are killed in this process and may accumulate a mixture of dead cells and fluid called pus. After a few days the epithelial cells from the edges meet, forming a single layer of cells over the wound. As the new epithelium forms, a second type of phagocytic cell removes the dead neutrophils and cellular debris. Then the clots are replaced by a connective tissue (granulation tissue). A large amount of granulation tissue sometimes persists as a scar.

Repair by secondary union is similar to healing by primary union, but there are some differences. Because the wound edges are far apart, the clot may not close the gap completely. Much more granulation tissue forms and wound contraction reduces the size of the wound and speeds healing. Wound contraction can lead to disfiguring scars. Thus it is reasonable to suture a large wound so that it can heal by primary rather than secondary union. Healing will be faster, the risk of infection will be lowered, and the degree of scarring will be reduced.

 

Ex. 5. Translate the words into English:

Гній; накладати шов; зберігатися; шрам, рубець; загоєння; розрив, розходжененя; пробивати, пронизувати, проникати всередину; згусток крові; зрощення рани; накладати шов; рвати, розривати; рвана рана; різана рана; колота рана; вогнепальна рана.

Ex. 6. Translate the text "Wounds" into Ukrainian.

Ex. 7. Insert the missing words given below. Put the verbs into correct tense form:

1. There are some _ of wounds. 2. They are tears, cuts, _ , _ wounds, and gunshot wounds. 3. Tears occur when the covering skin is_. 4. The _ of the wound are irregular. 5. _ are caused by action of sharp object. 6. Stabs are _ by a pointed object. 7. The wound edges are generally stuck together and do not_ . 8. Contused wounds occur when a _ force acts on the soft parts, with bones a short distance_ .

 

stabs; to pull; types; edges; underneath; to cause; contused; to cut; to gape; blunt.

 

Ex. 8. Make up sentences using the following words and word-combinations:

1. is / occur / tears / the covering skin / pulled / when. 2. sharp / caused / cuts / are / action / object / by / of. 3. are / by / a pointed / caused / object / stabs. 4. contused wounds / underneath / on / when / a blunt force / acts / bones / the soft parts/ occur / with / a short distance.

 

Ex. 9. Answer the following questions:

1. What types of wound are there? 2. When do tears occur? 3. Can you characterize the edges of wound in tears? 3. In what cases do cuts occur? 4. What are the causes of stabs? 5. Describe the edges of the wound in stabs. 6. What are the causes of contused wounds?

 

Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Існує кілька видів ран. Це – рвані, різані, колоті, забійні та вогнепальні рани. 2. Вогнепальні рани одні з самих серйозних видів ран. 3. Рвані рани виникають у тих випадках, коли розривається шкіра. 4. Края цих ран – нерівні. 5. Різані рани викликаються дією гострого предмету. 6. Загострений предмет може призвести до колотої рани. 7. Забійні рани виникають під дією тупого предмету.

 

Ex. 11. Speak on the types of wounds and the causes of their occurring.

 

Ex. 12. Insert the missing words:

1. In the primary union the wound fills with blood, and _ form. 2. The surface of the clot dries to form a _, which seals the wound and helps prevent infection. 3. After a few days the epithelial cells from the edges meet, forming a single layer of cells over the _. 4. Then the clots are replaced by a _ tissue.

 

Ex. 13. Answer the questions:

1. What is primary union? 2. What does the wound fill with in the primary union? 3. Why does the surface of the clot dry? 4. What is the function of fibrin? 5.What is the function of a second type of phagocytic cells?

 

Ex. 14. Speak on the primary union.

 

Ex. 15. Answer the questions:

1. What is the secondary union? 2. What is the difference between primary and secondary unions? 3. What can wound contraction lead to?

 

Ex. 16. Speak on the secondary union.

 

Ex. 17. Read the following text and get ready to narrate it:

EMERGENCY CARE OF WOUNDS

Cuts. If you sustain a small cut that bleeds only slightly, wash the cut thoroughly with mild soap and water. Apply a bandage to keep it clean. If the cut is more serious you must stop bleeding by applying pressure directly to the injury, using a sterilized gauze pad or clean cloth. Maintain pressure on the wound until the bleeding stops.

Stabs. A stab doesn’t usually result in excessive bleeding. Often little blood will flow and the wound will seem to close almost instantly. These features, however, do not mean that treatment is unnecessary. Stabs are dangerous because of the risk of infection. The object that caused the wound may carry spores of the tetanus or other bacteria. These can result in serious infections. If you sustain a stab, stop the bleeding, if necessary, by applying pressure with a sterilized gauze pad or clean cloth. Then seek emergency care for appropriate treatment to prevent tetanus or other infection.

Soft tissue injuries. These injuries may involve considerable bleeding. The skin is damaged, as are underlying tissues such as muscle, supporting structures, and blood vessels. Such injuries can occur when an area is struck and badly cut, when the skin is separated from the underlying tissues, or when areas of the skin are forcefully torn away. Soft tissue injuries require special treatment at the hospital or polyclinic.

OVERVIEW

There are some types of wounds. They are tears, cuts, stabs, contused wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Tears occur when the covering skin is pulled. The edges of the wound are irregular. Cuts are caused by action of sharp object. Stabs are caused by pointed objects. The wound edges are generally stuck together and do not gape. Contused wounds occur when a blunt force acts on the soft parts, with bones a short distance underneath. If the edges of the wound are close together, the wound heals by a process called primary union. If the edges are not close together or if there has been extensive loss of tissue, the process is called secondary union. In the primary union the wound fills with blood, and clots form. The surface of the clot dries to form a scab. It seals the wound and helps prevent infection. After a few days the epithelial cells from the edges meet, forming a single layer of cells over the wound. Then the clots are replaced by a connective tissue. Repair by secondary union is similar to healing by primary union, but there are some differences.

 

LESSON 25

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

VOCABULARY

stomach ['stAmqk] шлунок pancreas['pxnkrIqs] підшлункова залоза gallbladder ['gO:l"blxdq] жовчний міхур propel [prq'pel] проштовхувати; рухати digestive[dI'GestIv] травний, такий, що стосується травлення digestion [dI'GesCqn] травлення, травлення їжи; засвоєння їжи chew [Cu:] жувати, пережовувати saliva [sq'laIvq] слина pharynx ['fxrINks] глотка esophagus [I:'sOfqgqs] стравохід accessory [q'ksesqrI] допоміжний, додатковий mucous ['mju:kqs] слизовий mucus ['mju:kqs] слиз dilate[daI'leIt] розширювати reduce [rI'dju:s] перетворюватиж (тут) зменшувати semi-liquid ['semI'lIkwId] напіврідкий release [rI'lI:s] виділяти duodenum ["dju:ou'dInqm] дванадцятипала кишка jejunum [GI'Gu:nqm] порожня кишка ileum ['IlIqm] клубова кишка exist [Ig'zIst] існувати, бути except [Ik'sept] виключаючи, окрім, за винятком enzyme ['enzaIm] фермент caecum (cecum) ['sI:kqm] сліпа кишка colon ['koulqn] ободова кишка, товста кишка rectum ['rektqm] пряма кишка indigestive ["IndI'GestIv] неперетравлений feces ['fI:sI:z] кал, фекалії, екскременти vermiform ['vq:mIfO:m] червоподібний appendix [q'pendIks] відросток, апендикс ingest [In'Gest] поглинати, проковтнути, заковтнути masticate['mxstIkeIt] жувати, подрібнювати digest [dI'Gest] перетравлювати undigested ['AndI'GestId] неперетравлений matter ['mxtq] річ, субстанція propulsion [pre'pAlS(q)n] просування вперед, рух вперед; поступальний рух

RULES OF READING



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