READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING



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READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING



 

Ex. 8. Insert the missing letters:

C_ver; l_ning; ti_sue; basem_nt membrane; epit_elium; s_rface; conne_tive; matri_; sm_oth; dive_se; adi_ose; atta_h; ri_id.

 

Ex. 9. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Spinal cord; gland; define; penetrate; ligament; tendon; attach; connective tissue; to cover the surface; diverse; pump; lining; conduct; adipose; smooth muscle; dermis; rigid.

 

Ex. 10. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Matrix; grouped; epithelial; muscular; nervous; classified; extracellular; surface; secrete; adipose; striated; voluntary; attach; cover; wall of artery; liquid; neuron.

 

Ex. 11. Read the following text:

TISSUES

Cells are grouped into tissues, and each tissue type is specialized to perform specific functions. The four basic tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues. Epithelial and connective tissues are the most diverse of the four tissue types and are components of every organ. They are classified according to the structure. Muscular and nervous tissues are defined mainly according to their functions.

Epithelium consists of cells that have very little extracellular material between them. Epithelium covers surfaces, e.g., the outside of the body and the lining of the digestive tract, the vessels and many body cavities. It also forms structures, e.g., glands. Most epithelia have basement membranes. The basement membrane is a specialized type of extracellular material. It is secreted by the epithelial cells and attaches the epithelium to the underlying tissues. Blood vessels do not penetrate the basement membrane to reach epithelium. Epithelia are classified according to the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells.

Connective tissue consists of cells separated from each other by nonliving extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix results from the activity of specialized connective tissue cells. Connective tissue is classified according to the type of protein and proportions of protein and fluid in the matrix. Connective tissue is subdivided into adipose tissue (fat), fibrous connective tissue, bone, and blood. Connective tissue forms the dermis of the skin, inner portion of the skin, bones, tendons, ligaments, the walls of large arteries, bone marrow, liver and others. Blood is somewhat unique among the connective tissues because the matrix between the cells is liquid. Thus, although the cells of most other connective tissues are more or less stationary within a relatively rigid matrix, blood cells are free to move within a fluid matrix.

Muscular tissue has the ability to contract. The three types of muscular tissue – skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle – are classified according to both structure and function. Skeletal (striated voluntary) muscles attach to bone and are responsible for body movement. Cardiac (striated involuntary) muscles are responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system. Smooth (nonstriated involuntary) muscles form the walls of hollow organs, the pupil of the eye, and other structures.

Nervoustissue is characterized by the ability to conduct electrical signals. It consists of neurons, or nerve cells, which are responsible for conductive ability, and support cells (neuroglia). Neuroglia (nerve glue) is the support cells of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

 

Ex. 12. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Прикріплювати, зв'язувати; визначати, давати визначення; епітелій; поверхня; тканина; нагнітати; спинний мозок; проводити; різноманітний, різнотиповий (різний); залоза; дерма; зв'язка; жорсткий, твердий; сполучна тканина; покривати; слизова оболонка.

 

Ex. 13. Translate the text "Tissues" into Ukrainian.

 

Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the tissue? 2. What types of tissue do you know? 3. What is the epithelium composed of? 4. What does the connective tissue consist of? 5. What groups is connective tissue subdivided into? 6. What types of muscular tissue are there? 7. What is the nervous tissue characterized by?

 

Ex. 15. Crossword:

  1.       t                
2.         i                
      3.   s                
        4. s                
    5.     u                
      6.   e                

 

1. One of the types of tissue, which can be simple, stratified, pseudostratified, and transitional.

2. Noncellular substance surrounding the cells of connective tissue.

3. Bone-forming cell.

4. One of the types of muscular tissue.

5. Cells in the nervous system other than neurons.

6. The fundamental unit of every living organism.

 

Ex. 16. Write out key words of the text "Tissues".

Ex. 17. Compose the plan to the text "Tissues".

Ex. 18. Speak on:

Epithelial tissue;

Connective tissue;

Muscular tissue;

Nervous tissue.

Ex. 19. Memorize the following terms:

Classification of Epithelium

Types of epithelium Shape of cells
Simple (single layer of cells) простий епітелій; тип епітелію, що складається з одного шару клітин Squamous ['skweImqs] Cuboidal ['kju:bOIdql] Columnar [kq'lAmnq]  
Stratified ['strxtIfaId] (more than one layer of cells) багатошаровий епітелій; епітелій, в якому клітини розміщені кількома шарами Squamous Cuboidal (very rare) Columnar (very rare)  
Pseudostratified (modification of simple epithelium) псевдобагатошаровий епітелій   Columnar  
Transitional (modification of stratified epithelium) перехідний епітелій, багатошаровий епітелій, кількість шарів у якому змінюється в залежності від функціонального стану органа Roughly cuboidal or many surfaced

NOTES:

stratifiedбагатошаровий stratified squamous лускатий squamousплоский cuboidalкубічний columnarстовпчастий transitionalперехідний; проміжний

 

Ex. 20. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. The major types of epithelia are simple and stratified squamous epithelia, simple and stratified cuboidal epithelia, simple, pseudostratified and stratified columnar epithelia, and transitional epithelium. 2. Simple epithelium generally is involved in diffusion, filtration, secretion, or absorption. 3. Squamous cells function in diffusion and filtration. 4. Cuboidal or columnar cells secrete or absorb. 5. Connective tissue cells are blast cells (form the matrix), cyte cells (maintain it), and clast cells (break it down for remodeling). 6. The cells' names end with suffixes according to the cells' functions as blasts [bla:sts], cytes [saIts], or clasts [klxsts]. For example, fibroblasts are cells that form fibrous connective tissue, and chondrocytes are cells that maintain cartilage (chondro- means cartilage). Osteoblasts form bone (osteo- means bone), osteocytes maintain it, and osteoclasts break it down.

Ex. 21. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Тканини – це спільність клітин і позаклітинної речовини. 2. В організмі людини виділяють чотири типи тканин: епітеліальну, сполучну, м’язову і нервову. 3. Епітеліальні клітини можуть бути плоскими, кубічними і стовпчастими, або циліндричними. 4. Простий стовпчастий епітелій вистилає внутрішню поверхню тонкої та товстої кишок та жовчного міхура. 5. Лускатий епітелій вистилає поверхню очеревини, плеври, осердя. 6. Простий плоский епітелій покриває зсередини кровоносні та лімфатичні судини. 7. Простий кубічний епітелій вистилає канальці (tubule) нирок та деякі бронхи.

 

Ex. 22. Read and memorize the following words:

hinder ['haIndq] перешкоджати, заважати damage ['dxmIG] пошкоджувати maintain [meIn'teIn] підтримувати, утримувати, зберігати capillary [kq'pIlqrI] капіляр alveolus (pl. alveoli) [xl'vIqlqs] альвеола, ячейка tubule ['tju:bul] судина, каналець cartilage ['katIlIG] хрящ nutrient ['nju:trIqnt] поживна речовина contract [kqn'trxkt] скорочуватися decrease [dIk'rI:s] зменшувати(ся), скорочувати(ся) urinary ['jurInqrI] сечовий process ['prqusqs] відросток, виріст integrate ['IntIgreIt] об’єднувати(ся) evaluate [I'vxljueIt] оцінювати data ['deItq] дані, відомості; інформація support[sq'pO:t] підтримувати permeable ['pq:mjebl] проникний, прохідний, негерметичний

 

Ex. 23. Read the following text and get ready to narrate it:

TISSUES AND ORGANS

Epithelial tissue is necessary for protection, diffusion, filtration, secretion, absorption and others. Simple epithelium with its single layer of cells is found in organs in which the principal functions are diffusion (lungs), filtration (kidneys), secretion (glands), or absorption (intestines). The selective movement of materials through epithelium would be hindered by a stratified epithelium, which is found in areas where protection is a major function. The multiple layers of cells in stratified epithelium are well adapted for a protective role. Damaged cells are replaced by cells from deeper layers and a continuous barrier of epithelial cells is maintained in the tissue. Stratified squamous epithelium is found in areas of the body where abrasion can occur such as the skin, mouth, throat, esophagus, and anus. Cells involved in diffusion and filtration are normally flat and thin. For example, simple squamous epithelium forms blood and lymph capillaries, the alveoli of the lungs, and parts of the kidney tubules.

Connective tissue is found in tendons, ligaments, cartilages, bones, dermis of skin, arteries, spleen and others. This tissue produces new blood cells, allows growth of long bones, connects different structures, provides great strength and support for bones, transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, nutrients, waste products and has some other functions.

Muscular tissue has the ability to contract. Muscles contract to move the entire body, to pump blood through the heart and blood vessels, and to decrease the size of hollow organs such as the stomach. Skeletal muscles represent a large portion of the human body's total weight. Skeletal muscle attaches to the skeleton and by contracting causes the major body movements. Cardiac muscle is the muscle of the heart. The contraction of the cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood. Smooth muscles are widespread throughout the body and are responsible for a wide range of functions such as movements in the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

Nervous tissue conducts impulses all over the body. Nerve cells, or neurons, located in the brain, spinal cord, and cell processes, conduct not only impulses and store "information", and in some ways integrate and evaluate data. Neuroglia support neurons and form a selectively permeable barrier between neurons and other cell types.

 

Ex. 24. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the function of epithelial tissue? 2. Where is connective tissue located? 3. What is the function of connective tissue? 4. What is cardiac muscle? 5. Where are nervous cells located? 6. What is the function of nervous tissue?

Ex. 25. Read the data of the following table and speak on the location and functions of different tissues:



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