Ex. 18. Do you agree, disagree or partially agree with the statements below? 

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Ex. 18. Do you agree, disagree or partially agree with the statements below?

1. The right atrium moves the blood into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. 2. The duration of the cardiac cycle doesn’t vary among humans. 3. The pumping action moves the blood from the lungs to the left atrium. 4. The left ventricle pumps the blood into the left ventricle through the mitral valve. 5. The cardiac cycle is the contraction and relaxation of the muscles of the abdominal wall. 6. The term systole means to contract, and diastole means to separate.


Ex. 19. Translate into English the following sentences:

Праве передсердя переміщує кров у правий шлуночок через двостулковий клапан. Правий шлуночок через клапан легеневого стовбура|ствола| нагнітає кров до легень. Тут кров насичується|насичує| киснем. Від легенів кров тече|теча| до лівого передсердя, яке нагнітає кров у лівий шлуночок. З лівого шлуночку кров потрапляє|попадає| в аорту, яка переносить кров до мозку, внутрішніх органів, кінцівок|скінченностей|.

Скорочення міокарду передсердя називається систолою передсердя, розширення міокарду передсердя – це діастола передсердя. Систола шлуночків – це скорочення міокарду шлуночку, а діастола – розширення міокарду шлуночків. У людей тривалість серцевого|сердечного| циклу різна. Вона може тривати від 0,3 секунди до 1 секунди або довше. Проте|однак| зазвичай|звично| тривалість серцевого|сердечного| циклу складає 0,7 або 0,8 секунд. Патологія серцевого|сердечного| м'яза або клапана може призвести до порушення серцевого|сердечного| циклу.


Ex. 20. Complete the following dialogues:


- Where is the blood entering the right side of the heart retuning from?

- _ (tissues).

- What has the blood entering the right side of the heart been delivered by?

- _ (veins).

- What is the right atrium?

- _ (the receiving chamber).

- What atrium is the low-pressure pump?

- _ (the right ventricle).

- What atrium moves the blood into the right ventricle?

- _ (the right ventricle).

- What valve does the right atrium move the blood into the right ventricle through?

- _ (the bicuspid valve).



- _?

- The pumping action moves the blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

- _?

- The left atrium pumps the blood into the left ventricle.

- _?

- The left atrium pumps the blood into the left ventricle through the mitral valve.

- _?

- The left ventricle sends the oxygen-enriched blood into the aorta.

- _?

- Aorta is the principal artery of the human body that subdivides and delivers the blood to the body’s tissues, including the brain, organs, and extremities.

Ex. 21. Compose the similar dialogues.

Ex. 22. Memorize the following words and word combinations:

Sharp pain гострий біль; rheumatism['ru:mqtIzm] ревматизм; stitch pain колющий біль;to ascend staircase підійматися сходами; to tire стомлюватися; disturbance порушення.


Ex. 23. Read and translate the following dialogue:


Cardiologist:What do you complain of?

Patient: My heart often troubles me.

C.: Of what character is the pain? Is your pain cutting or dull?

P.: I have a stitch pain in my heart.

C.: Do you have any difficulty in breathing?

P.: Yes, I do. I have breathlessness when ascending a staircase or walking quickly.

C.:What else troubles you?

P.: My temperature is not constant. It is rising by the evening. I often have a general malaise and get tired after some physical exertion.

C.: When did you notice these disturbances? When have the pains in your heart become constant?

P.: These disturbances appeared some years ago. My pains have become constant this year.

C.: What diseases did you suffer from in the past?

P.: In my childhood I often had quinsy but then my tonsils were removed. During some years ago I am ill with rheumatism.

C.: Do you have a pain in your joints?

P.: Yes, I do. My hands and legs become periodically swollen and painful.

C.: Were you treated at a hospital?

P.: Yes, I was. Last year I was hospitalized and treated at the hospital. My diagnosis was rheumatism.

C.: Did you have any improvement after the treatment in the hospital?

P.: Yes, I did. Last summer I was treated at the sanatorium too and I felt well.

C.: Now strip to the waist, please. I'll examine you.

(After examination)

C.: You are seriously ill. Your main disease is rheumatism and that's why you must periodically be treated at a hospital. But at present you have to make electrocardiogram and to come to me. I'll administer you the treatment for your heart. I advise you to avoid intensive physical exertion. You should not be tired. Your diet has to be nourishing and containing many vitamins but it is limit in salt. Walk in the fresh air as much as possible.

Ex. 24. Reproduce the similar dialogue.


The blood entering the right side of the heart returns from the tissues and has been deliv­ered by the veins. The receiving chamber is the right atrium. It pumps the oxygen-poor blood through the pulmonic valve into the lungs, where the blood gives up the carbon dioxide and is absorbing oxygen. The pump­ing action moves the blood from the lungs to the left atrium, which pumps the blood into the left ventricle. The left ventricle sends the oxygen-enriched blood into the aorta, which delivers the blood to the body's tissues, including the brain, organs, and extremities. The cardiac cycle is repetitive contraction and relaxation of the heart chambers. The normal cardiac cycle (0.7 to 0.8 second) depends on the capability of cardiac muscle to contract and on the functional integrity of the conducting system.





І. Insert missing words:

1. _ is an enlarged segment of the digestive tract in the left superior portion of the abdomen.

A. stomach

B. esophagus

C. kidney

2. Each person has a particular combination of _ in his/her blood.

A. tissues

B. substances

C. atria

3. Leukemia causes the formation of large amount of _ white blood cells.

A. effective

B. normal

C. abnormal

4. The heart is an inner hollow _ organ placed within the chest.

A. accessory

B. ventricular

C. muscular

5. The bones of the skull consist of _ and facial parts.

A. lumbar

B. thoracic

C. cranial

6. The patient with the signs of atherosclerosis must _ not less than 7-8 hours.

A. run

B. sleep

C. eat

7. The most important _ of chronic gastritis are alcohol, inadequate food, and a bad diet regimen.

A. manifestations

B. causes

C. symptoms


II. Insert the correct form of the verb:

1. Once the digestive products have been absorbed, they _ to the other parts of the body.

A. are transported

B. is transported

C. transport

2. Erythrocytes _ in the bone marrow and are important in that they transport oxygen from the lungs.

A. has been made

B. are made

C. is making

3. The muscles _ of the muscular fibers and contain blood vessels and nerves.

A. was consisted

B. consist

C. are consisted

4. The contractions of the heart _ the blood through the arteries to all parts of the body.

A. has pumped

B. was pumped

C. pump

5. The heart consists of two separate chambers _ by the septum.

A. are dividing

B. divide

C. divided

6. Tears occur when the covering skin _ beyond the limits of its elasticity.

A. is pulled

B. are pulled

C. have been pulled


III. Translate the following sentences:

1. The lower limb is very similar to that of the upper limb, except the pelvic girdle.

2. When the pressure in the right atrium has increased the blood passes into the right ventricle.

3. When the patient is hospitalized his/her activities will be limited and carefully monitored by the hospital staff.

4. In the majority of cases the ulcer develops in particularly nervous persons, often after emotional stress.

5. Vitamins are widely used in the treatment of atherosclerosis because some of them improve the metabolic processes and dilate the vessels.

6. Smooth muscle is in the walls of the hollow organs and tubes, in the internal parts of the eyes, and in the walls of blood vessels.

7. The characteristic clinical manifestations of gastritis are an increased secretion of mucus and diminished secretion of acid and pepsin.

IV. Read and translate one of the following texts:

Text A

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