Ex. 19. Compose the dialogue on the structure and functions of the liver. 

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Ex. 19. Compose the dialogue on the structure and functions of the liver.

Ex. 20. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Печінка – найбільша залоза тіла людини. 2. Її маса у дорослих дорівнює в середньому 1500 г. 3. Вона розташована у верхній частині черевної порожнини. 4. З воріт печінки, крім жовчних проток, виходять лімфатичні судини. 5. Печінка, як залоза травної системи виконує екскреторну функцію – виробляє жовч. 6. У дорослої людини протягом доби печінка продукує 700-800 см3 жовчі. 7. Печінці властива також бар’єрна функція. 8. Печінка бере участь в усіх видах обміну речовин: водному, білковому, вуглеводному та мінеральному. 9. Печінка виконує також гормональну функцію.


The liver is the largest internal gland of the body. It is in the upper right part of the abdomen. The liver consists of two major lobes and minor lobes. A porta is the place of the liver where the various vessels, ducts, and nerves enter and exit the liver. The hepatic portal vein, the hepatic artery, and a small hepatic nerve plexus enter the liver through the porta. The hepatic ducts transport bile out of the liver. The right and left hepatic ducts unite to form a single common hepatic duct. The functions of the liver are the following: bile production, stimulation of red bone marrow, storage of iron and copper, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, heat production, and detoxification.




volume['vOljum] обсяг, об’єм matrix['meItrIks] матрикс, міжклітинний матеріал average['xvqrIG] середній; звичайний approximately[q'prOksImItlI] приблизно fluid[fluId] рідина plasma ['plxzmq] плазма erythrocyte[I'rITrosaIt] еритроцит corpuscle['kO:pAsl] часточка, корпускула, тільце, елемент крові thrombocyte['TrOmbousaIt] тромбоцит platelet['pleItlqt] тромбоцит, кров’яна пластинка leukocyte (leucocyte)['lju:kqusaIt] лейкоцит pale[peIl] блідий protein['prqutI:n] білок albumin['xlbjumIn] альбумін globulin['glObjulIn] глобулін fibrinogen[faI'brInoGqn] фібриноген clot[klOt] згусток крові, тромб suspend [sqs'pend] підвішувати; висіти remove [rI'mu:v] видаляти serum['sIqrqm] сироватка nutrient['nju:trIqnt] поживна речовина waste[weIst] непотрібний, непридатний, некорисний enzyme['enzaIm] фермент maintenance['meIntqnqns] підтримка, збереження



Ex. 1. Familiarize yourself with the following material:

Suffix of Adverbs:


quick швидкий – quickly швидко

slow повільний –slowly повільно


Ex. 2. Read and translate the following words:

Greatly; normally; partly; daily; really; weekly; primarily; usually; approximately; mainly; principally; structurally.



Ex. 3. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:


(Passive Voice, Interrogative Form)

Tense Questioning word Auxiliary verb Subject Predicate (Form of the Verb) Example
Present Perfect Tense, Passive Voice   What   Why   Where   How many   How much have has I, you, we they   he, she, it been + V3 (been studied, been written) Has the text been translated today?
Past Perfect Tense, Passive Voice had I, he, she, it, you, we, they been + V3 (been studied, been written) Where hadthe patient been examined?
Future Perfect Tense, Passive Voice shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they have + been + V3 (have been studied, have been written) When will the hospital have been modernized?


Ex. 4. Read and translate the following interrogative sentences:

1. Have the proteins that produce clots been removed from the plasma? 2. Will the structure of leukocytes have been described in your article? 3. Had the number of erythrocytes been counted by 3 o’clock? 4. How has the amount of radiation used for routine X-ray examinations been reduced? 5. Why has the bronchodilator drug been administered to the patient?

Ex. 5. Make the following sentences interrogative:

1. Cell fragments have been grouped into three major categories. 2. The blood has been distributed to the different organs of the body. 3. Large amounts of blood have been needed for kidneys and brain. 4. Food materials will have been absorbed by the small intestine. 5. The nourishment had been received by the duodenal glands by the end of operation. 6. Platelets have been produced within the marrow.




Ex. 6. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.


Ex. 7. Insert the missing letters:

Mainten_nce; leu_ocyte; er_throcyte; enz_me; s_rum; plasm_; _lot; ma_or; fibr_nogen; mi_roorganism; infec_ion.

Ex. 8. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Connective tissue; corpuscle; pale yellow fluid; clot-producing; platelet; fluid matrix; remaining fluid; average adult; however; waste products; maintenance; suspended molecules; to protect against; remove; site of infection; slightly; more than half; body’s total weight.


Ex. 9. Read the following words enunciating them clearly:

Total blood volume; approximately; to be classified; corpuscles; platelet; hormone; enzyme; leukocyte; thrombocyte; erythrocyte; plasma; dissolved component; nutrient; maintenance; formed elements; major category.

Ex. 10. Read the following text:


Blood is classified as a connective tissue, consisting of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a liquid matrix. The total blood volume in the average adult is approximately 4 to 5 L in females and 5 to 6 L in males. Blood makes up approximately 8% of the body's total weight.

The cells and cell fragments are the formed elements, and the fluid matrix is the plasma. The formed elements of the blood include several types of highly specialized cells and cell fragments. They are grouped into three major categories. Approximately 95% of the volume of the formed elements consists of erythrocytes (red blood cells or corpuscles). The remaining 5% consists of leukocytes (white blood cells or corpuscles) and platelets (cell fragments), which are also called thrombocytes.

Plasma is a pale yellow fluid accounting for slightly more than half the total blood volume and consisting of approximately 92% water and 8% dissolved or suspended molecules. Plasma contains proteins such as albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen. When the proteins that produce clots are removed from the plasma, the remaining fluid is called serum. In addition to the suspended molecules, plasma also contains a number of dissolved components such as salts, nutrients, gases, waste products, hormones, and enzymes. Water enters the plasma from the digestive tract, from interstitial fluids, and as a by-product of metabolism. Excess water is remived from the plasma through the kidneys, lungs, intestinal tract, and skin. Solutes in the plasma come from several sources such as the liver, kidneys, intestines, endocrine glands, and immune tissues such as the spleen.

The functions of the blood can be placed into the categories of transportation, maintenance, and protection. Blood transports gases, nutrients, waste products, and hormones. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis and the maintenance of pH, body temperature, fluid balance, and electrolyte level. Blood protects against diseases and blood loss.


Ex. 11. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Розчинені компоненти; вага тіла людини; загальнй об’єм крові; утворювати згустки; міжклітинний матеріал; ферменти; сироватка; складатися з; включати кілька типів; поділятися на; червоні кров’яні тільця; кров’яні пластинки; білі кров’яні тільця; поживні речовини; транспортувальна функція; захисна функція; білки; видаляти.


Ex. 12. Translate the text “Blood” into Ukrainian.

Ex. 13. Complete the following sentences:

1. Blood is a type of _ tissue whose cells are suspended in a liquid intracellular material. 2. Blood consists of a liquid portion called _ and a solid portion. 3. This portion also named as the cellular fraction includes _, _, _. 4. _ are essential for the clotting of blood. 5. _ are the most numerous blood cells. 6. The blood plays an important role in _ homeostasis.

Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:

1. What type of tissue is the blood? 2. What is the total blood volume in an average adult? 3.What does the blood consist of? 4. What is the plasma? 5. What does the plasma contain? 6. What is blood serum? 7. What major categories are the formed elements grouped into? 8. What blood cells are the most numerous? 9. What are the major functions of the blood?


Ex. 15. Read the following terms and try to match them with the Ukrainian equivalents. Memorize the meaning of the term-element “h(a)emo-” from Greek “blood”.

Hemoglobin, hemoconcentration, hemorrhage, hemocyte, hemocytometer, hemodiagnosis, hemogram, hemology, hemomediastinum, hemopathy, hemophobia, hemodynamics.


Крововилив, кровотеча; гематологія; гемодинаміка; гемофобія (патологічна боязнь кровотечі чи виду крові); гемопатія; гемоглобін; гемоцитометр; гемодіагностика (діагноз, що ґрунтується на вивченні крові); гемограма (формула крові); витікання крові у середостіння; гемоконцентрація (згущення крові); клітина крові.

Ex. 16. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Biconcave подвійноввігнутий; spherical кулястий, сферичний; stain забарвлення; release вивільняти; histamine гістамін; promote сприяти, допомагати, підтримувати; inflammation запалення; heparin гепарин; prevent попереджувати, запобігати; worm черв’як; parasite паразит; de­bris [‘debrI:] залишки органічних речовин; plug пробка.


Ex. 17. Read the information the table represents. Having familiarized yourself with the table, compose the information on the blood, types of blood cells and their functions, using the given data. Draw up the plan and key words to each its item.

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