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The musculoskeletal system consists of the bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Fractures, dislocations, sprains, and strains are injuries that occur to the musculoskeletal system.


Fractures are breaks or cracks in bones. They are defined as either closed or open. Closed fractures leave the skin unbroken. They are more common than open fractures. An open fracture involves an open wound. Open fractures are more serious than closed fractures because of the risks of infection and severe bleeding. Fracture of a large bone can cause severe shock because bones and soft tissue may bleed heavily.

Fractures can be accompanied by internal injuries. For example, victims with fractured ribs can also have injuries to the lungs, kidneys, or liver.

Fractures can be caused by motor-vehicle accidents, falls, blows, sports injuries, or bone diseases.


A dislocation is an injury in which a bone is displaced from its normal position at a joint. A dislocation may involve damage to the ligaments around the joints.

Dislocations can be caused by falls, sports injuries, motor-vehicle accidents, underlying disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis) and others.


A sprain is the partial or complete tearing of ligaments and other tissues at a joint. The more ligaments are torn, the more severe the injury. Sprain most commonly occurs in joints of the ankles and knees.

Like dislocations, sprains can be caused by falls, sports injuries, and motor-vehicle accidents.


A strain is a stretching and tearing of muscle or tendon fibers. It is sometimes called a "muscle pull" or "tear".

Strains are often caused by lifting something too heavy. They often occur in the neck or back. Strains of the neck or lower back can be very painful.

The signs of fractures, dislocations, sprains, and strains

The signs of these injuries are very similar. Five common signs of musculoskeletal injuries are pain, swelling, deformity, bruising of the skin, and inability to use the affected part normally.


Ex. 6. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Поперек; розірваний; розрив, порушення цілісності структури; зв’язка; припухлість; розтягнення; пошкодження, забиття; внутрішній; тріщина, щілина; супроводжувати; спричиняти; кровотеча; перелом; сухожилля.


Ex. 7. Translate the text "Fractures, Dislocations, Sprains, and Strains” into Ukrainian.


Ex. 8. Answer the questions:

1. What does the musculoskeletal system consist of? 2. What are fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains? 3. Give the definition to the medical term "fracture". 4. What kinds of fractures do you know? 5. What are the causes of fractures? 6. What is a dislocation? 7. What are the common causes of dislocations? 8. What do you know about sprains? 9. Define the term "strain". 10. What are the causes of strains? 11. What are the common signs of fractures and dislocations?


Ex. 9. Organize the information of the text "Fractures, Dislocations, Sprains, and Strains" in the table:


  Definition Causes Signs


Ex. 10. Characterize the following:

a) fracture;

b) dislocation;

c) sprain;

d) strain.


Ex. 11. What types of dislocations and fractures do you know? Can you explain the meaning of the following terms:

Types of Fractures

Ex. 12. Open fractures break through the skin. Simple fractures do not. Simple fractures are classified according to the way the bone breaks. Several varieties of the simple fractures are included in the illustration above. Speak on them.

Ex. 13. Read and retell the text:


In identifying types of fractures, your physician may use some of the terms explained or illustrated below.

Open fracture: The broken bone protrudes from the skin. This may allow entry of bacteria from the environment, which increases the risk of infection.

Simple fracture: A fracture in which the broken bone does not protrude through the skin.

Complete fracture: Fracture in which the bone snaps into two or more parts.

Incomplete fracture: The break is limited to a crack (the bone is not separated into two parts).

Impacted fracture: One fragment of bone is embedded into another fragment of bone.

Pathological fracture: A bone breaks in a person with bones weakened by disease. Bone cancer or bone disorder such as osteoporosis can result in weakened bones that fractures spontaneously or when only minor stresses are exerted on them. Such breaks are termed pathologic fractures because a principal cause is an underlying disease.


Ex. 14. Read the following text and speak on the purposes of splinting and the basic principles of splinting:


Sometimes it is difficult to tell whether an injury is a fracture, dislocation, sprain, or strain.

Splinting Since you cannot be sure which of these a victim might have, always care for it as a fracture. If ambulance car is on the way, do not move the victim. Control any bleeding first. Care for shock, and monitor Airway Breathing Circulation (ABCs). If you are going to transport the victim to a medical facility, follow this general rule: "When in doubt, splint." Splinting is a process of immobilizing a suspected fracture. Materials that can immobilize a fractured bone and the joints above and below it can be used to splint. (Examples are rolled-up newspapers, magazines, and pieces of wood.) Commercial splints are also available. The purposes of splinting are – • To immobilize a possibly fractured part of the body. • To lessen pain. • To prevent further damage to soft tissues. • To reduce the risk of serious bleeding. • To reduce the possibility of loss of circulation in the injured part. • To prevent closed fractures from becoming open fractures. The basic principles of splinting are –

• Splint only if you can do it without causing more pain and discomfort to the victim.

• Splint an injury in the position you find it.

• Apply the splint so that it immobilizes the fractured bone and the joints above and below the fracture.

• Check circulation before and after splinting.

If there are no splinting supplies available, splint the broken part of the body to another part. For example, a broken arm can be splinted to the chest. A fractured leg can be splinted to the other, uninjured leg.

If the injury is a closed fracture, dislocation, sprain, or strain, apply a cold pack. Do not apply a cold pack to an open fracture. This would require you to put pressure on the wound and may cause discomfort to the victim.

Next, elevate the injured area. Do not attempt to elevate a part you suspect is fractured until it has been splinted.

For any of these injuries, care for shock and monitor ABCs.

Ex. 15. Translate the following sentences into English:

Перелом – це пошкодження кістки або хряща кістки.Переломи поділяються на відкриті та закриті. Перелом кістки може викликати сильну кровотечу або шок. При переломі ребер можуть бути пошкоджені внутрішні органи людини, наприклад, легені, нирки, селезінка або печінка. Кажуть, що вивих менш небезпечний у порівнянні з переломом. Я з цим не погоджуюсь. При багатьох вивихах виникають серйозні ускладнення. Основні причини переломів та вивихів – це травми, отримані в результаті дорожньо-транспортних пригод.

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