Functions and Location of Tissues. 


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Functions and Location of Tissues.



Tissue Location
Epithelial tissue  
Simple squmous epithelium Blood and lymph capillaries, alveoli of lungs, the inner part of the eardrum, smallest ducts of glands
Simple cuboidal epithelium Part of kidney tubule, many glands, pancreatic duct, inside lining of eye, ducts of glands
Simple columnar epithelium Stomach, small intestine, large intestine, uterus, bronchioles of lungs, auditory tubes, bile duct, gallbladder, ducts of glands
Stratified squmous epithelium Skin, mouth and throat, epiglottis, larynx, esophagus, anus, vagina
Stratified cuboidal epithelium Sweat gland ducts
Stratified columnar epithelium Mammary gland ducts
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Larynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, nasopharynx, trachea, salivary gland ducts
Transitional epithelium Urinary bladder
Connective tissue  
Loose (alveolar) connective tissue Muscles, nerves
Dense regular connective tissue Tendons, ligaments between the vertebrae
Dense irregular connective tissue Dermis of the skin, elastic arteries
Adipose tissue Subcutaneous areas, renal pelvis, around kidneys
Bone marrow Within marrow cavities of bone; yellow marrow in the shafts of long bones and red marrow in the ends of long bones and in short, flat, and irregularly shaped bones.
Muscular tissue  
Skeletal muscle Attached to bones
Cardiac muscle Heart
Smooth muscle Walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, eyes, glands, skin
Nervous tissue Neuron   Neuroglia   In the brain, spinal cord. Cell processes are located in all parts of the body. In the brain, spinal cord, ganglia, nerves

 

OVERVIEW

Cells are grouped into tissues. The four basic tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue. Epithelium consists of cells that have very little extracellular material between them. Epithelium covers surfaces, e.g., the outside of the body and the lining of the digestive tract, the vessels and many body cavities. Connective tissue consists of cells separated from each other by nonliving extracellular matrix. Connective tissue is classified according to the type of protein and proportions of protein and fluid in the matrix. Connective tissue is subdivided into adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, bone, and blood. Connective tissue forms the dermis of the skin, inner portion of the skin, bones, tendons, ligaments, the walls of large arteries, bone marrow, liver and others. Muscular tissue has the ability to contract. The three types of muscular tissue – skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle – are classified according to both structure and function. Nervous tissue is characterized by the ability to conduct electrical signals. It consists of neurons, or nerve cells, which are responsible for conductive ability, and support cells (neuroglia).

 

 

LESSON 20

(additional)

SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN BODY

VOCABULARY

integumentary[In:tIgju'mentqrI] покривний cardiovascular['ka:dIqu'vxskjulq] серцево-судинний respiratory[rIs'paIqrqt(q)rI] дихальний digestive[dI'GestIv] травний urinary['juqrInqrI] сечовий sweat[swet] потовий posture['pOsCq] постава heat[hI:t] теплота nervous['nq:vqs] нервовий receptor[rI'septq] рецептор major['meIGq] головний intellectual[IntI'lektjuql] розумовий endocrine['endqukraIn] ендокринний participate[pa'tIsIpeIt] брати участь nutrient['njutrIqnt] поживна речовина hormone['hO:mqun] гормон combat['kOmbqt] боротися oxygen['OksIGqn] кисень carbon dioxide['ka:bqn daI'OksaId] вуглекислий газ elimination[I"lImI'neISn] видалення, виведення wastes products[weIsts] продукти відходів ion['aIqn] іон balance['bxlqns] рівновага gonad['gOnxd] статева залоза genitals['GenItlz] статеві органи accessory[qk'sesqrI] додатковий, допоміжний passage ['pxsIG] прохід, протока

 

READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING

 

Ex. 1. Insert the missing letters:

Elim_nation; horm_ne; ox_gen; n_trient; carbon dio_ide; parti_ipate; endo_rine; ne_vous; swe_t; di_estive, hea_t; l_ng; bl_od.

 

Ex. 2. Match the medical terms and their translation:

1. integumentary 2. skeletal 3. muscular 4. nervous 5. endocrine 6. cardiovascular 7. lymphatic 8. respiratory 9. digestive 10. urinary 11. reproductive 1. дихальний 2. сечовий 3. покривний 4. статевий 5. м’язовий 6. скелетний 7. ендокринний 8. лімфатичний 9. нервовий 10. травний 11. серцево-судинний

 

Ex. 3. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Combine; subdivide; peripheral nervous system; major organ systems; respiratory; digestive; integumentary; sweat gland; protect; gonad; circulatory system; kidney; urinary bladder; urine; remove; esophagus; stomach; small and large intestines; digestion; nutrient; foreign substances; sensory receptors; allow body movements.

 

Ex. 4. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Regulate temperature; prevent; cartilage; muscle; maintain posture; body heat; spinal cord; receive; metabolism; reproduction; pump; blood; throughout; remove; balance; respiratory passage; carbon dioxide; stomach; chemical process.

 

Ex. 5. Read the following text:

ORGAN SYSTEMS

An organ system is a group of organs classified as a unit because of a common function or set of functions. The classification of organ systems is somewhat arbitrary. For example, the muscular and skeletal systems can be combined as the musculoskeletal system, or the nervous system can be subdivided into the peripheral and central nervous systems.

The human organism is divided into the following major organ systems: the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

The integumentary system consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. This system protects, regulates temperature, and prevents water loss.

The skeletal system includes bones, ligaments, cartilages, and joints. It protects internal organs, supports, and allows body movement, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.

The muscular system consists of muscles attached to the skeleton. This system allows body movement, maintains posture, and produces body heat.

The nervous system includes brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. It is a complex information system. It receives, processes and communicates information.

The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands. This system participates in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, and controlling a large number of activities.

The cardiovascular system includes heart, blood vessels, and blood, which is pumped through the blood vessels by the heart. It transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the regulation of body temperature.

The lymphatic system consists of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymph organs. This system removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats.

The respiratory system includes lungs and respiratory passages. It exchanges gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the blood and the air and regulates blood pH.

The digestive system consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory structures. This system performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes.

The urinary system includes kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine. It removes waste products from the circulatory system; regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance.

The reproductive system consists of gonads, accessory structures, and genitals of males and females. This system performs the processes of reproduction and controls sexual functions.

 

Ex. 6. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Додатковий, допоміжний; покривний; нервовий; серцево-судинний; дихальний; травний; м’язовий; скелетний; сечовий; потовий; шкіра; запобігати втраті води; головний; кістка; суглоб; хрящ; зв’язка; розумовий; ендокринний; підтримувати поставу; мозок; чутливий рецептор; спинний мозок; брати участь; поживна речовина; серце; кров’яні судини; нагнітати; гормон; боротися; стороння речовина; нирки; сечовий міхур; протока; кисень; вуглекислий газ; видалення.

 

Ex. 7. Translate text "Organ Systems" into Ukrainian.

 

Ex. 8. Describe the systems of the body using the data of the following table:

MODEL :

The _system consists of / includes _ (major components).

This system _ (functions).

  SYSTEM   MAJOR COMPONENTS FUNCTIONS
  Integumentary system   Skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands Protects, regulates temperature, prevents water loss
  Skeletal system      
  ribs   pelvis     tibia   fibula skull clavicle   sternum humerus vertebral column radius ulna   femur Bones, associated cartilages, and joints Protects, supports, and allows body movement, produces blood cells, and stores minerals
  Muscular system        
  temporalis masseter   sternocleidomastoid         pectoralis major   biceps   rectus abdominus   sartorius   quadriceps   gastrocnemus Muscles attached to the skeleton Allows body movement, maintains posture, and produces body heat
  Nervous system   brain   spinal cord Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors Detects sensation, controls movements, controls physiological and intellectual functions
  Endocrine system      
parathyroids (behind thyroid)   pituitary thyroid thymus adrenals   pancreas ovaries (in females) testis (in males) Endocrine glands such as the pi­tuitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands Participates in the regulation of metabolism, reproduction, and many other functions
  Cardiovascular system      
    carotid artery jugular vein   brachial artery     superior vena cava pulmonary artery   heart aorta inferior vena cava     femoral artery and vein   Heart, blood vessels, and blood Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature
  Lymphatic system      
  right lymphatic duct     thoracic duct   thymus gland   spleen     lymph node Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymph organs Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats
  Respiratory system      
  pharynx trachea     nasal cavity oral cavity larynx bronchus lungs Lungs and respiratory passages   Exchanges gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the blood and the air and regulates blood pH
  Digestive system      
pharynx     gallbladder   large intestine   rectum   salivary gland   esophagus   liver stomach small intestine Mouth, esophagus, stomach, in­testines, and accessory struc­tures   Performs the mechanical and chemical pro­cesses of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes  
  Urinary system      
    urethra   kidney ureter   bladder   Kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine Removes waste products from the circulatory system; regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance
  Reproductive system      
ductus deferens   epididymis   seminal vesicle prostate gland testis penis uterine tube ovary uterus vagina Gonads, accessory structures, and genitals of males and fe­males Performs the processes of reproduction and controls sexual functions and behaviors

Ex. 9. Answer the following questions:

1. What systems does the human body consist of? 2. What are the major components of the integumentary system? 3. What are the major components of the skeletal system? 4. What does the muscular system consist of? 5. What are the major components of the nervous system? 6. What does the endocrine system consist of? 7. What are the major components of the cardiovascular system? 8. What does the lymphatic system consist of? 9. What are the major components of the respiratory system? 10. What are the major components of the digestive system? 11. What are the major components of the urinary system? 12. What does the reproductive system consist of? 13. What is the function of the integumentary system? 14. What is the function of the skeletal-muscular system? 15. What is the function of the cardiovascular system? 16. What is the function of the reproductive system? 17. What is the function of the digestive system? 18. What is the function of the endocrine system? 19. What is the function of the urinary system? 20. What is the function of the reproductive system?

Ex. 10. Insert the missing words:

1. The body is divided into 11 major organ systems: integumentary, _, muscular, nervous, endocrine, _, lymphatic, respiratory, _, urinary, and reproductive systems. 2. The skeletal system includes bones, associated _, and joints. 3. It protects, _, and allows body movement. 4. The muscular system consists of _. 5. This system allows body _. 6. The cardiovascular system includes heart, blood _, and blood. 7. It transports _.

 

 

Ex. 11. Make up the sentences using the following words and word-combinations:

1. The nervous system / brain / and / includes / spinal cord /nerves. 2. It / physiological / intellectual functions / controls / and. 3. Includes / respiratory passages / the respiratory system / lungs / and. 4. Between / it / exchanges / the blood / gases / and / the air. 5. Intestines / the digestive / mouth / system / consists of / esophagus / and / stomach. 6. Chemical / this / system / digestion / the mechanical / and / performs / processes / of.

 

Ex. 12. Write out key sentences of the text "Organ Systems".

Ex. 13. Compose the plan to the text "Organ Systems".



Поделиться:


Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-18; просмотров: 291; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 44.221.70.232 (0.023 с.)