Put the following into indirect speech. In most cases the person addressed must be supplied. 

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Put the following into indirect speech. In most cases the person addressed must be supplied.

1) "Take me up to the 33rd floor," he said to the liftman.

2) "Would you turn the car engine off, please?" he asked.

3) "Show the boarding card to the man at the foot of the gangway," said the clerk.

4) "Sit down and tell me what is worrying you," he said to her.

5) "Don't drive too close to the car in front," said the driving instructor.

6) "Will you help me to move the piano, please?" said my aunt.

7) "Read the questions twice," said the teacher

8) "Wait for me at the bridge," said the young man.

9) "Don't forget to put your name at the top of the page," he said.

10) "Could you please ring back in half an hour?" said the secretary.

21. Report the following sentences.

1) “Don’t look at people like that!” - She told me.....

2) “I have never used bad language before.” - He claimed.....

3) “I won’t pay back all my debts in ten years.” - My father said.....

4) “Read the instructions carefully before beginning the test.” - The teacher told the class.....

5) “We decided to take longer holidays than last year.” - She said.....

6) “I’m not going to let you ruin your life.” - My mum announced.....

7) “Don’t drive over 50 mph on this road.” - The police officer ordered the careless driver.....

8) “And I want to stay here for two months.” - She added.....

9) “Could you give me a hand with the cleaning, please?” - My sister asked me...

10) “I was arguing with my boyfriend until 11 o’clock at night.” - Barbara admitted.....

Put the following into indirect speech making the necessary changes.

1) "I've been in London for a month but so far I haven't had time to visit the Tower," said Rupert.

2) "I'll come with you as soon as I'm ready," she replied.

3) "You haven't given me quite enough. The bill is for $14 and you've paid me only $13," he pointed out.

4) "We like working on Sundays because we get double pay," explained the builder.

5) He said, "I've spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the machine."

6) "Yesterday Tom and I went to look at a house that he was thinking of buying," said Celia.

7) "I wrote to him a few days ago. I wonder why he hasn't rung up," she said.

8) "I can't get into the house because I have lost my key," he said.

9) "I found an old Roman coin in the garden yesterday," he said," and I'm going to take it to the museum this afternoon."

10) "If it rains this afternoon it'll be too wet to play the match tomorrow," said the captain.

Translate into English.

1) Усі були впевнені, що Анна успішно складе іспит.

2) Роберт сказав матері, що він запросив на пікнік своїх друзів.

3) Учитель сказав Тому, що йому доведеться робити доповідь у суботу.

4) Марія сказала, що читає цікавий детектив.

5) Вона сказала,що за два дні до того зустрічалася з ним на виставці.

6) Він каже, що приїде увечері.

7) Вона попросила професора перевірити її курсовий проект.

8) Містер Браун запитав нас, чи хочемо ми переглянути новий фільм.

9) Лікар сказав йому кинути курити.

10) Секретар запитала, до якого часу я завершу переклад статті.



Unit 19 Farming in the 21st Century
  Vocabulary in Use Biotechnology for Plants, Animals, and the Environment Agriculture and Science for the Twenty-First Century Language Focus Infinitive. Forms and Functions

Vocabulary In Use

1. Find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right-hand column for the following:

1) parent plant 2) human genome 3) nutritional needs 4) cutting-edge research 5) advantageous characteristics 6) genetic engineering 7) common concern a) геном людини b) сучасні дослідження c) вихідна (батьківська) рослина d) корисні властивості e) генна інженерія f) спільна турбота g) харчові потреби


Match the words to their definitions and give their Ukrainian equivalents.

1) biotechnology 2) crossbreeding s) offspring 4) trait 5) nutrient   a) a characteristic feature or quality b) the branch of technology that utilizes living organisms or biological systems to modify humans and their environment c) any substance that nourishes an organism d) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids e) a person’s child or an animal’s baby


3. Match the adjectives with similar meanings:

1) resistant 2) vulnerable 3) beneficial 4) harmful 5) nutritious 6) available a) defenceless b) advantageous c) accessible d) bad e) firm f) nourishing

Match the beginning of the sentence in A with its ending in B.


1) The use of biotechnology techniques in agriculture is known as …

2) Humans have been making use of biotechnology …

3) The most primitive examples of biotechnology include …

4) Animal breeding is also …

5) A major part of agriculture research involves …

6) Biotechnology can also improve …


a) … the breeding of dogs and using yeast to make bread rise.

b) … a form of biotechnology.

c) … agricultural biotechnology.

d) … the nutritional value of food and improve it's appearance and taste.

e) … since they discovered farming.

f) … transforming the genetic structure of the crops.


READING AND speaking

Read the following text.

Biotechnology for Plants, Animals, and the Environment

Along with the multitude of different farming techniques, another issue that affects farmers is biotechnology. As producing food efficiently becomes more critical, scientists and farmers have turned to the science of genetic engineering.

Modern biotechnology is a refinement of the breeding techniques that have been used by farmers to improve plants for thousands of years. Scientists have improved plants since the late 1800s by changing their genetic makeup. This has been accomplished through techniques such as crossbreeding and hybridization, where two related plants are cross-fertilized and the resulting offspring have characteristics of both parent plants.

Many foods already commonly available that are products of these techniques include hybrid maize, nectarines (genetically altered peaches), and tangelos (a hybrid of tangerine and grapefruit). Today, by inserting one or more genes into a plant, scientists can produce a plant with new, advantageous characteristics. Because of the increased precision offered by bioengineered methods, the risk of introducing negative traits is likely to be lessened.

Genetic engineering can be used to modify the genetic compositions of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Currently, technology is used mainly to modify crops. Genetically engineered products must go through a period of research and development before they can be used.

During the past decade, biotechnology has made available genetically engineered crops - corn, soybean, and cotton - that have been altered to control insects and weeds. Crops are being engineered to better tolerate the effects of herbicides, insects, and viruses. Food animals, such as engineered fish, are also being studied.

Some scientists are concerned that engineered products might be harmful to people’s health or to the environment. Common concerns include the possibility that engineered crops might contaminate the food supply with drugs, kill beneficial insects along with harmful ones, cross-pollinate with wild species, or otherwise impact natural resources. Some worry that engineered fish could alter native ecosystems, even killing off native species. Other scientists disagree, saying that traits developed by modern biotechnology are more predictable and controllable than the hybrid methods used in the past and that we have a better understanding of the changes being made and are in a better position to understand safety issues.

Scientists are also experimenting with ways to delay the ripening of tomatoes. They are working on methods to increase dairy cows’ milk production. Plants and foods produced using biotechnology are put through strict testing procedures before being offered to the public.

In the future, scientists may find ways to engineer animals to produce leaner meat, engineer chickens and turkeys to resist avian diseases, and produce plants that are not vulnerable to insects. New developments and discoveries are being made all the time in this fast-paced branch of science and technology.

Answer the questions.

1) Why have farmers turned to genetic engineering?

2) What techniques have been used by farmers to improve plants?

3) What is crossbreeding?

4) What is genetic engineering used for?

5) What are the possible negative effects of genetic engineering?

7. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words and phrases:

агротехніка, техніка розведення, генетична структура, кросбридинг та гібридизація, гібридна кукурудза, персик, мандарин, небажані ознаки, генетично модифіковані культури, корисні комахи, більш передбачуваний та контрольований, питання безпеки, дозрівання помідорів, хвороби птиці.


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