The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 

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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Human rights are international norms that help to protect all people everywhere from political, legal, and social abuses. Examples of human rights are the right to freedom of religion, the right to a fair trial when charged with a crime, the right not to be tortured, and the right to engage in political activity. These rights exist in morality and in law at the national and international levels. They are addressed primarily to governments, requiring compliance and enforcement. The main sources of the contemporary conception of human rights are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948) and the many human rights documents and treaties that followed in international organizations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, and the African Union.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) sets out a list of over two dozen specific human rights that countries should respect and protect. These specific rights can be divided into six or more families:

· security rights that protect people against crimes such as murder, massacre, torture, and rape;

· due process rights that protect against abuses of the legal system such as imprisonment without trial, secret trials, and excessive punishments;

· liberty rights that protect freedoms in areas such as belief, expression, association, assembly, and movement;

· political rights that protect the liberty to participate in politics through actions such as communicating, assembling, protesting, voting, and serving in public office;

· equality rights that guarantee equal citizenship, equality before the law, and nondiscrimination; and

· social (or "welfare") rights that require provision of education to all children and protections against severe poverty and starvation.

Another family that might be included is group rights. The Universal Declaration does not include group rights, but subsequent treaties do. Group rights include protections of ethnic groups against genocide and the ownership by countries of their national territories and resources.



The term ‘law’ is used in many senses: we may speak of the laws of physics, mathematics, science, or the laws of football. When we speak of the law of a state we use the term ‘law’ in a special and strict sense, and in that sense law may be defined as a rule of human conduct, imposed upon and enforced among, the members of a given state.

People are by nature social animals desiring the companionship of others, and in primitive times they tended to form tribes, groups, or societies, either for self-preservation or by reason of social instinct.

If a group or society is to continue, some form of social order is necessary. Rules or laws are, therefore, drawn up to ensure that members of the society may live and work together in an orderly and peaceable manner. The larger the community (or group or state), the more complex and numerous will be the rules.

If the rules or laws are broken, compulsion is used to enforce obedience. We may say, then, that two ideas underline the concept of law: (a) order, in the sense of method or system; and (b) compulsion – i.e. the enforcement of obedience to the rules or laws laid down.

The law is a living thing and it changes through the course of history. Changes are brought about by various factors such as invasion, contact with other races, material prosperity, education, the advent of new machines or new ideas or new religions. Law responds to public opinion and changes accordingly.

Thus Law is a system of rules, usually enforced through a set of institutions. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a primary social mediator in relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivative markets. Property law defines rights and obligations related to the transfer and title of personal and real property. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security, while tort law allows claims for compensation if a person's rights or property are harmed. If the harm is criminalised in penal code, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign nation states in activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action.



The main responsibility of a company commercial lawyer is to make sure that the activity of the company doesn’t contravene the current legislation. The daily work of a company commercial lawyer consists in drafting or checking the documents of the company to ensure that they conform to the legislation and the company’s best interests are protected. A company’s commercial lawyer represents the company in court.

The principal duties of a notary include: attestation of documents and certification of their due execution, preparation and certification of wills, deeds, affidavits, statutory declarations contracts and other legal documents specified in the legislation of Ukraine, certification of copy documents. A notary identifies himself or herself on documents by the use of his or her individual seal.

A barrister (solicitor) is a lawyer who represents natural and legal persons in court and defends their interests. To perform his duties a barrister has a number of rights, such as the right to study the documentation from the case of his client, the right to be present at the interrogations. A client can entitle the lawyer to represent him in court and may not be present at court sittings. Every person suspected of perpetration has the right to demand free solicitor’s advice.

Ukraine is one of the few countries where the main function of the Office of Public prosecutor is to survey whether the citizens of Ukraine observe the Constitution and other laws. A prosecutor can conduct criminal investigations. The prosecution is also the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual or a legal person suspected of breaking the law in a criminal trial.

A judge or justice is an official who presides over the court. To be appointed a judge one should be at least 25 years old, have university degree in law and a certificate issued after successful passing the qualification examination. Judges in Ukraine are appointed for the term of 5 years by the President and consequently their appointments are considered by the Verkhovna Rada.


Veterinary Medicine

What Is Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary medicine is the branch of science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in animals. The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild, with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species.

Veterinary medicine is widely practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most often led by a veterinary physician (also known as a vet, veterinary surgeon or veterinarian), but also by paraveterinary workers such as veterinary nurses or technicians.

Veterinarians are generally responsible for:

· Diagnosing animal diseases

· Treating injured or sick animals

· Advising pet owners on appropriate animal care

· Reviewing veterinary medicine publications and research results

· Treating animals with medical equipment and sometimes sophisticated laboratories

· Contributing to human health

· Food safety testing

· Quarantining animals

A prospective veterinarian must be comfortable working with a variety of animals and owners, and learn how to administer and diagnose illnesses. Veterinary school training offers students a chance to gain skills in bonding with pets and animals of all sizes. Even when a veterinarian career leads to a private practice, or treatment of only small or large animals, some important skills needed include:

· Working with a wide range of sophisticated medical equipment

· Working long hours, both in a lab setting and on location when needed

· Getting along with pet owners

· Forming strong bonds with pets

· Strong communication and business skills

· Being able to promote their private practice


The first step toward a veterinary career is deciding that veterinary medicine is the right path for you. If you like animals and science, you might want to be a veterinarian. Veterinarians take care of sick and injured animals. They do not only cure sick animals and supply with preventive drugs. They also sell many things, which your animal needs – fillers for the toilet box, sprays against parasites and even ready feeding. They are a good source of advice and knowledge about animals. Like doctors, they perform surgery and give medicine to animals. Usually, they require a reasonable price for their help.

When an animal is sick, vets examine it to find out why. They look for clues in the way an animal looks, acts, and smells. Vets need to look carefully because animals can't say what is wrong.

Vets also give blood tests, x-rays, and other tests, looking for clues about an animal's illnesses. Then, vets decide what kind of medicine or treatment the animal needs. Vets prevent problems by giving vaccinations and check-ups. They also teach owners how to feed and train their animals. Veterinarians should be able to meet, talk, and work well with a variety of people. When an animal dies, the veterinarian must deal with the owner’s grief and loss.

Vets use special tools to perform surgeries. And take into account that they produce operations on animals, which if they were made on people would cost much more expensive. They fix broken bones, take out tumors, replace knees and hips, and more. Vets also treat and cover wounds. They need to be ready to see blood, organs, and bones.

Because animals can get sick at anytime, vets often work long hours. Many vets like their work because they can be with animals everyday. But because some animals are scared or hurt, they sometimes try to bite, kick, or scratch their vets, however, modern tranquilizers and technology have made it much easier for men and women to work on all types of animals.

Animal Kingdoms

To make it easier to study animals, they have been arranged into classes. Each animal class is made up of animals that are alike in important ways. There are many kinds of animal classes and each one has a name. Every kind of animal belongs to one of the classes.

If an animal drinks milk when it's a baby, and has hair on its body, it belongs to the mammal class.

If an animal comes out of an egg with a hard shell, and has feathers on its body, it belongs to the class of birds.

If an animal lives in water, and has gills and scales and fins on its body, it belongs to the class of fish.

If an animal has a scaly skin, is cold blooded, and is always born on the land, it belongs to the class of reptiles.

If an animal has more than four jointed legs and a hard covering over its whole body, it belongs to the class of arthropods.

If an animal is born in the water and breathes with gills, but can live on the land when it grows up, it belongs to the class of amphibians.

Mammals Morphology

Mammals are far more diverse in size than any other class of vertebrates, ranging from tiny shrews and bats to the biggest animal that ever lived, the blue whale. Mammals are also far more diverse in form and appearance than birds and are arguably more diverse than living reptiles and amphibians (though prehistoric reptiles were very diverse as well). Comparing mammals with fish is difficult.

Most mammals are covered with fur, notable exceptions being many marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians), the naked mole rat and humans.

In general, mammals aren’t as brightly coloured as birds; the dominant colours are brown, gray, black and white.

Many species bear ornamentation in the form of tufts of hair (e.g. the mane of a horse or zebra) or distinctive colour patterns. Of course, colour patterns can also serve as camouflage (e.g. a zebra’s black-and-white stripes).

Some ungulates (hoofed mammals) have often spectacular horns or antlers that serve as weapons and/or in display.

In contrast to reptiles and amphibians, there are no limbless mammals. The only species without legs are marine mammals in the orders Cetacea (whales and dolphins) and Sirenia (manatees and sea cows), along with pinnipeds (seals and sea lions), in which legs have evolved into flippers.

The only mammals with just two legs are bats, which are also the only mammals with wings. However, some primates could be argued to have just two legs, depending on how one defines leg. For example, humans are said to have two legs and two arms.

Most terrestrial mammals have feet that can be described as unguligrade, digitigrade or plantigrade. Mammals with hooves are termed unguligrade, while cats and dogs are examples of digitigrade mammals. Plantigrade mammals walk “flat-footed,” including bears, porcupines and humans.


Civil Engineering


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