Characterise the state system of Ukraine.


Modal Verbs


16. Complete these sentences. Use canorcan’t and one of the words given below:

come find hear see speak

1) I am sorry but we _____ to your party next Saturday.

2) I like this hotel room. You _____ the mountains from the windows.

3) You are speaking very quietly. I _____ you.

4) Have you seen my bag? I _____ it.

5) Catherine got the job because she _____ five languages.

17. Put in can/can't if possible, if not usecouldorwill be able to.

1) I am afraid I _____ come to your party next week.

2) When Tim was sixteen, he was a fast runner. He _____ run 100 metres in 11 seconds.

3) Are you in a hurry? - No, I have got plenty of time. I _____ wait.

4) I was feeling very sick yesterday. I _____ eat anything.

5) Can you speak up a bit? I _____ hear you very well.

6) You look tired. Yes, I _____ sleep last night.

7) I think I _____ speak English quite well in a few months.

8) Dr Parker _____ see you at 12 on Tuesday.

9) It's quite fine, Clara, the rain has stopped. We _____ have a small walk.

10) The mountains were a long way away and we _____ see snow on their tops.

11) She _____ travel again in a few weeks.

12) They knew the town so they _____ advise him where to go.

13) Mary usually leaves work at six, but she _____ leave earlier on Fridays.

14) Do you think one day people _____ travel to the stars?

15) She _____ do your job with no trouble at all.

Ask politely.

1) _____ I speak to Mr Pitt, please? — I'm afraid he's out at the moment. _____ you ring back later?

2) If a letter comes to me _____ you please forward it to this address?

3) _____ you tell me the time, please? — I'm afraid, I _____ not. I haven't got a watch.

4) _____ you lend me 2500 pounds? — No, I _____ not.

5) I wonder if you _____ help me? — With great pleasure.

6) Excuse me, _____ you tell me the time of the next train, please? — Yes, certainly. 11:30, platform 3.

7) _____ I have some more coffee, please?

8) _____ you come to the party at my place Thursday evening? — Thanks a lot. What time? Is it something special?

9) Excuse me, _____ you tell me the way to the nearest underground station? — Oh, I'm sorry, I _____ not. I'm afraid I'm lost myself. Let's ask the policeman over there.

10) _____ you help me with my luggage, please? — Yes, certainly.


19. Use the modal verb may.

1) Take your umbrella, it _____ (rain) today.

2) He is still at work! He _____ (come) late I am afraid.

3) Mum! My friends are having a party tonight. _____ (go) please?

4) He _____ (be) late because his flight has been delayed.

5) Look at those clouds! It _____ (rain) in a minute.

6) Nowadays, people _____ (travel) very easily all over Europe.

7) There _____ (be) a storm tonight.

8) I need a dictionary on the desk. _____ I take yours?

Choose the correct modal verb (can/could, may/might)

1) They (can/might) be away for the weekend but I'm not sure.

2) You (may/might) leave now if you wish.

3) (Could/May) you open the window a bit, please?

4) He (can/could) be French, judging by his accent.

5) (May/Can) you play the piano?

6) Listen, please. You (may not/might not) speak during this exam.

7) They (can't/may not) still be out!

8) You (couldn't/might not) smoke on the bus.

9) With luck, tomorrow (can/could) be a sunny day.

10) You (can/might) be right but I'm going back to check anyway.

21. Complete the following sentences with the required form of must/have to.

1) The buses were all full; I _____ get a taxi.

2) He sees very badly; he _____ wear glasses all the time.

3) You _____ read this book. It's really excellent.

4) The children _____ play in the streets till their mothers get home from work.

5) She felt ill and _____ leave early.

6) I never remember his address; I always _____ look it up.

7) If you go to a dentist with a private practice you _____ pay him quite a lot of money.

8) My neighbour's child _____ practise the piano for three hours a day.

9) I got lost and _____ ask a policeman the way.

10) Tell her that she _____ be here by six. I insist on it.

22. Fill in the blanks with mustn’t or don’t/doesn’t have to.

1) You _____ forget the results. They are very important.

2) He _____ get up early, but he usually does.

3) You _____ smoke here. It’s not allowed.

4) If you want to come early you can, but you _____.

5) This is a big secret so you _____ tell anyone.

6) No, I’m not busy. I _____ do all these invoices today.

7) The deadline is next week. I _____ miss it.

8) I _____ rush. The deadline is next month.


23. Fill in the blanks with the right modal (should/shouldn’t).

1) My car has broken down, I think I _____ call a mechanic.

2) Her hair is very long, I think she _____ go to the hairdresser's.

3) Brice is very ill today. I think he _____ go to the doctor's.

4) The road is wet. I think you _____ drive too fast.

5) Mike is very fat. I think he _____ eat more salads. He _____ eat so much junk food.

6) Emma is very shy. I think she _____ be more natural. She _____ be more self-confident.

Match the sentences.

1) My brother has hurt his back. 2) You must try that new restaurant in town. 3) Julia has to get up at 5 a.m. tomorrow. 4) I think you should have a haircut. 5) The meeting starts in five minutes. 6) I have to speak English in my job. a) We must hurry. b) She should go to bed early. c) He should go to the doctor. d) Yes, I must get an appointment. e) You should take English classes. f) But you have to book a table.

25. Complete the text with the following:

have to ought must can't allowed to shouldn't

Matthew is a doctor. He works at Brighton's General Hospital. Every day, Matthew _____ wake up at 6 o'clock to go to work. He lives 45 miles from the hospital, but he doesn't have a car, so he takes the train and then a bus everyday. All his friends think he_____ to buy a car, but he tells them he _____ afford it. All doctors are _____ park at the hospital and it's free of charge for them, which means they don't _____ pay. Matthew believes people _____ buy a car unless it's absolutely necessary, and travel by public transport, because cars pollute the air and cause many diseases.


Unit 12 Agriculture of Ukraine
  Vocabulary in Use Agriculture of Ukraine Agro-Ecological Zones Crop Rotation Language Focus Past Continuous Tense. Future Continuous Tense

Vocabulary In Use

1. Find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right-hand column for the following:

1) breadbasket of Europe 2) favourable combination 3) considerable volumes 4) cultivated land 5) GDP (gross domestic product) 6) household plot 7) oilseed crop 8) food staple a) олійна культура b) валовий внутрішній продукт c) основний продукт d) сприятливе поєднання e) присадибна ділянка f) значні обсяги g) оброблювана земля h) житниця Європи


2. Match the words with similar meanings:

1) amount 2) grain 3) livestock farming 4) chief 5) apiculture 6) alcohol 7) labour a) work b) beekeeping c) spirit d) animal husbandry e) quantity f) cereal g) main

Match the English words and their definitions.

1) property 2) branch 3) source 4) volume 5) enterprise a) a place, person or thing that you get smth from; b) a business unit; c) a subdivision or subsidiary section of something more complex; d) a thing or things that are owned by sb; e) a large mass or quantity

Complete the sentences with the suitable words from the box.

exporters GDP climatic crops black soil sources sector

1) The agricultural _____ plays a significant role in Ukraine’s economy.

2) Agriculture is one of the country’s key contributors to _____.

3) Ukraine’s agriculture is one of the main _____ of export.

4) Ukraine is one of the world’s top grain _____.

5) Ukraine’s _____ is very fertile.

6) Ukraine is comprised of three distinct _____ zones. It allows producers to vary _____ grown across the country.


READING AND speaking

Read the following text.

Agriculture of Ukraine

Historically, Ukraine is well known for its agricultural production. The country has for many years been known as the Breadbasket of Europe due to its ability to produce vast amounts of grain. Ukraine has a favourable combination of climatic conditions, land and labour resources, well-developed transport infrastructure, and close foreign markets. This accounts for the high potential of its agricultural production.

The country possesses considerable volumes of natural resources. Analysts estimate that one quarter of the world’s black soil reserves are located in Ukraine. The country’s black soil is deemed the best in the world because of its physical, chemical, agrochemical, and mineralogical properties.

Of Ukraine’s total area of 60.4 million hectares, 71% is agricultural land (including cultivated land, gardens, orchards, vineyards, and permanent meadows and pastures), 17% is used for forestry, the rest is for housing, industrial and other purposes.

Agriculture is the country’s second largest source of export (after steel industry). This sector produces 12,8% of GDP and employs 23.1 percent of the work force.

The main branches of agricultural production are crop growing and livestock farming.

Fertile soil makes it possible to grow a variety of crops. The weather is suitable for both winter and spring crops. Being a large grain producer, Ukraine is one of world’s largest grain exporters, supplying to 80 countries worldwide. The country is also the biggest exporter of sunflower oil and has substantial potential in growing and exporting rapeseed.

Winter wheat, spring barley, and maize are the country's main grain crops. Other cereals include buckwheat, oats, and millet.

Wheat is grown throughout the country, but central and south-central Ukraine are the key production zones. About 95 percent of Ukraine wheat is winter wheat, planted in autumn and harvested during July and August of the following year.

Barley has been the top feed grain in Ukraine for most of the past ten years. Spring barley accounts for over 90 percent of barley area, and the main production region is eastern Ukraine.

Maize is the third important feed grain in Ukraine. Only 25 to 50 percent of total maize area is harvested for grain; the rest is cut for silage and used chiefly for animal feed.

Sunflowers, sugar beets and rapeseed are the main technical, or industrial, crops.

Sunflowerseed is Ukraine's chief oilseed crop. Its production is concentrated in the southern and eastern regions. Sugar beets are grown primarily in central and western Ukraine.

Most cereal and industrial crops are produced by large agricultural enterprises that were established when Ukraine’s farm sector was restructured in April 2000. By contrast, nearly 90% of the country’s vegetables are grown on private household plots.

Ukraine's farmers produce large amounts of potatoes used as a food staple and for making starch and alcohol. Other major crops include tomatoes, cabbages, cucumbers, carrots, onions, squashes, apples, sour cherries.

The second largest branch of farm production is animal husbandry. Ukraine’s farms specialize in cattle breeding, pig raising, sheep rearing, horse breeding. Great progress has been made in poultry farming, fisheries, and apiculture. Livestock products include cattle, for beef and hides; dairy cattle for milk; sheep, for mutton (lamb) and wool; pigs, for pork and lard; poultry (chiefly chickens but also turkeys and ducks) for meat and eggs; and horses, primarily for recreation.

Currently, the agricultural sector is experiencing serious internal difficulties, due to the transitional nature of the economy. It faces many problems including a lack of working capital, weak state support. Many Ukrainian farms require new equipment and sufficient knowledge of modern farming technologies. But Ukraine is determined to re-establish its age old reputation as the breadbasket of Europe.

Answer the questions.

1) What conditions does Ukraine have for agricultural production?

2) Why is our black soil considered to be the best in the world?

3) How much land is used for agriculture?

4) What are the main branches of agriculture?

5) What grain crops do Ukrainian farmers grow?

6) What are the chief industrial crops?

7) What does animal husbandry specialize in?

8) What problems face Ukrainian agriculture nowadays?

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